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2012, Vol., No.56

  • 1.

  • 2.

    Judicial review of limitations on constitutional liberties

    Kim, Ha Yurl | 2012, (56) | pp.1~34 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Some rulings of the Constitutional Court of Korea on cases concerning constitutional liberties need critical review. Practical concordance is required when two conflicting liberties collide, and principle of proportionality(proportionality test) is generally invoked as a way to realize it. But laws adjusting collision between liberties have ambivalence: they restrict liberties on one hand, they protect liberties on the other. Principle of proportionality is suitable to apply when state –in pursuit of public interests- acts as a encroacher on liberties. It is not so when state –as a mediator- should adjust conflicting interests of liberty holders. Here can be suggested proportional balancing test as an alternative which takes various conflicting elements into account such as urgency to protect, cost and efficiency, extent of damage and so on. An exercise of liberty that touches conflicting liberty of others only through the disruption of public interests should not be classified as a collision of liberties. Thus the principle of proportionality, not the proportional balancing test should be applied hereupon. So called alleviated principle of proportionality recently coined by the Constitutional Court of Korea has methodological problem in that it confuses the layers of criteria. Also the criteria of it is too obscure to guarantee consistency in review. Furthermore the use of it has expanded to social rights, bringing about disorder in the theoretical system of judicial review.
  • 3.

    Eine Überlegung über die Form des Vorbehaltes des Gesetzes - Im Punkt von Trennungsregelung für die Verfügungsgewalt und Zwangsgewalt -

    권배근 | 2012, (56) | pp.35~64 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Diese Arbeit behandelt sich um die Form des Vorbehaltes des Gesetzes im Bezug auf die polizeirechtliche Befugnisnorm. In rechtsstaatlicher Hinsicht hat das koreanische Polizeiaufgabengesetz eine legislatorische Problem im Bereich vom Befugnissensystem. In rechtsstaatlicher Hinsicht verwirklichen die Befugnisse den Grundsatz vom Vorbehalt des Gesetzes. Weil eine Eingriffsakte rechtssatzmäßiger Ermächtigungen bedürfen. Auch dem rechtsstaatlichen Erfordernis hinreichender Normenklarheit und Normenbestimmtheit wird hier Rechnung getragen, indem besondere Regelungsform für eine polizeiliches Handeln beschrieben werden und die Polizei auf ganz bestimmte Vorgehensweisen festgelegt wird. Die Schaffung von einzelnen Befugnissen ist eine verfassungsrechtlich begründete Notwendigkeit. Weil der Gesetzgeber im Interesse der Rechtssicherheit und Rechtsklarheit gehalten bleibt, die generale Regelung durch konkreten Regelungen zu entlasten.
  • 4.

    A Study on Relationship Models Between Government and Private Universities

    Park Min | See Woo Lee | 박기병 | 2012, (56) | pp.65~92 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The purpose of this article is to rethink governmental philosophy to the private schools. Korean private schools have two features historically and ideologically; autonomy and publicity. One of these features should not be ignored. Both of them are to be equally respected. However, the authors have found that the publicity of the private schools had been overly emphasized than the autonomy of the private schools through the several researches. We have believed that autonomy of a private school as long as publicity of private schools would have to be emphasized. In this study, we have classified the relationship between state and private universities based on support and control of the state for private schools. We have found four models. The advantages and disadvantages of the models have been compared. In elementary school education level, it is desirable to adopt no support and self-control model. In middle and high school education, it is necessary to adopt the support and control model. However, in university education level, we should adopt the support and self-control model considering the constitutional values of freedom and autonomy of universities. Thus, the authors suggest that the private school acts and educational policies should be revised to the direction which the support and self-control model could be implemented.
  • 5.

    지방분권 추진기구에 관한 연구

    CHOI WOOYONG | 2012, (56) | pp.93~120 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    지방분권을 종합적이고 체계적으로 추진하고 정부부처간의 부처이기주의를 극복할 수 있는 강력한 추진기구의 설치야 말로 지방분권을 완성하는 시작이자 끝이다. 기존의 위원회, 협의회 등의 추진기구로는 한계가 있어 새로운 추진기구의 모색이야 말로 지방분권의 중요한 과제라 하겠다. 지방분권에 적극적으로 추진하고 있는 외국의 사례를 살펴보자. 먼저 프랑스나 영국의 경우에는 중앙 행정기관 소속하에 지역균형발전 또는 낙후된 지역의 경제발전 등의 사무를 전담하는 별도의 기구를 설치 운영함으로써 효과적으로 관련정책을 수립하거나 집행하고 있다. 특히 주목하여야 할 점은 지역균형발전이나 지역경제발전 등과 관련된 기능이 여러 기관이나 위원회에 분산되어 있지 않고, 이를 DATAR나 RDA와 같은 특정 전담기관에 집중되도록 하였다는 점이다. 일본의 경우에는 내각에 지방분권추진위원회와 같은 위원회를 설치하고 위원회가 분권의 의제를 개발하고 논의하여 그 결과를 위원회권고나 의견으로 이를 수상에게 전달하면 수상은 정부법제화로 이를 제도화함으로써 분권을 실현해 오고 있다. 분권문제에 있어서만큼은 전문위원회와 정부 그리고 정치권이 상호 협력관계를 유지하고 있는 것이다. 현재는 수상이 직접 위원장이 되는 지방분권개혁추진본부를 설치하여 지방분권에 국가적인 총력을 기울이고 있다. 국가의 최고 행정수반의 적극적인 의지와 관여 그리고 전 정부부처의 협력 없이는 실현할 수 없는 것이 지방분권이라는 점을 보여주고 있다. 우리의 대통령제 하에서 지방분권이라는 국가적 과제를 수행하기 위해서는 대통령의 강력한 지방분권에의 의지가 절대적으로 필요하다. 이에 대통령이 의장이 되는 ‘지방분권추진회의’의 설치를 제안한다. 이처럼 대통령이 의장이 되는 회의체의 장점은, 첫째, 중앙부처간의 부처이기주의를 극복할 수 있어 체계적이고 종합적인 지방분권 정책을 수립할 수 있고, 둘째 대통령의 강력한 지방분권에의 의지가 반영되어 정책결정과 집행이 원활하게 이루어질 수 있는 장점이 있으며, 셋째 다른 국가정책과의 조율이 가능하게 되어 불필요한 정책간의 갈등을 조기에 차단할 수 있다는 점을 들 수 있다. 위원으로서는 대통령을 의장으로 하며, 국무총리, 행정안전부장관과, 기획재정부장관 등 대통령령으로 정하는 국무위원과, 지방4단체에서 각 추천한 민간위원 4인과 시민단체에서 추천한 지방분권 전문가 3인을 당연직 위원으로 한다. 그리고 지방분권추진회의의 회의를 보다 전문적으로 보좌하고 업무를 효율적으로 지원하기 위하여 지방분권추진회의에 지방분권위원회를 둘 수 있도록 한다. 또한 국회에서의 지방분권과 지역균형발전 관련 법제 정비를 전담하기 위한 지방분권특별위원회의 설치와 각 지역의 지방분권 정책의 수립과 집행을 위한 지역지방분권추진위원회를 설치하여 정부와 국회 위원회간의 상호 협력을 통하여 지속적으로 지방분권을 추진하여야 할 것이다.
  • 6.

    Die Bekämpfung der modernen See-Piraterie

    한스 퀴네 | 2012, (56) | pp.121~141 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Äußerst umstritten ist vor allem die Frage, ob die Handelsschiffe selbst mehr für ihre Sicherheit tun können und sollen. Gesprochen wird hier über bewaffnete Sicherheitskräfte und präventive Einrichtungen wie elektrische Zäune und Ähnliches als Schutz vor Enterung. Letzteres ist sicherlich in begrenztem Rahmen hilfreich, weil es den Zugang der Piraten zum Schiff erschwert oder mitunter auch verhindert. In dieser Situation wird deutlich, dass eine adäquate Problemlösung nicht durch eine Stellvertretung im Rahmen der internationalen Kompetenz zu Strafverfolgung erfolgen kann. Vielmehr erscheint es sinnvoll, in Somalia sowohl ein internationales Tribunal wie auch ein entsprechendes Gefängnis zu errichten, um die Piraten vor Ort zu verurteilen und zu bestrafen. Zwar bleiben auch unter dieser Annahme die Möglichkeiten einer rehabilitativen Betreuungsehr begrenzt, solange die sozialen Umstände im Lande so sind wie sie sind. Zumindest aber würden Verfahren und Vollzug unter Wahrung von Menschenrechten kulturnah und unter der Aufsicht der UNO durchgeführt werden können. Zudem wäre die Einheitlichkeit der Sanktionsfindung und der Vollzugsbedingungen gewährleistet. Was die Kosten angeht, so sind diese mittelfristig sicherlich geringer als die mit dem ausländischen Verfahren und Vollzug notwendig anfallenden Ausgaben. Freilich bedürfte es zur Realisierung einer solchen Lösung einer weiteren Resolution des UN Sicherheitsrates, sowie der politischen und finanziellen Bereitschaft von Staaten, sich finanziell und substantiell zu beteiligen, so wie dies etwa im Ruanda Tribunal der Fall war. Dort wurde das Sondertribunal durch Resolution des Sicherheitsrats Nr. 977 v. 22.2. 1995 ins Nachbarland Tansania nach Arusha verlegt. Dies könnte in gewisser Weiseein Vorbild sein. Insbesondere die quasi-hoheitliche Kampftätigkeit der mit Kriegswaffen ausgerüsteten Söldnertruppen würde erhebliche rechtstaatliche Probleme mit sich bringen. Während staatliche Sicherheitsorgane, seien sie der Polizei oder dem Militär zugehörig, einer öffentlich rechtlichen Kontrolle unterstehen, die auch justiziel überprüfbar undbei entsprechendem Anlass sanktionierbar ist, sieht es bei Söldnern ganz anders aus. Bei ihnen sind die hierarchischen Strukturen von den Bedingungen des öffentlichen Rechts, also des Polizeirechts und der Militärgesetze, abgekoppelt. Will man hier kontrollierend tätig werden, dann muss man in eine in sich abgeschlossene und nicht von außen gelenkte Gruppierung eindringen, um mögliche ungesetzliche Verhaltensweisen aufzudecken und zu sank- tionieren. Insbesondere wird es schwer sein zu überprüfen ob sich die Kampftätigkeit ausschließlich im Bereich der Notwehr/Nothilfe bewegt hat, denn es gibt außerhalb dieser Normen keine anderen Rechtfertigungen der Söldner zur Gewaltanwendung. Nun könnte man natürlich politisch argumentieren und vertreten, all dies sei eine Kampftätigkeit, die außerhalb nationaler Jurisdiktionen auf offener See ausgetragen würden und daher nicht im Konflikt mit dem staatlichen Gewaltmonopol stünden, welches ja auf das staatliche Hoheitsgebiet begrenzt ist. Dies ist in der Tat ein nicht unerhebliches Argument, welches auch im Vergleich zu der von den USA privilegierten Blackwater-Truppe einen Unterschied macht, die ja in fremden Hoheitsgebieten, dem Irak und in Afghanistan, eingesetzt war und wohl auch noch eingesetzt ist. Deshalb scheint es, als ob ein Konflikt mit dem staatlichen Gewalt- monopol formell solange nicht entsteht, wie Söldner auf hoher See Notwehr und Nothilfe gegen Angriffe von Piraten leisten. Dies wäre allerdings ein Fehlschluss. Denn jedes Hochsee-Schiff ist ausgeflaggt, was bedeutet, dass das durch die Flagge repräsentierte Rechtssystem des jeweiligen Landes auf dem Schiff gilt. Das Schiff ist also Hoheitsgebiet des ausflaggenden Landes, ganz gleich, wo es sich auf den Weltmeeren befindet. Folglich besteht das angesprochene Problem des staatlichen Gewaltmonopols und seines möglichen Ersatzes durch private Sicherheits- kräfte auch auf jedem Handelsschiff. Aus diesen Gründe ist zumindest der Einsatz von mit Kriegswaffen versehenen privaten Sicherheitstruppe auf Handelsschiffen abzulehnen. Was konventionell bewaffnete Sicherheitskräfte angeht, so wird hiergegen nichts einzuwenden sein, wenn die erwähnten rechtlichen Bedingungen erfüllt sind.
  • 7.

    Die Bekämpfung der modernen See-Piraterie

    HA TAE YOUNG | 2012, (56) | pp.143~154 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Äußerst umstritten ist vor allem die Frage, ob die Handelsschiffe selbst mehr für ihre Sicherheit tun können und sollen. Gesprochen wird hier über bewaffnete Sicherheitskräfte und präventive Einrichtungen wie elektrische Zäune und Ähnliches als Schutz vor Enterung. Letzteres ist sicherlich in begrenztem Rahmen hilfreich, weil es den Zugang der Piraten zum Schiff erschwert oder mitunter auch verhindert. In dieser Situation wird deutlich, dass eine adäquate Problemlösung nicht durch eine Stellvertretung im Rahmen der internationalen Kompetenz zu Strafverfolgung erfolgen kann. Vielmehr erscheint es sinnvoll, in Somalia sowohl ein internationales Tribunal wie auch ein entsprechendes Gefängnis zu errichten, um die Piraten vor Ort zu verurteilen und zu bestrafen. Zwar bleiben auch unter dieser Annahme die Möglichkeiten einer rehabilitativen Betreuungsehr begrenzt, solange die sozialen Umstände im Lande so sind wie sie sind. Zumindest aber würden Verfahren und Vollzug unter Wahrung von Menschenrechten kulturnah und unter der Aufsicht der UNO durchgeführt werden können. Zudem wäre die Einheitlichkeit der Sanktionsfindung und der Vollzugsbedingungen gewährleistet. Was die Kosten angeht, so sind diese mittelfristig sicherlich geringer als die mit dem ausländischen Verfahren und Vollzug notwendig anfallenden Ausgaben. Freilich bedürfte es zur Realisierung einer solchen Lösung einer weiteren Resolution des UN Sicherheitsrates, sowie der politischen und finanziellen Bereitschaft von Staaten, sich finanziell und substantiell zu beteiligen, so wie dies etwa im Ruanda Tribunal der Fall war. Dort wurde das Sondertribunal durch Resolution des Sicherheitsrats Nr. 977 v. 22.2. 1995 ins Nachbarland Tansania nach Arusha verlegt. Dies könnte in gewisser Weiseein Vorbild sein. Insbesondere die quasi-hoheitliche Kampftätigkeit der mit Kriegswaffen ausgerüsteten Söldnertruppen würde erhebliche rechtstaatliche Probleme mit sich bringen. Während staatliche Sicherheitsorgane, seien sie der Polizei oder dem Militär zugehörig, einer öffentlich rechtlichen Kontrolle unterstehen, die auch justiziel überprüfbar undbei entsprechendem Anlass sanktionierbar ist, sieht es bei Söldnern ganz anders aus. Bei ihnen sind die hierarchischen Strukturen von den Bedingungen des öffentlichen Rechts, also des Polizeirechts und der Militärgesetze, abgekoppelt. Will man hier kontrollierend tätig werden, dann muss man in eine in sich abgeschlossene und nicht von außen gelenkte Gruppierung eindringen, um mögliche ungesetzliche Verhaltensweisen aufzudecken und zu sank- tionieren. Insbesondere wird es schwer sein zu überprüfen ob sich die Kampftätigkeit ausschließlich im Bereich der Notwehr/Nothilfe bewegt hat, denn es gibt außerhalb dieser Normen keine anderen Rechtfertigungen der Söldner zur Gewaltanwendung. Nun könnte man natürlich politisch argumentieren und vertreten, all dies sei eine Kampftätigkeit, die außerhalb nationaler Jurisdiktionen auf offener See ausgetragen würden und daher nicht im Konflikt mit dem staatlichen Gewaltmonopol stünden, welches ja auf das staatliche Hoheitsgebiet begrenzt ist. Dies ist in der Tat ein nicht unerhebliches Argument, welches auch im Vergleich zu der von den USA privilegierten Blackwater-Truppe einen Unterschied macht, die ja in fremden Hoheitsgebieten, dem Irak und in Afghanistan, eingesetzt war und wohl auch noch eingesetzt ist. Deshalb scheint es, als ob ein Konflikt mit dem staatlichen Gewalt- monopol formell solange nicht entsteht, wie Söldner auf hoher See Notwehr und Nothilfe gegen Angriffe von Piraten leisten. Dies wäre allerdings ein Fehlschluss. Denn jedes Hochsee-Schiff ist ausgeflaggt, was bedeutet, dass das durch die Flagge repräsentierte Rechtssystem des jeweiligen Landes auf dem Schiff gilt. Das Schiff ist also Hoheitsgebiet des ausflaggenden Landes, ganz gleich, wo es sich auf den Weltmeeren befindet. Folglich besteht das angesprochene Problem des staatlichen Gewaltmonopols und seines möglichen Ersatzes durch private Sicherheits- kräfte auch auf jedem Handelsschiff. Aus diesen Gründe ist zumindest der Einsatz von mit Kriegswaffen versehenen privaten Sicherheitstruppe auf Handelsschiffen abzulehnen. Was konventionell bewaffnete Sicherheitskräfte angeht, so wird hiergegen nichts einzuwenden sein, wenn die erwähnten rechtlichen Bedingungen erfüllt sind.
  • 8.

    The Study on the Criminal Legal System to prepare for Unification in Korea

    Oh, Kyung Sik | 2012, (56) | pp.155~190 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    The constitutions of North and South define the form and philosophy of the nation differently, but the territorial area of application may clash. These clauses define the northern territory as Southern lands and the Northern regime as a ‘anti-government organization’, the northern territory as territory under illegal occupation. The range of applications is common for the north and the south, so some clash may be expected in the case of North Korean refugees after unification. The analysis and the application of north and south’s constitution are based on different standards, so finding an agreement is a task required in preparation of unification. In the 1992.02.19 inter-Korean agreement, it is stated that the north and south will respect and accept each other’s system and the Sec.III cooperation of north and south completely change the previous format of the law system. The Law on Inter-Korean Exchange and Cooperation 1990, which took place before this agreement, also states that even if some activities and interchanges between north and south disagree with some constitutional laws, they may be permitted to help the relationship between north and south. The creation of these laws can be understood as a policy to resolve the paradoxes that arise from the differences in the north and south’s constitutions. To prepare for unification, we will analyze the north and south’s criminal legal systems and propose a solution.
  • 9.

    Measures on the habitual Alcohol -Impaired Driving in the United States

    Jung Han Joong | 2012, (56) | pp.191~226 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    There is increasingly high a Crime Rate of Alcohol Impaired Driving and habitual Alcohol Impaired Driving in Korea. But It was a very simple measures and ex post punishments about these problems in Korea. Therefore, this Paper is to introduce the multi-faced measures to Alcohol Impaired Driving and habitual Alcohol Impaired Driving in the United States, and is to contribute the new legislative measures in Korea. This Paper Ⅱ is to overview on the measures to Alcohol Impaired Driving in he United States which is Alcohol Impaired Driving Law Review, various Enforcement of drinking driver, Prevention and Intervention to Alcohol Impaired Driving, Young Drivers in Alcohol Impaired Driving and Drinking Problem itself. This Paper Ⅲ is to overview on the measures to habitual Alcohol Impaired Driving in he United States which is ‘Alcohol Assessment․Treatment․Education’, Alcohol Ignition Interlock, and DWI courts. In order to introduce the measures to habitual Alcohol Impaired Driving in he United States the following should be taken carefully. (1)The requisites for success to ‘Alcohol Assessment․Treatment․Education’ have been arranged to effective programs and menus, and strict supervision for the operator to ‘Alcohol Assessment․Treatment․Education’ is necessary. (2)The requisites for success to ‘Ignition Interlock’ is to be equipped to prevent that Violators want to avoid to Ignition Interlock and to heighten the actual adoption rates. (3)The requisites for success to ‘DWI courts’ should be secured competent Team-members, and should be prepared to programs that are able to resolve fundamental problem of Alcohols.
  • 10.

    A Critical Study on Personal Complaints of the Laws on Sex Crimes

    Jeon, Bo-Gyung | 2012, (56) | pp.227~256 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Crime Punishment rights are solely possessed by the nation. Therefore the nation not only has the rights to call for crime punishment but also has the rights and responsibility for criminal prosecution. The nation makes direct use of its criminal prosecution authority regardless of victim's intention. This is dubbed national prosecution principal. In the criminal law, an offense subject to complaint is adopted and thus exempted from the principle. The purpose of such complaint is to protect minor injuries and honors of victims. The complaint, which is mostly applied to sexual assault exists to protect the privacy and honors of victims. Even though most of the sexual assault are labeled for such complaints, for the past 30 years or so, sexual assault has exponentially grown rather than decreasing in our society. Such situation poses the question of is it the honors of criminals rather than the victims whose honors are being protected? Sexual assault constitute not minor but serious crimes, does not constitute minor violation of national interests and cannot be handled by individuals themselves. In the overseas, for serious crimes inclusive of sexual assault, such complaints have been abolished. Therefore, I believe that such complaints should be abolished for sexual assault which are serious crimes. The criminal law states that all sexual assault excluding injuries rapes leading to death and murders. Unlike the provisions of the criminal law, the law on children and adolescents does not the aforementioned cases are not subject to the complaints as is in the criminal law. Also, in the special law for sexual assault punishment, sexual assault are handled more severely and not subject to the complaints than in the criminal law. However, such is not subject to such complaints in the criminal law therefore creates additional penalty under the name of special law. Therefore rather than adding additional penalties with special laws as a form of a remedy, it would be more effective to revise the criminal law. The complaints which was initially intended to protect the honors of sexual assault victims, is creating more drawbacks. It is the stark reality that because of the existence of these complaints victims are the ones who are blackmailed to not press charges or forced to make settlements for little lump of money. Also, the complaints are paving the road for the criminals not to be punished for their actions and commit yet another crime boldly. Therefore, in the case of sexual assault, complaints must be punished. Protecting the sexual assault victims is something that must be handled by improving prosecution process and victim support system rather than by the complaints.
  • 11.

    A critical Study on condition of Actio Pauliana

    Han,Sam-In | Kim, Sang-Hun | 2012, (56) | pp.257~288 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Actio Pauliana is a right of creditors to repeal debtors’ act and to replace a joint mortgage with debtors’ properties when they try to reduce their own property with a purpose of undermining a joint mortgage. Actio Pauliana is a effective means to secure joint property for creditors, but on the other hand, can harm third parties in good faith when they can not bring forth evidence for their good will. Therefore a serious review on whether the interpretation of prerequisite of Actio Pauliana is constraining the right of debtors and third parties related is required in the context of balance between creditors’ interest and transaction safety. In this thesis, theories and recent cases related with Actio Pauliana are discussed and critical opinions are also presented. When debtors’ bad will is proved, and third parties’ bad will is presumed accordingly, verification of third parties’ good will is not easy in litigation. Therefore third parties’ bad will should only be presumed when they had explicit willingness to harm creditors. Property depature act is becoming more intelligent as our industries are getting sophisticated and transactions associated also varied. To solve cases as mentioned above, scrutinization into case by case is needed to prevent third parties’ unexpected loss. Therefore whether prerequisite for Actio Pauliana is satisfied should be based on the dualistic theory and third parties’ bad will should be examined in a different point of view.
  • 12.

    Konkrete Kriterien der Kausalität

    Hee-Ho Pak | 2012, (56) | pp.289~324 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    Kausalität ist nichts weiter als die Verbindung zwischen einem Fehlverhalten und einem ersatzfähigen Schaden. Diese Verbindung zwischen Fehlverhalten und Schaden ist allerdings nicht faktisch oder naturwissenschaftlich zu entscheiden, Bei der Prüfung der Kausalität handelt es sich vielmeht um die Ermittlung der Grenze, bis zu der dem Setzer einer Bedingung eine Haftung für ihre Folgen biligerweise zugemutet werden kann. Hier geht es um einem geschlossener normativer Bewertungsvorgang. Auf die Frage, von welcher Art diese Verbindung sein muss, gibt es dagegen keine ein für allemal passende Antwort. Eingebunden in einen wertenden Gesamtvorgang, einen Entscheidungsprozess, in dem alle drei Grundpfeiler der Haftung, nämlich Pflichtverletzung, Schaden und Kausalität, fpr die jeweils anderen beiden von Bedeutung bleiben, weil sie auf ihre Substanz abfärben, vollzieht sich die Kausalitätsprüfung auch ihrerseits im Rahmen eines Abwägungsprozesses, in dem je nach den Umständen des Falles verschidene Zurechungskriterien zusammenlaufen dund aufeinander abgestimmt werden. Wahrscheinlichkeit ist von erheblicher Bedeutung bei der Prüfung eines Kausalitätszusammenhanges. Dabei geht es um die Wiederholbarkeit: Wenn sich A ereignet, dann folgt nach dem dem Richter zur Verfügung stehenden Erfahrungswissen das Ereignis B nach. Das oberste Gericht von Korea sieht sie als das wichtigste Kriterium. Das zweite Zurechnugnskriterium der Kausalität ist die Vorhersehbarekeit. Es geht um die Vorhersehbarkeit der auf die Pflichtverletzung folgenden wirklichen Ereigneisse und des sich aus ihnen realiter entwickelnden Schadens, nicht um den Vergleich mit einem bloss in der Phantasie des Urteilenden existierenden Ereignisverlauf. Bei Urteil der Art des Fehlverhaltens ist zu entscheiden, wie gefährlich das Fehlverhalten des Beklagten eigentlich für den Schaden ist. Dabei geht es darum, ob der Täter ein gefährliche Dinge benutzt hat, ob nicht allein sondern gemeinsam mit anderen den Schaden zugefügt hat, oder ob der Schadn auf grobes Verschulden beruht usw. Soweit es um die Art des Schadens geht, gilt die Regel, dass Körper- und Gesundheitsschäden unter erleicherten Voraussetzungen zugerechnet werden als Sachbeschädigungen, und diese wiederum eher als reine Vermögensschäden. Letztlich bei der Prüfung des Schutzzwecks sind ganz ungewöhnliche oder unerwartete Verläufe aus dem Haftungszusammenhang, der untrennbar mit dem Inhalt der konkreten Sorgfaltspflicht (allgemeiner, der der Haftungsfolge zugrunde liegende Verhaltensnorm= verbunden ist.
  • 13.

    A Legal Study on the Validity of Optional Arbitration Agreement

    Kim, Soon-Lee | 2012, (56) | pp.325~354 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Arbitration is a conflict solving system in which a disputing party obeys the arbitral award given by the mediator chosen by himself/herself according to the agreement between the disputing parties, rather than asking the court to intervene a present or future judicial conflict. Nationally, it has the same effect as that of an irrevocable judgment by the court, and internationally, it has the effect to facilitate the consent and enforcement by a foreign arbitral award. In addition, as an alternative solution of conflict including arbitration is also managed by the rules and codes of procedure which the government has acknowledge as a part of judicial power and its effectiveness is being recognized, arbitration should be considered to be a process that still firmly belongs to the legal system even though it is an alternative to the judicial procedure. Accordingly, the arbitration system as an alternative process to solve a conflict also has its meaning in that it can extend an individual party’s approach to the system. Arbitration agreement is the precondition for a disputing party to use the arbitration system. However, recently, so-called “optional arbitration agreement” has appeared which regulates the content of arbitration agreement to be chosen from one among “trial,” “mediation” or “arbitration.” The problem is whether this optional arbitration agreement has the qualification as a general arbitration agreement or not, i.e., whether it can exclude the judgement through a judicial procedure and impose binding force on arbitration or not among the methods to solve a conflict. In the present time, the domestic laws of each country has altered to acknowledge the autonomy of arbitration from the court, and recently, the court itself has changed its position into active support for the solutions of conflicts external to a lawsuit in order to prevent the unnecessary or excessive increase of lawsuits. As the relation between the court and the arbitration law has switched like this, optional arbitration agreement is now in the situation whose validity can be acknowledged. The role of arbitration in international trading deals is becoming more crucial in these days, so if optional arbitration agreement is not accepted as arbitration agreement, less party will have arbitration agreement because of the burden of general arbitration agreement and the court will have to take even trivial conflicts again. Therefore, it is appropriate that optional arbitration agreement is admitted as valid first, and the suit procedure should begin only when a disputing party actively wants a lawsuit.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Right of Control of the Goods in Shipper and Consignee under the Rotterdam Rules

    Ji, Sang-Gyu | 2012, (56) | pp.355~388 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Rotterdam Rules aims to create a contemporary and uniform law providing form modern door-to-door container transport including an international sea leg. However, the content of this rule are difficult to understand and also complicated. Some of the scholars are criticized that this rule are very long and the structure of this rule are very different from other international rules such as Hague-Visby Rules and Hamburg Rules so on. Therefore, this rule may cause may legal dispute, and then it is necessary to present the guidelines to the chapter 10(the right of control of the goods under this rule. The right of control of the goods means the right under the contract of carriage to give the carrier instructions in respect of the goods and this kind of right is given to the shipper and the consignee under the contract of carriage, but the standard of interpretation are different each parties on the contract of carriage. In the circumstance of which, this paper only try to show an guidelines for interpretation of the chapter 10 of this rule.
  • 15.

    A Review on the Effectiveness of the Law of Neutrality in Modern International Law

    Kim Sung Won | 2012, (56) | pp.389~414 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    International law has been developed to solve various matters that international society has. Paralleled with emergence of new problems, such as degradation of global environment, spread of deadly infectious diseases, and devastating impact of natural disasters, there is a growing need to create new areas of international law. As a result, international environmental law, international law on public health and international disaster response law are now increasing their voices in areas of international law. To the contrary, once understood as backbone of international law, some areas of international law seem to be on the fast track to extinction. Among them, the law of neutrality would be the first nominee for this extinction. Prior to creation of the United Nations, States can freely go to war. In this context, the status of neutrality has a special meaning for States not participated in belligerency. Once taking neutral status, neutral States can maintain their economic interests through international trade and keep themselves away from adverse influences of war. The 1907 Hague Convention V (Neutrality on Land War) and the 1907 Hague Convention XIII (Neutrality on Naval War) reflect consolidated efforts of the international society to achieve main goals of the law of neutrality. With the emergence of the UN system, views on neutrality are dramatically changed because war or the use of force is prohibited comprehensively except the case of self-defense. In addition, international society can declare one state as an aggressor and the other state as a victim of aggression through decisions of United Nations Security Council. This development created by the UN Charter undoubtedly dismantles basic rules of neutrality such as duty of impartiality and duty of non-participation. In this sense, some scholars argue that the law of neutrality is obsolete, a product of the international anarchy of the times, doomed to be replaced by a new centralized international community. In the collective security system created by the UN Charter and its prohibition of the use of force, the traditional rules of neutrality do not find scope of application. However, can we definitely declare the death of the law of neutrality without hesitation? Does the UN Charter always prevail over the law of neutrality? What role of the law of neutrality does play in assessing the legitimacy of unilateral humanitarian intervention with use of force? Is there any possibility to use the law of neutrality to address issues concerning War on Terror? These questions successively resurrect the necessity to appraise raison d'êre of the law of neutrality. Although the law of neutrality in existence today has a decidedly auxiliary role to play, the rumors of extinction have been exaggerated.
  • 16.

    한국과 일본의 통상임금 법리

    Song, Kang Jik | 2012, (56) | pp.415~450 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    검토대상 대법원 판결은 직접적으로 정기상여금의 통상임금 해당성에 대하여 판단을 하지 않으면서 하나의 방향을 제시한 것이어서 그 한계를 지니고 있다고 하겠다. 그러나 검토대상 판결은 6개월을 초과하여 계속 근무한 근로자에게 근속연수의 증가에 따라 미리 정해놓은 각 비율을 적용하여 산정한 금액을 분기별로 지급하는 것으로서, 매월 월급 형태로 지급되는 근속수당과 달리 분기별로 지급되기는 하지만 그러한 사정만으로 통상임금이 아니라고 단정할 수 없다고 하여 종래의 대법원 판결과 다른 입장을 보였다. 그리고 중도 퇴직자를 제외한 것으로 볼 수 없으며, 또한 상여금 지급대상에 관한 위 규정의 의미가 기본급 등과 마찬가지로 비록 근로자가 상여금 지급대상 기간 중에 퇴직 하더라도 퇴직 이후 기간에 대하여는 상여금을 지급할 수 없지만 재직기간에 비례하여 상여금을 지급하겠다는 것이라면, 이 사건 상여금은 그 지급 여부 및 지급액이 근로자의 실제 근무성적 등에 따라 좌우되는 것이라고 할 수 없고, 오히려 그 금액이 확정된 것이어서 정기적ㆍ일률적으로 지급되는 고정적인 임금인 통상임금에 해당한다고 볼 여지가 있다고 하였다. 이러한 점에서 위 검토대상 대법원 판결은 종래의 대법원 판례와 분명히 다른 입장을 나태 낸 것은 사실이다. 판례법리에 의하여 대부분의 통상임금에 관한 법리가 형성되었다고 할 수 있지만 여전히 행정해석과의 괴리, 대법원 전원합의체에 의한 판결이 아닌 상황에서의 대법원 판결 상호간의 상충은 근로자와 사용자와의 사적 자치에 의한 각종 수당의 형성에 상당한 파문을 던질 수 있다는 것을 부정할 수 없으며, 실제로 분쟁적인 현상이 발생하고 있다. 근로자의 보호라고 하는 측면에서 반길 수도 있겠지만 행정해석에 따른, 나아가 종래의 대법원 판례에 따라 형성되어 온 노사관계의 사적 자치의 근간이 흔들리고 있다는 점에서 법리적으로 마냥 환영할 수도 없는 것 또한 사실이다. 실제로 소규모의 기업의 경우로서 노동조합이 없는 경우 행정해석에 대하 신뢰 및 대법원 판결에 대한 신뢰에 기초하여 취업규칙에서 정립한 상여금에 대하여 일본과 같이 지급시기는 정한다고 하더라도 구체적인 지급액수는 사용자의 재량적인 판단 또는 근로자의 근부성적의 일부반여에 따라 지급하는 것으로 하면 곧장 당해 상여금제는 고정성이 없어지게 된다는 전략을 세울 수도 있다. 게다가 이러한 취업규칙의 개정은 일반적으로 불이익변경이 되겠지만, 종래 노사 모두 통상임금에서 제외되는 것으로 인식하고 있었던만큼 사회통념상 합리성이 성립될 여지 또한 배제하지 못한다. 노동조합이 있고 단체협약을 갖고 있는 사업 또는 사업장의 경우에도 통상임금의 상승을 둘러싸고 분쟁을 야기할 가능성이 충분히 예상된다. 필자의 경우 여전히 많은 문제점을 노정하고 있는 통상임금성 판단과 관련하여 우리나라의 통상임금의 불명확성을 해결하기 위한 방안으로 입법론적 접근이 현명하다고 생각한다. 몰론 일본과 똑 같은 입법적 해결방안을 제시하는 것은 아니다. 물론 일본의 현재의 규정은 통상임금의 산정의 대상이 되는 임금에서 1임금산정기간을 초과하는 임금에 대한 것도 포함하고 있어 우리나라 대법원 판결과 일치하지 않는 부분이 있으므로 이러한 규정은 우리나라의 현실에 맞게 조정되어야 할 것임은 물론이다. 입법론을 전제로 부언하여 두면, 기존의 정기적, 일률적, 고정적이라는 추상적인 문구보다는 구체적으로 수당 명을 열거하되, 해석론에 의하여 탄력적으로 대응할 수 있을 정도의 규정으로 하면 될 것으로 생각된다.
  • 17.

    Reconstruction of Registration in Trademark Protection

    Yook, Soyoung | 2012, (56) | pp.451~486 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Registration plays a different role between a first-to-use system and first-to-file one in trademark protection. Korean Trademark Law has maintained the first-to-file system since its first adoption and many countries have chosen the first-to-file system as theirs to protect a trademark. However, no country preserves strictly a first-to-file system and adds first-to-use factors to his system and vice versa. WTO-TRIPs may be a motive to harmonize a trademark protection system in such a way. WTO bases trademark protection on registration and adds use-based factors to trademark protection. Since joining TRIPs, use-based factors increase in Korean trademark protection system. One of examples is famous mark protection. Reinforcement of famous mark protection attenuates the role of registration. Moreover, prior use right provides right of use regardless of later registration and limits the effect of the registration. Consolidating use-based factors in trademark protection, the structure of trademark protection shakes from the bottom in Korea. In my opinion, the current registration-based system has lots of merits and needs to be maintained. Therefore, to maintain the current system, prior prudent consideration may be required to introduce use-based factors into Korea.
  • 18.

    동아법학 56호 부록

    법학연구소 | 2012, (56) | pp.487~519 | number of Cited : 0