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2011, Vol., No.53

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    A Sound Cure of Hollowing out Legal Education and a Qualitative Promotion of the Korean Legal Market through Paralegal Training Study

    Kang, joon mo | 2011, (53) | pp.1~39 | number of Cited : 3
    The utilization of paralegals improves the efficiency, economy and availability of legal services. As a result, increased emphasis is being placed on the hiring of paralegals in a variety of legal and law-related settings. Although private law firms continue to be the single largest employer of paralegals, good job opportunities also exist in several other markets in both the private and the public sectors. In addition to private law firms, other organizations such as corporate legal departments, insurance companies, estate and trust departments of large banks, hospitals and health care organizations, real estate and title insurance companies, and professional trade associations employ paralegals. Job opportunities in the public sector are available in community legal services programs, consumer organizations, offices of public defenders, prosecutors and attorneys general, city attorneys, a wide array of state and federal government agencies, and the judicial system in U.S. There are many legal tasks for which a bar license is unnecessary but some amount of legal training is preferred. To lower costs, businesses employ paralegals to do such tasks instead of a more expensive lawyer. This allows the lawyer to concentrate on the substantive legal issues of the case which in turn improves the efficiency of legal services. The most common area of practice for paralegals is litigation although paralegal services are utilized in virtually all areas of practice, including corporate, probate, real estate, family law, bankruptcy, and intellectual property. Some common types of paralegal education programs available are: (i) two-year associate degree programs, (ii) four-year baccalaureate degree programs with a major or minor in paralegal studies, (iii) non-degree certificate programs offered by universities, colleges, businesses, and proprietary schools, and (iv) legal assistant education program that includes an internship as a part of the curriculum. However, there are no specified paralegal program at the college level in Korea. In this article, I researched paralegal study as a sound cure of hollowing out legal education and argued a qualitative promotion of Korean legal market through paralegal training study. I explain the concept of paralegal upon the different jurisdiction and present an advantage of the paralegal services. I suggest the paralegal education will be a requirement of the mature of the Korean legal market. Furthermore, I believe that it will provide a good job opportunity to the undergraduate law students.
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    A Constitutional Study on Euthanasia

    조한상 | 2011, (53) | pp.41~71 | number of Cited : 8
    Constitutional study on euthanasia should serve as compass in the whole euthanasia debate. In this context, the constitutional concept of euthanasia should be understood in a broad sense. Constitutional study need to focus on the legalization of euthanasia. The constitutional arguments in favour of euthanasia include right to self-determination, right to privacy, right to freedom of conscience, and so on. The arguments against euthanasia are associated with the dignity of man, right to life, etc. These arguments collide each other, and it is difficult to resolve this conflict. The principle of ‘weighting’ and ‘practical coordination’ can be used to resolve the conflict. The practical coordination principle has advantage over the realization of constitutional values as much as possible. There are many preconditions in order to legalize euthanasia, but Korea is not qualified for these yet. On the one hand, we must try legalize euthanasia with sharp analyzing situation. On the other hand, we must try to develop the discourse on euthanasia in our civil society.
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    A Study on the Balance of Contradiction between Freedom of Speech and Copyright on the Internet

    임영덕 | 2011, (53) | pp.73~112 | number of Cited : 3
    Internet is changing the circumstance to exercise his/her right of free speech. Internet technology allows him/her to communicate something to express throughout the world. In other words, everyone has media through internet. In the freedom of express, Internet is broadening its horizons with ‘decentralized’ and ‘global’ quality. But If, without balance between the right of copyright holders and the right of copyright's user, the copyright holders are heavily protected by copyright law, Protecting the copyright will provoke the infringement of free speech right on the internet. Someone is worried copyright law only preserve to the copyright holders. Copyright protection may be able to cause to hamper ‘the development of online democratic culture’. Because ‘the development of online democratic culture’ is reached through Netizen-Participation. In the point of ‘democratic culture’ that is highly regarded the advance of culture, ‘the development of online democratic culture’ is more important than economic profit. We must structuralize the fair use doctrine of copyright law for ‘the development of online democratic culture’, make legal principles for the online service provider to take a neutral attitude on the internet and keep the administration from acting as the gatekeeper of internet. Copyright ought to contribute to develop ‘democratic culture’ on the internet.
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    A Study on the Cost Sharing System of Infrastructure in Urban Development Project - Basing on the Urban Development Act Article 55 Clause 2 -

    Sang-Tae Kim | 2011, (53) | pp.113~140 | number of Cited : 1
    Old Urban Development Act Article 54 Clause 1(Current Urban Development Act Article 55 Clause 1) stipulates only an installation obligator of infrastructure, but it had no provision on the burden subject of installation cost. Owing to this legislative inadequacy there arose an incessant quarrel over the cost burden of infrastructure between the installation obligator of infrastructure and its implementer. In order to settle such a struggle, lawmakers newly enacted Urban Development Act Article 55 Clause 2 in 2008 and helped the installation obligator bear the cost. However, notwithstanding these provisions, the installation obligator of infrastructure imposes the burden of cost upon the business implementer on the basis of the individual law such as the agreement between the parties, benefit principle, Integrated Energy Supply Act and Urban Gas Business Act etc. But, the profits the business implementer gained is restricted from the use by Urban Development Act, and remaining profits after execution revert to a local government. Whereas, the installation obligator gets the gains from a permanent exclusive business, it is not reasonable to impose the burden of cost upon the business implementer based on benefit principle. Moreover, the burden of cost of the business implementer by the agreement between the parties and the individual law is the violation of compulsory provisions. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the installation obligator to violate a positive law or render the business implementer to bear the cost in relation with the installation of infrastructure with an expedient or illegal method.
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    Study on forgery, falsification and misuse of electronic cash on criminal law

    PARK SUNG MIN | 2011, (53) | pp.141~166 | number of Cited : 2
    Recently, electronic cash is widely used in commercial trades in addition to cash as traditional means of payment. Electronic cash is classified as IC card type electronic cash and network type electronic cash according to its type, and the use thereof is expected to be activated as electronic cash has merit in small amount settlement in comparison with credit card. Meanwhile, study on forgery, falsification and misuse of electronic cash is in rather scarce situation. Furthermore, recently fraud cases utilizing monetizable character of electronic cash do happen and hacking cases are frequently arising on ‘Dotori’ which is the cyber-money on Cyworld, with potential to develop into electronic cash. At this point where electronic cash is becoming crime target, it would be a meaningful effort to examine the criminal phenomenon on electronic cash and seek responses thereon in criminal law. This study describes the subject emphasizing forgery, falsification and misuse of electronic cash. The Electronic Financial Transactions Act Article 49 does stipulates forgery, falsification of electronic cash, but the Act acknowledges all electronic cash uniformly as securities. However, apart from IC card type, it is not proper to acknowledge features of securities in network type electronic cash. Also, as The Electronic Financial Transactions Act illustrates application stipulations not relevant to electronic cash, the amendment of Article 49 is required. Related thereon, this study discusses proposed revision of Electronic Financial Transactions Act. Meanwhile, on misuse of electronic cash, this study classifies and reviews the case of misuse by a eligible party for electronic cash and by ineligible party for electronic cash. In case of misuse by eligible party for electronic cash, the Electronic Financial Transactions Act has related stipulations, but there are crimes reaching over the provisions of the Act. This study points out the scope of the insufficient features of the Act. In case of misuse by parties ineligible for electronic cash, there are use of falsificated or forged electronic cash and use of other persons' electronic cash by finding out access media as electronic information through hacking. Especially. the case of misuses through hacking are expected to take much weight in misuse of electronic cash in the future, and author confirms that the Electronic Financial Transactions Act is well responding to the crime.
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    매수인의 등기청구권의 소멸시효에 관한 판례의 검토

    KANG TAE - SEONG | 2011, (53) | pp.167~224 | number of Cited : 3
    판례는 부동산의 매수인이 「매도인으로부터 매매목적물을 인도받아 용익하고 있는 경우」 및 「그 인도받은 매매목적물을 제3자에게 처분․인도하여 제3자가 용익하고 있는 경우」에는, 여러 근거를 제시하면서, 매수인의 매도인에 대한 소유권이전등기청구권은 소멸시효로 소멸하지 않는다는 입장이다. 이러한 판례에 대하여 긍정설도 있고 부정설도 있다. 그러나, 이러한 판례와 학설에는 상당한 문제점도 있다. 따라서, 이러한 판례와 학설이 제시하는 근거들 하나하나에 대하여 심층적으로 일관성 있게 검토하여 판례의 존폐를 논할 필요성이 크다. ① 대법원 1976. 11. 6. 선고 76 다 148 전원합의체 판결에 나타난 근거에 대하여 하나하나를 빠짐 없이 깊게 검토하였다. 즉, 「매수인은 자신의 권리 위에서 잠자는 者인가?」의 문제는 매수인의 ‘목적물인도청구권과 소유권이전청구권과의 관계’와 밀접하게 관련되는 바, 이 관계와 관련하여 情致하게 검토하면 판례는 긍정되기 어렵다. 또한, 이 판례는 미등기 매수인을 매도인보다 더 보호하여야 한다고 하나, 오늘날에는 그럴 필요가 없다. 다만, 예외적으로 매수인을 보호하여야 하는 경우도 있으나, 이 경우에도 다른 방법으로 보호가 가능하다. 그리고, 부동산거래의 현실정을 근거로 하는 판례도 법리를 오해한 것이라고 생각한다. 그 뿐만 아니라, 이 판례의 별개의견은 매도인의 채무승인을 근거로 하나, 이 근거도 수긍하기 어렵다. 즉, 이 근거는 매도인의 ‘목적물인도의무와 소유권이전의무와의 관계’와 밀접하게 관련되는 바, 이 관계와 관련하여 情致하게 검토하면 판례는 긍정되기 어렵다. 심지어, 이 판례의 별개의견은 매수인의 소유권이전등기청구권은 物權的임을 근거로 하나, 이러한 청구권은 소유권취득 전에 문제되므로, 수긍하기 어렵다. 요컨대, 이 판례는 물권변동에서의 성립요건주의에 따르면 수긍되기 어렵다. 그러나, 대항요건주의를 취하는 일본에서의 판례와 다수설에 의하면, 매수인의 점유 여부와는 관계 없이 소멸시효로 소멸하지 않는다. 그러나, 일본의 소수설에 의하면, 매수인이 점유하는 경우에는 소멸시효로 소멸하지 않는다. ② 대법원 1999. 3. 18. 선고 98 다 32175 전원합의체 판결의 다수의견과 반대의견 및 보충의견에 나타난 근거에 대하여 자세하게 검토하였다. 즉, 이 다수의견은 “부동산을 용익하는 매수인이 …… 그 부동산에 대한 적극적인 권리행사의 일환으로 다른 사람에게 그 부동산을 처분하고 그 점유를 승계하여 준 경우에도 이 이전등기의 행사 여부에 관하여 그가 그 부동산을 스스로 계속 사용․수익만 하고 있는 경우와 특별히 다를 바 없으므로”라고 한다. 검토하건대, 성립요건주의에서는 매수인은 소유권을 가지지 않고 채권을 가지므로 그 부동산을 처분할 수 있는 적극적인 권리행사를 할 수 없다고 할 것이다. 그러나, 대항요건주의에서는 이 다수의견은 긍정될 수 있다. 또한, 이 판례에서의 반대의견은 위 대법원 1976. 11. 6. 선고 76 다 148 전원합의체 판결을 수용하면서 전개되므로, 수긍하기 어렵다. 이 반대의견의 그 밖의 주장도 타당성이 갖기 어렵다고 생각한다. 그리고, 이 판례에서의 보충의견은 목적물인도청구권이 소유권이전채권에 포함된다는 前提에서 전개된다. 검토하건대, 이러한 전제에 의하면, 매수인이 매매목적인 부동산을 제3자에게 처분하여 용익케 한 경우에 매수인의 매도인에 대한 이전등기청구권은 소멸시효로 소멸한다고 하는 것이 타당하다. 또한 이 보충의견의 그 밖의 주장도 타당성이 없다고 생각한다. ③ 이러한 판례가 타당하다는 說{法的 安定性說, 소멸시효남용설(신뢰를 기초로 하는 견해, 객관적 이익형량을 기초로 하는 견해), 사회통념설, 복합적 근거설}에서의 근거들도 수긍하기 어렵다. 그리고, 판례가 부당하다는 기존의 說의 근거들도 상당한 문제점을 지니고 있는 바, 특히 청구권불행사설은 매수인의 「목적물인도의무와 소유권이전의무와의 관계」에 관하여 일관성 없으므로, 문제가 있다. ④ 요컨대, 매수인의 소유권이전등기청구권의 소멸시효는, 「매수인의 용익 여부」나 「매수인으로부터 인도받은 제3자의 용익 여부」와는 관계 없이, 매수인이 그 청구권을 행사할 수 있는 때부터 진행한다고 하여야 한다. 특히 목적물인도청구권과 소유권이전청구권은 각각이 하나의 채권이라는 견지에서 보면, 더욱 그러하다.
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    Contemplation on the Protection of the Inheritance of a Spouse in a De Facto Marriage

    임영수 | 2011, (53) | pp.225~258 | number of Cited : 5
    It could be said that whether the inheritance of the spouses of a De Factor marriage should be protected was clarified by the ruling of the Supreme Court. The precedent determines that the if the marriage was terminated while both of the spouses were alive, the claim for a partition of the property right could be granted, while when the marriage was terminated by the decease of either spouse, the living spouse cannot be granted with the claim for a partition of the property right but only with the right for inheritance of the properties of the deceased. In this regard, the Supreme Court ruled that, when the De Facto marriage was terminated by decease of one of the spouses, the right for the partition of the property count not be granted to the living one. Further, the precedent also determined that if both of the right of inheritance of the properties of the deceased and the right for the partition of the property were not to be granted, it could be against the law’s intent of protecting the relationship based on a De Facto marriage. But, this is due to our legal system which does not include a spouse in a De Facto marriage as a successor, and there was nothing that could be done in terms of the interpretation of the law, while the perspective of law making was a separate issue. Meanwhile, the Supreme Court also pointed out that the current law provides no protection to the spouse in a De Facto marriage and called for a solution in the perspective of law making. But, such attitude of the court means that the settlement of the property ownership could only be made when the De Facto marriage was terminated while both of the spouses are alive, and it is under the criticism that such an attitude is an injustice in terms of the protection of the spouses in the De Facto marriages. Therefore, it is an imminent issue to be addressed to find a way to provide a balanced protection to such spouses.
  • 9.

    Gesetzgeberische Aspekte des Begriffs der elektronischen Willenserklärung

    장병주 | 2011, (53) | pp.259~294 | number of Cited : 6
    Elektronischer Geschäftsverkehr kommt auf Grund einer Reihe von attraktiven Vorteilen des Internet zwischen den unterschiedlichen Rechtssystemen angehörenden Menschen zustande. Deshalb ist eine internationale rechtliche Einheit für die Rechtssicherheit von Bedeutung. In Korea wurden spezielle Gesetze, z. B. das koreanische grundlegende Gesetz über den elektronischen Rechtsverkehr usw. beruhend auf den internationalen Gesetzen verabschiedet. Hierbei stellen sich Fragen, ob Man mit der Lehre vom Rechtsgeschäfts den elektronischen Rechtsverkehr wirkungsvoll regeln kann, da er eine Eigneschaft anders als gewöhnlicher Rechtsverkehr hat. Darüber hinaus sind spezielle Gesetze über den elektronischen Rechtsverkehr ohne Betrachtung des koreanischen Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch mit intensiver Regelungstätigkeit angefertigt, im koreanischen Rechtssystem daher bestehen systematischen Widersprüche und keine Einheitlichkeit. Das koreanische Justizministerium sieht die Änderung der koreanischen Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch für Modernisierung vor. Auf internationaler Ebene wurde UN-Übereinkommen über die Nutzung elektronischer Kommunikation in internationalen Verträgen verabschiedet, und Ministerium für Wissen und Wirtschaft hat vor, das koreanische grundlegende Gesetz über den elektronischen Rechtsverkehr zu ändern. Gegenstände der zwei Gesetzgebungsarbeit sind ähnlich und die Wichtige sind Willenserklärung in Bezug auf dem elektronischen Vertrag. Der elektronische Rechtsverkehr kommt durch Datenverarbeitungsanlage, und zwar Computer zustande. Die Gesetze in Bezug auf den elektronischen Rechtsverkehr sind beruhend auf KBGB einheitlich zu modifizieren. Vor allem soll der Begriff der elektronischen Willenserklärung und Abgabe und Zugang der elektronischen Willenserklärung ins KBGB umgesetzt werden. Der Begriff der elektronischen Willenserklärung kann durch den elektronischen Vertragsschluss mittelbar anerkannt und definiert werden. Zudem ist es gesetzgeberisch empfehlenswert, das Zugangsproblem der elektronischen Willenserklärung durch ihr mittelbare Definition zu lösen.
  • 10.

    Würdigung der streitgegenstandtheoretischennicht-führenden Rechtsprechungen in Korea: Eine praxisorientierte vorantastende Untersuchung der Unterscheidung von Streitgegenständen

    황형모 | 2011, (53) | pp.295~339 | number of Cited : 6
    Streitgegenstand als Grundeinheit des Gegenstandes eines zivilrechtlichen Verfahrens bezieht sich auf verschiedene Themen in Zivilverfahren, darunter insbesondere die objektive Grenze der materiellen Rechtskraft, Doppelklage, objektive Klagenhäufung und Klageänderung. Mit Bezug auf Unterscheidung der Streitgegenstände werden verschiedene Ansichten vertreten, welche zu voneinander unterschiedlichen, gegebenenfalls erweiternden oder einengenden Verständnisse über den Umfang des Streitgegenstandes und somit auch zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen führen, wobei noch keine darunter als die standfeste herrschende Lehre angesehen werden könnte. Koreanische Rechtsprechungen machen sich grundsätzlich die ursprüngliche materiellrechtliche Theorie zu Eigen, die auf die Kritik stößt, dass sie aus einem übermäßig eng verstandenen Streitgegenstand ausgehe und somit nicht in der Lage sei, dem Gebot nach Lösung einer Rechtsstreitigkeit mit einem Male zu entsprechen. Unter Berücksichtigung der oben angegebenen Kritik und der Notwendigkeit an einer vernünftigen Lösung der bezogenen Fälle, macht eine unübersehbare Anzahl von neueren Rechtsprechungen ihre Neigung zur Lockerung der tradierten Striktheit bei der Anwendung der traditionellen ursprünglichen materiellrechtlichen Theorie sichtbar. In dem gleichen Kontext, unter Berücksichtigung der eventuellen Erweiterung der justiziellen Resourcen, die sinnvollerweise zur Diskussion gestellt werden müßte, ist nach der Meinung des Verfassers ein einigermaßen erweiterndes Verständnis des Streitgegenstandsbegriffes geboten. Von dem oben erläuterten Gesichtpunkt aus und gleichzeitig auf der Grundlage der oben angegebenen Zielsetzung, ausgehend von der ursprünglichen materiellrechtlichen Theorie -da ein Zivilprozess Lösung der Streitigkeiten über privatrechtliche Rechte oder Rechtsverhältnisse zum Ziel hat und ihr hauptsächlicher Zusammenhang mit den materiellrechtlichen Gesetzesvorschriften als jeweilige Grundlage der gestrittenen privatrechtlichen Rechte bzw. Rechtsverhältnisse somit ausreichend zu berücksichtigen ist-, vertritt der Verfasser die Meinung, in den Fällen, in denen sich die jeweilige Anspruchsgrundlage in den Gesetzesvorschriften über Scheidungsklage oder Vollstreckungsgegenklage befindet, die in den jeweiligen Gesetzesvorschriften aufgezählten Umstände als nichts mehr als Angriffs- oder Verteidigungsmittel ansieht, wobei ein einziger Streitgegenstand als vorliegend anzusehen ist. Des Weiteren, bei den auf Verletzungs- und Todesfolge von Menschen beruhenden Schadensersatzklagen liegt nach der Meinung des Verfassers ein einziger Streitgegenstand vor, solange besondere Umstände nicht vorliegen, die dagegen sprechen. Diese Ansicht scheint, in der Lage zu sein, zur Verwirklichung der Ideale eines Zivilverfahrens, d. h. Beschleunigung, Ökonomie und Angemessenheit in Rechtsstreitigkeitenlösungen, einen Beitrag zu leisten, zwar durch Vermeidung von Verschwendungen der justitiellen Arbeitskräfte, Kosten und Zeit, die sich aus unnötigen Wiederholungen der zivilrechtlichen Verfahren ergeben würden. Die Umsetzung dieser Theorie in Zivilrechtspraxis wird zwangsläufig eine erhöte Arbeitsbelastung seitens des Gerichts darstellen, die durch erhöhte Aufklärungsbedürfnisse bedingt wären. Vermehrung der Anzahl von Richterinnen und Richtern wird dann geboten. Dies müßte als Erfüllung einer der außer allem Zweifel stehenden Obliegenheiten eines Wohlfahrtsstaats in dieser modernen Zeit angesehen werden. Darüber hinaus ist eine großzügige bzw. elastische Würdigung des sozusagen “dualisierenden" Lösungsvorschlages zu erwarten, der eine Differenzierung zwischen der Streitgegenstandskonzeption mit Bezug auf Doppelklage, objektive Klagenhäufung, Klageänderung usw., nämlich in Fällen der noch fortdauernden Rechtshängigkeit der Streitigkeiten, und derjenigen mit Bezug auf das Thema der objektiven Grenze der materiellen Rechtskraft vornimmt. Somit ist, wiederum nach der Meinung des Verfassers, eine dahin gehende Entwicklung in unserer Rechtspraxis äußerst wünschenswert, dass der Subsumptionsbereich des Streitgegenstandes vernünftigermaßen erweitert wird.
  • 11.

    Relationship of Form of Text of a Judicial Decision and Objective Extent of Res Judicata

    김일룡 | 2011, (53) | pp.341~375 | number of Cited : 3
    For the purpose of determining the objective extent of res judicata, the stipulation in the Article 1, Clause 216 of the Civil Procedure Act, “A final and conclusive judgement shall have the effect of res judicata in so far as the matters contained in the text thereof are concerned”, must be fully considered prior to the subject matter of a lawsuit theory. In this sense, it is only natural to regard that, in the case when all the facts have been described in the text of a judicial decision all the facts have the res judicata effect. In the case of all the facts having been described in the text of a judicial decision, the position of an opinion that claims that all the facts cannot be a standard for determining the extent of res judicata cannot be said as being reasonable. Furthermore, the position of the judicial precedent that claims that final judgement does not have res judicata effect on the in/existence of contract, which becomes the origin of a certain right, or belonging of ownership right cannot be said as being reasonable. On the contrary, the position of an opinion that claims that the extent of res judicata should be determined upon considering all the facts in every case, whether or not all the facts have been described in the text of a judicial decision, is also unreasonable because of its possibility to excessively draw in the determination of fact essential to the judgment when interpreting the text of a judicial decision. In short, the following cases should be seen as facts of cause of the final judgement having res judicata effect regardless of whichever theory of lawsuit object is applied: the case in which all the facts are described in the text of a judicial decision – judgement for not only ownership transfer registration but also for ordering expression on other property right; judgement on the principal registration based on provisional registration; judgement on right to lease on a deposit basis act of establishment registration, mortgage act of establishment registration and superficies act of establishment registration; judgement of ordering expression on transfer of credit; judgement on registration for cancellation from subsequent cause of effect; declaratory judgement on credit; fraudulent cancellation judgement. In addition, the reason for judgement or the content on cause of request should be considered at the minimum level needed to determine only in the case when the extent of res judicata cannot be determined because of the transparency and conciseness of the text of a decision. Such would be an interpretation faithful to the stipulation of the positive law for disallowing res judicata for the determination of fact essential to the judgment except for offset.
  • 12.

    Prohibition of Disadvantageous Alternation as a Form of Principle of Disposition - Civil Procedure Law article 203 and article 415 of the analysis -

    Beom Kyung Chul | 2011, (53) | pp.377~406 | number of Cited : 2
    With a consideration that the Civil Proceedings Act No 415 is a scope of accepting an appeal, the verdict of the first trial can be changed within the bounds of insubordination. However, it is not same when a contention in relation to commerce is conceded, and the Act No 425 states that if there is no specific regulations on procedures of the appeal and the trial at the Supreme Court, the regulation from the first chapter would be applied, therefore, the regulation of the Act No 415 applies to both the appeal court and the trial at the Supreme Court. According to the predominant view and the precedent inclination of interpretations of the foregoing provisions, under Principle of disposition, the court cannot determine any matters that the applicant did not request in the civil suit procedures, and so as the appellate trial. Thus, it can be said that, the doctrine of request arrest which limits the scale of judgment within an appellant himself and Prohibition of disadvantageous alternation which precludes turning findings of lower courts into favor or the opposite far beyond the bounds of the insubordination as a result of the constraint are conceded. While, negative interpretations that deny the concept of Prohibition of disadvantageous alternation are arising today and they argue that there is no substantive enactment defining the concept and there is no practical benefit as it aggregates work burdens for the court. However, the current civil suit is based on Principle of disposition and Prohibition of disadvantageous alternation as a manifestation of the principle of private autonomy, and processes by rational persons involved and the court taking proceedings in order to win an irrevocable favor judgment. The process is established by the view of liberalism, as the result of modern civil revolution, which procures human dignity by accomplishing people- oriented procedures. Therefore, the element of an adjective law of modern liberalism, Principle of disposition and Prohibition of disadvantageous alternation are the spirit of the civil suit and hence, disallowing the concept because of lack of the substantive enactment is not appropriate. Furthermore, the right of appeal must be guaranteed as a part of right to have a trial and thus, wrecking basic human rights just because of court’s work burden is an infringement of the right to have a trial. This paper perceives those problems. Thus, this paper examines the origin of Prohibition of disadvantageous alternation and discusses both criticism and praise on its form of existence. Then analyze the form in the appeal system in connection to the Principle of disposition. In addition, apply the Prohibition of disadvantageous alternation as a manifestation of Principle of disposition to the salient parts of the civil suit that is being the object of controversy.
  • 13.

    Protecting legitimate expectation, estoppel in English contract law and its implication to Korea law

    Myung-Gu Choi | 2011, (53) | pp.407~434 | number of Cited : 6
    This paper contains the protect of the legitimate expectation and the estoppel in English contract law and its implication to Korea law. This is also refer to the relationship between the legitimate expectation and the estoppel. Before the explanation of this relationship, the concepts of the legitimate expectation and the estoppel would be mentioned. This topic something of a difficulty in English contract law, but its real interest lies in this difficulty. There is a answer to the question: what part id played by the concepts of legitimate exceptions and estoppel in the English law of contract? The judge don't generally use the language of ‘legitimate exception’ in the context of the private law of contract. Even if ‘promissory estoppel’ and other forms of estoppel are played firmly in the contract law. In addition, this paper mentions the application of the general principles underlying ‘legitimate expectation’ and estoppel within English contract law. In this chapter are researched both problems in the precontractural stage, forming the contract(finding the agreement and the force of the promise), formalities for contracts, defects of consent, agency, third party rights, interpreting the contract and remedies for breach of contract in which the specific performance, the valuation of the expectation and the not whole of the failed economic expectation are divided and explained. Especially, in the precontractual stage does English law not recognize a general principle of precontractual liability. Many other legal systems would say that the relationship between the parties negotiating for a contract can become one in which one party acquires a duty to take some account of the other party's interests, the duty arising either in tort or in an autonomous liability for culpa in contrahendo. At forming the contract appear problems on the object test of agreement and protection expectation through the rules of offer and acceptance. Also, In connection with Formalities for contract are some other contract-forms used at the time of agreement. In this point has the House of Lords considered whether estoppel can be used to avoid the requirement that a contract of guarantee be evidenced in writing. Finally, in remedies for breach of contract would the specific performance be not the primary remedy but an award of damages. Damages protect the claimant's expectation, not his reliance. The valuation of the expectation is made in economic terms, but the whole of the failed economic expectation may no be awarded. In added, above contents and its implication to Korea law is explained according precontractual stage, making contract and contract's effects.
  • 14.


    Zeng, Xing-Hua | CHO DONG JE | 2011, (53) | pp.435~467 | number of Cited : 0
    中国的婚姻法是新中国成立后最早颁布的法律。在信奉“修身、养性、齐家”的中国,婚姻法的地位重要,民众关心度高。从1950年第一部婚姻法完成了反对封建婚姻家庭的伟大历史使命,到1980年修改婚姻法是为了适应新的经济建设和婚姻自由的要求,到2001年修改婚姻法是关注和保护弱者,维护家庭的稳定。每一次,婚姻法的颁布和修改都牵动民众,民众以极大的热情参与,以认真的态度讨论。每一次新婚姻法或者婚姻法修改的出台,都带来了一场婚姻革命,引发了离婚高潮。进入21世纪的新中国,针对婚姻家庭出现的许多新问题和难点,中国最高人民法院于2001年12月24日颁布了 ≪关于适用<中华人民共和国婚姻法>若干问题的解释(一)≫。主要是针对包括无效婚姻和可撤销婚姻的处理程序及法律后果、提出中止探望权的主体资格、子女抚养费、离婚损害赔偿等程序性和审判实践中急需解决的问题作出解释。2003年12月25日,中国最高人民法院又颁布了 ≪关于适用<中华人民共和国婚姻法>若干问题的解释(二)≫,主要针对彩礼应否返还、夫妻债务处理、住房公积金及知识产权收益等款项的认定、军人的复员费及自主择业费的处理等问题提供了具有可操作性的裁判依据。2011年8月12日,中国最高人民法院颁布了 ≪关于适用<中华人民共和国婚姻法>若干问题的解释(三)≫,针对结婚登记瑕疵的救济手段、亲子关系诉讼拒绝亲子鉴定后果、父母为子女结婚购买不动产的认定、离婚案件中一方婚前贷款买房的处理等问题做出明确规定。 ≪关于适用<中华人民共和国婚姻法>若干问题的解释(三)≫一经颁布,迅疾在中国大陆引起巨大反响,有人赞成,有人反对。但是无论赞成者还是反对者,民众觉得,关于婚姻这件事,有些规则被改变了。本文尝试从中国婚姻法的颁布、修改的历程,以及中国最高人民法院对婚姻法的司法解释着手,以最高人民法院婚姻法司法解释(三)为中心,较为详细的归纳和整理了中国大陆民众及媒体对最高人民法院婚姻法司法解释(三)颁布后的各种观点和意见。对最高人民法院婚姻法司法解释(三)的出台背景、主要内容、不同观点进行了陈述,也提出了我们的不同意见和修改建议,并指出了最高人民法院婚姻法司法解释(三)对中国社会的巨大影响。无容置疑,最高人民法院婚姻法司法解释(三)是在经过3年多的调研起草和充分论证,且在广泛收集民意、立法机关和相关部门的意见的基础上颁布的,最高人民法院婚姻法司法解释(三)针对21世纪的中国婚姻家庭纠纷案件的实际情况作出了许多有创新之举的规定。如,亲子规定,非常夫妻财产制的规定,生育权的规定,养老保险金的规定,离婚财产分割协议的规定。而且为全国司法审判统一了裁量尺度,有利于审判的公正和效率。但是,最高人民法院婚姻法司法解释(三)也有不尽完美之处,其中的第7条、第10条便存很大争议。我们期望通过争议和探讨,司法解释不但能便于司法认定及统一裁量尺度,而且能更加符合法律本意,更好的兼顾中国国情和社会常理,更能表述中国大多数民众的心声,从而让司法解释在实践中更好的促进家庭关系的和睦幸福、社会关系的和谐稳定。
  • 15.

    A Case study about whether or not the insurer's medical fee guarantee to hospital has an effect on the progression and interruption of the extinctive prescription in automobile insurance

    조규성 | 2011, (53) | pp.469~494 | number of Cited : 1
    Disputes about whether or not the insurer's medical fee guarantee to hospital has an effect on the progression and interruption of prescription in automobile insurance compensation affairs are often. ‘Acknowledgement of liability’ is one of the reasons for interruption of prescription. Also Civil Law article 766 (1) statute of short-term prescription(within three years commencing from the date on which the injured party or his agent by law becomes aware of such damage and of the identity of the person who caused it). Also in order to make an acknowledgement, having the effect of interrupting prescription, no capacity or authority for disposition in respect of the rights of the other party is required. This final judgement was considered that the insurer's medical fee guarantee to hospital is not interruption of prescription. The reason is that according to ‘Act on Guarantee of Compensation for Loss caused by Automobile’ Article 12(Claim and Payment of Medical Fee Covered by Automobile Insurance) Article 12, (1) When an insurance company, etc. becomes aware of the occurrence of an automobile accident through a claim for loss by either a subscriber, etc. or a victim of an automobile accident under the provisions of the latter part of Article 10 (1), or by other reasons, the insurance company, etc. shall, without delay, notify the medical institution treating the victim of whether or not the insurance company, etc. has intention to pay the medical fee covered by automobile insurance and of the limit of such payment. (5) In the case where the medical institution can claim the payment for medical fee covered by automobile insurance to the insurance company, etc. under the provisions of section (2), it shall not make claims on the victim of the automobile accident (including his/her guardian) to pay such medical fee , to pay the medical fee is because creating a new legal relationship, that is to say the new relationship liability between insurance companies and hospitals should see the relationship is finalized. Therefore, the insurance company paid to the hospital for treatment, that is placed his liability, but is not approved for liability of the victims. So I oppose to the final judgement because this judgement is unjust verdict from the perspective of legal personality of the insurer's medical treatment guarantee and misunderstood legal principles about the parties of ‘Acknowledgement of liability’. I believe that my interpretation is reasonable.
  • 16.

    Operation of the Bribery Act 2010 and Provision of Korean corporations

    Gyeongseok Kim | 2011, (53) | pp.495~518 | number of Cited : 3
    In the United Kingdom, the Bribery Act 2010 came into existence in April 2010 and has been in effective as of on July 1^st 2011. The Bribery Act 2010 includes not only companies established in the UK but also foreign companies that conduct the business there and so it will be applied to Korean corporations. Therefore, they will be under the effect of the Bribery Act and need to make provisions for it. Here is the list of four provisions. First, companies should perceive how much bribery-related risks could arise and modify the procedure of provisions. Second, the modification of the procedure should be followed by the active involvement of a CEO and the persistent education to the employees. Third, constant monitoring is required to ensure the compliance particularly as to businesses between a parent company and a subsidiary company abroad or overseas branches. Last, companies should direct a close attention to managing business agents as well as their employees. In conclusion, these provisions mean the installment of an appropriate internal control system. Many countries including such as US, UK and Japan have the internal control system as regulations in the commercial law or corporative law to reduce the risk in business and prevent the corruption of companies. However, that’s not the case in Korea. Therefore, it should be considered that the internal control system is imposed as regulations of the commercial law in Korea.
  • 17.

    Study on the Financial Assistance of a Company for the Purpose of the Acquisition of Shares in Itself

    고인배 | 2011, (53) | pp.519~549 | number of Cited : 7
    In this case, the Supreme Court of Korea has decided as follows: It is acknowledged in this case that the share acquisition price paid by the purchasers of the shares to the public limited company was appropriated from the financial benefits granted by the same company. As a consequence, the first requirement for application of the rules governing the cases of acquisition by a company of its own shares is fullfilled. By contrast, it is not acknowledged that the profit and loss arising out of the same share purchase have gone for the account of the public limited company. In this case, the found facts that financial support was rendered by the public limited company to the potential purchasers for the purpose of financing the acquisition of shares of the same company, in such forms as paying advancements, and that unjust transfer of business and assets have enabled the share purchase have had no influence on the above-mentioned conclusion. The second requirement is hence regarded as not fullfilled. A generalization to the effect that all forms of financial supports offered by a public limited company to potential purchasers of its shares will be governed by rules regarding cases of acquisition of own shares would hardly be acceptable. In cases where the executives have chosen the share acquirer(s) arbitrarily, especially based on personal acquaintanceships, allowing financial support for the share acquisition by way of rendering loans, delaying or, occasionally neglecting the collection of the loans provided to the acquirer(s), granting assistance –which enables the repayment of the loans- out of illegal reserved fund, with the control over the company retained on the side of the original executives, the application of the Art. 341 Korean Commercial Code by way of analogy could come into consideration. Especially as far as the case reviewed in this study is concerned, the executives of a company have acquired, through a corporation of their own establishing, 25 per cent of all issued shares of the former company. This share acquisition was performed under the financial support of the company of the relevant shares, undoutedly under strong influence of the same executives. When it comes to legal formality, the loan rendered for the purpose of acquisition of shares was fully collected by the lender company, which, to the contrary, could hardly be regarded as funded from the borrower company’s own capital. Considering these circumstances, the author doubts whether there was really no room left for application of the rules governing the cases of acquisition by a company of its own shares —by way of analogy.
  • 18.

    Standards of Judicial Review for the Target Board’s Fiduciary Duties in the U.S.- focused on the context of hostile takeovers -

    김범준 | 2011, (53) | pp.551~589 | number of Cited : 0
    Director/Management accountability and good corporate governance are nowadays especially important concerns in the wake of recent scandals at Enron, WorldCom, Lehman Brothers, and elsewhere, and the consideration of the proper mix of discretion between directors and shareholders in the hostile takeover context has taken center stage because it occurs at the intersection where board authority and shareholder rights meet. Solving the takeover debate requires us to focus on the question of whether the target board or shareholders should have more control to decide whether or not the company should be sold to a bidder. The current takeover laws have assumed that the target board has broad authority to respond to a hostile tender offer by adopting various and strong defensive measures that make a bid more difficult even if the target shareholders want to sell. In addition, because corporate law expresses a profound ambiguity about the role of shareholders in this context, shareholders have had a very difficult time in making corporate decisions in efforts to defend against hostile bids. Takeover jurisprudence is usually approached through the means of fiduciary duties by asking whether the target board acted in good faith, in an informed manner, and in the best interests of the target shareholders. This article focuses on how the standards of judicial reviews for the target board’s fiduciary duties should be improved and/or changed in order to reflect shareholders’ choices and interests by analyzing each standard of review and exploring the relationship between them. Ultimately, from the perspective of shareholders, I try to suggest the active use of the Blasius test where the target board’s action interferes with the shareholder franchise and is made in response to a hostile takeover. At the same time, I view that we should not overlook the usefulness of the “entire fairness” doctrine in enhancing and securing the respect of shareholders’ power as an appropriate constructive manner for the target board’s fiduciary duties in response to hostile takeover attempts.
  • 19.

    Justification of compulsory retirement of stock in the corporate reorganization

    Kang, Sun Ho | 2011, (53) | pp.591~617 | number of Cited : 0
    Shareholder being management responsibility is compulsory retirement of the full extent of his own stocks. It is named the punitive retirement stock. The main objective of the punitive retirement stock is charge of the management responsibility to the shareholders and deprive of the control of corporation from shareholders. It is believed that the punitive retirement is improving efficiency of the corporate reorganization through M&A. It is not try to analyse of justicication for compulsory retirement stock which the reorganized corporate of shareholders have. The method to improve it, the court of justice would intervine in the decision-making management responsibility of shareholders. If shareholders are charged for the management responsibility, the shareholders have monetary compensation for loss that the corporate have damaged. It is turn to corporate assets. For compulsory retirement stock which the reorganized corporate of shareholders have is only authorized to be interested in the value going concern. The reorganization plan is aimed solely at altering the claims of creditors and equity holders. For fair and equitable modifications to the rights of creditors and equity holders, the going concern value appraised is divided to creditors and equity holders by the relative priority rule. Junior interests is not divided as much as senior interests.
  • 20.

    A Critical Study on Legislation of Administrator System in the Insolvency Law

    JEOM IN LEE | 2011, (53) | pp.619~658 | number of Cited : 5
    In Korea since the last financial crisis of IMF we've seen highly increasing number of insolvent enterprises. But old Insolvency Law system, in particular, consisting of the three different types of related acts, i.e., the Corporate Reorganization act, the Composition Act and the Bankruptcy Act didn't handle these bankruptcies well. This situation had very negative impact on our nation and corporate credibility toward outside countries. The Insolvency Law system had been substantially amended post 1997 economic crisis as momentum in 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001. Finally, Ministry of Justice enacted the Consolidated Insolvency Law in 2005 for the efficient corporate restructuring and for the improvement of the old Insolvency Law system problems. Consolidated Insolvency Law is ruling three type of procedure of reorganization procedure, bankruptcy proceedings, and individual debtor rehabilitation procedure within single law but they are operated through different application procedures that are not operated through one procedure that is going along reorganization procedure, bankruptcy proceedings, and individual debtor rehabilitation procedure. So it may be said that it did not accomplish the unification of a genuine meaning by stopping listing laws about insolvency that is not the objective consolidating substantively of establishing Consolidated Insolvency Law. Consolidated Insolvency Law is ruling like that ; in principle, assigning debtor or the delegate as administrator, and exceptionally, assigning a third party when reaches in financial failure by insolvent operation with own or delegate, property usefulnessㆍconcealment or poor management with a serious responsibility, request of creditor conference with considerable reason, and when need in debtor rehabilitation. But principle and exception will have to be converted as seeing in points like those ; existing management is never right person for the corporate rehabilitation, difficulties of participation in management and administration by creditors, and trouble by debtor's moral laxity. As well as, it may be raised a necessary to put a strong administrator like as a government agency by the reason like those ; position of court, it can subtract business burden which watch and supervises an obligor and make economization of time and expense through derivation of mutual agreements, regarding confines of administrator's responsibility about damage at occurrence of damage by administrator's intentionalityㆍfault, it can hold them responsible infinitely by strong administrator like as a government agency, insolvency of enterprises connects with insolvency of banks, and government inject public funds by that situation, so it can reduce public funds by stopping insolvency of banks in advance, i.e. Also, to protect creditor, it needs power strengthening and certain operation of creditor conference which represents creditor's profit. When seeing for long-term for correct watch and supervisor of rehabilitation procedure, it needs establishment of special bankruptcy courts and specialization of revitalization member.
  • 21.

    Institutional Review on Help Program for Overdue Wage

    노병호 | Shin, Hyun-Gu | 2011, (53) | pp.659~685 | number of Cited : 7
    Almost workers in Korea live on their salary for their labor, in other words, wage according to the Labor Standards Act. Wage is worker's only way to secure its survival. Therefore, wage is the vital target of the Labor Standards Act which regulates minimum working conditions as well as the biggest matter of concern in labor movements. Even if there are strategies to protect wage, base of worker's survival, report of overdue wage is increasing every year, and the government announces aid programs to deal with wage unpaid strongly and to solve it as soon as possible every holidays, but overdue wage due to deterioration of economy and vicious enterprisers does not decrease. Furthermore, workers oneself are not protected owing to ignorance of legal measures and economic pain. Accordingly, the study aims to investigate the current relif policies for overdue wage and the status of handling wage unpaid reported at labor authorities and to examine swift and effective remedies and help program through other policies. To achieve this, the status of wage unpaid and the current relief policies are searched, then problems and reformation of the relief policies are looked into in order to seek reasonable solution of overdue wage.
  • 22.

    The legal study of definition of malicious software

    chung yeun dek | 2011, (53) | pp.687~715 | number of Cited : 2
    Malware (malicious software) consists of programming designed to disrupt or deny operation, gather information that leads to loss of privacy or exploitation, gain unauthorized access to system resources, and other abusive behavior. There are many types of malicious software attacks in Korea. Definition of malware in Information and Communications Network Utilization and Information Protection Act is not clear. Typically malware contain a computer virus, worm virus, or Troy virus. but the meaning of malware in this act is not clear to understand. Korean Supreme Court presented several cases in these matter. Unfortunately these cases do not deal with interpretation of meaning of mal ware. Thus, this study suggest standard to define malicious program. This factor include software characteristics, depending on the situation, the user's consciousness or consent, considering the extent of the damage.
  • 23.

    La discussion internationale et le problème légal à propos de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises

    KWON HAN-YONG | 2011, (53) | pp.717~752 | number of Cited : 15
    La responsabilité sociale des entreprises (RSE) est un concept qui désigne l’intégration volontaire, par les entreprises, de préoccupations sociales et environnementales à leurs activités commerciales et leurs relations avec leurs parties prenantes. Les entreprises ont un comportement socialement responsable lorsqu’elles vont au-delà des exigences légales minimales et des obligations imposées par les conventions collectives pour répondre à des besoins sociétés. La RSE permet aux entreprises, quelle que soit leur taille, de contribuer à concilier les ambitions économiques, sociales et environnementales en coopération avec leurs partenaires. À ce titre, la RSE est devenue un concept de plus en plus important tant dans le monde que dans l’Union européenne et s’inscrit dans le débat sur la mondialisation, la compétitivité et le développement durable. Les travailleurs du monde entier et leurs familles qui vivent des mutations, les chefs d’entreprise qui sont confronté à la concurrence du marché mondial, les responsables politiques qui doivent conduire l’adaptation de leurs pays, tous attendent une voie équilibré entre l’impératif éonomique qui s’impose à tous et la prise en compte des réalité et des besoins sociaux dans le processus de mondialisation. Tous souhaitent que les organisations internationales comme l’OCDE et l’OIT contribuent à montrer un chemin, dans un souci d’équité et de durabilité. En Europe, l'encouragement de la RSE reflète la nécessité de défendre des valeurs communes et d’accroître le sens de la solidarité et de la cohésion. La Commission souhaite dès lors conférer une plus grande visibilité politique à la RSE, afin de reconnaître les efforts déjà déployés par les entreprises européennes en la matière et les encourager à aller plus loin. La RSE étant, par essence, une démarche volontaire des entreprises, une approche imposant à celles-ci de nouvelles obligations et formalités administratives risquerait d’être contre-productive et serait contraire aux principes de l’amélioration de la réglementation. Consciente du rôle privilégié des entreprises en matière de RSE et convaincue que la meilleure solution pour atteindre les objectifs poursuivis est de travailler plus étroitement avec les entreprises européennes. L’'alliance européenne constitue un cadre politique général pour des initiatives nouvelles ou existantes prises dans le domaine de la RSE par des grandes entreprises, des PME et des acteurs concernés. Il ne s'agit pas d’un instrument juridique nécessitant l’aval des entreprises, de la Commission ou d’une autorité publique, mais plutôt d’une option politique en vue de généraliser la RSE dans les entreprises européennes. La RSE peut contribuer au développement durable tout en améliorant le potentiel d’innovation et la compétitivité du Monde et favoriser ainsi l’employabilité et la création d’emploi. Promouvoir davantage la RSE est essentiel à la mise en oeuvre du nouveau partenariat pour la croissance et l’emploi ainsi qu’à la réalisation des objectifs de développement durable. Les principes de la RSE sont le reflet des valeurs fondamentales de la société internationale.
  • 24.

    A Study on the Role of International Law on International Disaster Response

    김성원 | 2011, (53) | pp.753~779 | number of Cited : 7
    The tsunami in Tohoku caused by the massive earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated an unprecedented challenge for Japan and the international community at large. Considering devastating impact of natural disasters on the international community, serious efforts should be made by the international community for minimizing damages of natural disaster, protecting affected countries and individuals, and rebuilding societies destructed by natural disasters. As basic legal norms of international society, international law has been developed to solve various problems exposing threats to international society. In order to solve difficult problems resulted by natural and man-made disasters, a positive role of international law on disaster management would be definitely needed to establish a robust global disaster response governance mechanism. Compared with other fields of international law, such as humanitarian international law, international law on public health and international law on industrial accidents, international disaster response law would not seem to be on the path of progressive development. Various reasons would be suggested for less development of international disaster response law. However, among other things, attitudes of States toward natural disasters, which regard the nature of natural disasters as episodic, short-lived events requesting just assistance based on humanity, would be main obstacle to the development of international disaster response law. In this article, I have tried to look into the role of international law on disaster response in three parts. First, I explore attitudes of States toward natural disaster. This analysis is contributed to suggesting new thoughts on international disaster response which States should pay due attention to. Second, reviewing historical overview of IGOs and NGOs on disaster response, I tried to suggest which role of international law would be expected for the development of international disaster response law and establishment of global disaster response governance mechanism. Lastly, I tried to point out what kind of new thoughts would be needed for establishing comprehensive international disaster response law, which is based on the people-centric perspective on international law. I tried to strike balance between sovereignty of States and interests of individuals on matters concerning international disaster response by incorporating human security ideas into thoughts on international disaster response law. Without solving problems concerning sovereignty of States on international disaster response, the future of international disaster response law would be repeated in the name of Sisyphean humanitarianism.
  • 25.

    동아법학 제53호 부록

    법학연구소 | 2011, (53) | pp.781~812 | number of Cited : 0