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2013, Vol., No.58

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  • 2.

    Constitution and Revolution - Civic Constitutionalism -

    Seon-Teak Kim | 2013, (58) | pp.1~39 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract
    From the revolutions in the North America and France in the last quarter of eighteenth century to the revolution in the Arab and North Africa in 2011, the revolutions have been the momentums for the constitution−making. But it is the universal lesson of history that democratic revolution does not always end with democratic constitution. Not all the democratic revolutions in the Central and East Europe during the late 1980s and early 1990s led to democratic constitutions. Nowadays ‘Arab Spring’ is in turmoil in the course of constitution-building. In Korea, in spite of all their sacrifice, the ‘Nation’, the subject of the Revolution for Independence from Japan in March 1919, the ‘students’, the subject of the Revolution for Democracy in April 1960, and the ‘citizens’, the subject of the Glorious Revolution in June 1987, could not participate in the constitution-making process. That is one of the main causes of the most serious flaw of Korean Constitution: it didn't reflect the will of the Korean People well. From the perspective of constitutional institutionalization, we can still find many problematic clauses derived from the authoritarian rule in the past in the existing constitutional text. The principles of modern constitution like separation of powers and rule of law don't work well. From the perspective of constitutional politics, it is said that the korean form of governmental system, is not far away from so-called “Imperial Presidency”. Argentine scholar O’Donnell’s description under the title of “Delegative Democracy” seems appropriate to explain the power relationships in Korea. It’s not too much to say that Korean democracy is no more than ‘electoral democracy’. Since the transition to democracy in 1987, the Korean people experienced five presidents with different characteristics and the change of regime between the Government party and the Opposition party twice. Despite the recent improvement, Korean constitutional democracy came to a stalemate. There is no sign either of any imminent threat of an authoritarian regression, or of advances toward complete liberal democracy. What is to be done? The Answer is “New Constitutionalism”, named “Civic Constitutionalism” and/or “Popular Constitutionalism”. Now, the reconstruction of the meaning of popular sovereignty and the role of “We, the People” as constituent power is asked to break the deadlock. If new constitutional system could be adopted and introduced by the way of constitution-building process, in which the broad participation of the people is guaranteed, it would be the best, ideal method, but not easy and takes time. Under the existing Constitution it can be considered the combination of weak constitutionalism and strong democracy. All the state agencies including the President, the Parliament, and the Constitutional Court, must respect and reflect the will of the people in their interpretation and application of Korean Constitution. First of all, the people can recognize, evaluate, and speak out about any contemporary constitutional problems. The people must participate in the process of constitutional conversation as principal participants. It’s preliminary condition is the constitutional knowledge and sensibility of the people. Therefore civic education/constitutional education is one of the most urgent tasks to consolidate democracy in Korea and must be supported by the government and civil society.
  • 3.

    An Analysis on the Judicial Inclination of Justice Byung-Chae Han in the First Korean Constitutional Court

    Jibong Lim | 2013, (58) | pp.41~84 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    The decisions of the Constitutional Court, a Supreme Court in a country, are deeply influenced by the judicial inclinations of the Justices. For this reason, it is fairly necessary in order to analyze the judicial inclination of the Court that we analyze the judicial inclination of each Justices who compose the Court. This study aims at analyzing the judicial inclination of Justice Byung-Chae Han who worked in the first term of Korean Constitutional Court and exploring where his judicial inclination derived from. Justice Han had been a well-renowned Congressman before he was appointed as a Justice of Korean Constitutional Court by the Korean Congress. It is interesting to explore his judicial inclination when he became a Justice who had a background as a politician. To achieve this aim, this study will present four major analysis frames including ‘judicial activism v. judicial passivism’ and ‘judicial progressivism v. judicial conservatism.’ Then, it will examine the life paths of Justice Han including his educational background and political and judicial career. After that, this study will qualitatively analyze his major opinions as a Justice in the Korean Constitutional Court, and, finally, will quantitatively analyze his whole opinions during his Justiceship based on the statistics.
  • 4.

    The relationship between A political party and a local autonomy : On the scope of range and limit of party's participation to local autonomy

    Lee Hye-jung | 2013, (58) | pp.85~121 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    A political party and a local autonomy share the common ground in that they both are legitimized within a democratic framework; they are both organized and run in a democratic way. As they work within the framework, each does not run individually nor independently, but relates to each other in mutual fashion by affecting one another. However, the difference between a political party's “centralist” characteristic and a local autonomy's “regionalist” characteristic causes some practical problems to overcome with. The focal point of conflict lies in the matter of the official nomination in local elections. Political parties are needed as mediators in a local election, but in reality of Korean politics, the excessive influence of the central party has brought about serious subordination of local politics to the central one. The characteristics of Korean political parties and the reality of local self-governance considered, it is desirable to exclude official nomination of political parties from local government elections, but allow it only in metropolitan level. Also, it is necessary to cultivate “local parties” to curb current monopolistic structural control of national party to form competitive environment. The common goal of “realization of public opinions' diversity” based on popular sovereignty and pluralism cannot be realized by focusing only on either of political party and local autonomy. Therefore, the harmony between both needs to be achieved for realization of democracy. When the function and the role of each political party and local autonomy are restored, one's positive aspect would influence the other, and eventually the restoration could bring about the intensification, expansion and reinforcement of democracy as its result.
  • 5.

    The EU Fundamental Rights Agency(FRA): a New Surveillant of the Human Rights?

    CHAE Hyung Bok | 2013, (58) | pp.123~161 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The ‘EU Fundamental Rights Agency(FRA)’ was established on March 1, 2007 as one of the national human rights organizations on the basis of the ‘Paris Principles’ adopted by a resolution of the UN General Assembly. The FRA differs from the other human rights organizations. The other words, it has been established in the EU which is one of the regional communities, not in the national level. There are various types of agencies in the EU, but the FRA was for the first time established in the EU as an official agency in the field of the fundamental rigths. The principle mission of the FRA is to give the expert advice to the Institutions and the Member States of the EU. After the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, a new attempt to provide a framework for a new system of guarantees of fundamental human rights is being done in the EU. The other hand, a legal status of the human rights law and policy lies in a fairly chaotic situation in the EU. Under these circumstances, the role of the FRA for the fundamental rights guaranteed is deemed more important than ever. Then will the FRA has a new ‘watcher’ or ‘guardians’ of the fundamental rights? Or just a ‘mentor’ or ‘assistant’ in the his role? In the author's opinion, the position of the latter will be regarded as appropriate. First, the basic mission of the FRA is to give expert advise and support the Institutions and the Member States of the EU when they take measures and actions in the fundamental rights. Second, the FRA does not put the individual complaints procedures. So it does not have the competence to investigate for violations of human rights and take remedy measures. Therefore it will be necessary to have a little more time and discussion that the FRA takes a concrete role as a monitor or a guardian of fundamental rights or human rights.
  • 6.

    Legal Review on the schools attached to National Teacher Education Institutes

    Oh, Se-hee | Ha, Bong Woon | Lee Ji-Hye | 2013, (58) | pp.163~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to examine the foundations and roles of the schools attached to National Teacher Education Institutes and to suggest several directions to revise laws and regulations related to them. To do so, the study analyzes the origins, characteristics, roles and current laws and legal issues related with the schools attached to National Teacher Education Institutes. The schools attached to National Teacher Education Institutes have been developed through two ways(both public schools and university level institutes to engage knowledges and practices) and their roles and tasks should have been changed in accordance with local education autonomy system that was introduced in 1991. Therefore, it is suggested that the revision of the laws should include the devolution of supervision on the schools attached to National Teacher Education Institutes from the central government(the minister of education) to the local government(education superintendent) and the setting-up of the superintendent's office work to the clarify the function of the schools and permission of the regulations based upon allowing the superintendent's to manage the schools as well as the enactment of an ordinance on the specific cases.
  • 7.

    Legal Nature and Actual Signification of Report in Public law

    JEONG HOON | 2013, (58) | pp.185~216 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Report, registration and permission are measures that administraitve agency use to regulate actions of people. According to the impact of regulation to the people, ‘Report - registration - permission’ are listed in order of strength of the impact. Report and permission among that three measures can be distinguished to some extent in concept. And the report is divided into report with acceptance and report without acceptance, the two can be distinguished in concept. But the distinction between registration and permission or report with acceptance and registration is not easy in concept. Furthermore, in practice of administration, it is not clear what difference there would be among report, registration and permission in point of the application procedure or deliberation. Nevertheless, it is not reasonable that the Supreme Court divide report into the report with acceptance and the report without acceptance. Therefore, the report which demands substatial deliberation of administrative agency needs to be switched to permission. Finally, the registration should be regarded as a measure of not regulation but prehension of a fact.
  • 8.

    A Legal Study on the Compensation of Damages against Natural disasters

    Ku, Ji Sun | 2013, (58) | pp.217~245 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Natural disasters kill people and damage the place where people live. There days most of the natural disasters occur because of environmental pollution. And there have been many natural disasters in Korea because of an insecure environment. Besides, the rate in which these disasters are taking place is growing at an alarming rate. Framework Act on the Management of Disasters and Safety, Countermeasures against Natural Disasters Act, Act on the Prevention of and Countermeasures against Agricultural and Fishery Disasters provide that natural disaster management is one of state and local government’s most important duties. So, state and local government provide aid to people who suffered losses in natural disasters. In this situation, all parties will cooperate if they are to react natural disasters. Therefore, A permanent countermeasure against natural disasters needs to be established. Insurance is a guarantee against risk, and loss due to natural disasters is covered by the insurance. A insurance spreads risk of loss, thus reducing the risk to the insurance policy holder. Storm and flood insurance is can be promptly indemnified damages and losses caused to property by storm and floods. But, there are so many issues surrounding storm and flood insurance. Firstly, storm and flood insurance is voluntary insurance. Secondly, the budget for support insurance premium is far from enough. To solve this problem, state must make it mandatory for people to get storm and flood insurance. Furthermore, because natural disasters can cause the large-scale damages, state must perform a role of reinsurance.
  • 9.

    Das Schutzprinzip als Geltungsbereich des Strafrechts und sein Reformvorschlag

    Jun Ji-Yun | 2013, (58) | pp.247~286 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Das Schutzprinzip beruht auf einer engen sachlichen Bezogenheit des strafrechtlichen Schutzgegenstandes zu dem die Strafgewalt beanspruchenden Staat. Demgemäss erstreckt sich die nationale Strafgewalt auch auf bestimmte Auslandstaten, die inländischer Rechtsgüter verletzten oder gefährden. Eine spezielle Ausprägung des Schutzprinzips im staatsschutzrechtlichen Sinne ist das Realprinzip, dem die völkergewohnheitsrechtlich anerkannte Idee zugrunde liegt, dass es einem Staat nicht verwehrt werden darf, sich Angriffen auf seine politische und militärische Integrität mit strafrechtlichen Mitteln zu erwehren(Art. 5 KStGB). Eine Individualrechtliche Ausprägung findet das Schutzprinzip in denjenigen Vorschriften(Art. 6 KStGB) des Strafanwendungsrechts, die auf den strafrechtlichen Schutz inländischer Tatopfer oder sonstiger inländischer Individualschutzgüter abzielen. Mit diesem Aufsatz werde ich mit diesem Aufsatz den Reformvorschlag überprüfen wie im folgendem;1) KRspr.: KOGH 2011.8.25., 2011Do6507. 2) Einführung in den Geltungsbereich des koreanischen Strafrechts 3) Die rechtstheoretische Grundlage des Schutzprinzips 4) Die verschiedene Gesetzgebungsmuster über das Schutzprinzip 5)Die Auslegungen und die Probleme des Schutzprinzips im koreanischen Strafrecht, und ihren Reformvorschlag 6)Schlusswort: Bewertung über den Urteil der KOGH 2011.8.25., 2011Do6507.
  • 10.

    Kausalität und objektive Zurechung des § 17 KStGB - Eine Analyse der Rechtsprechung des koreanischen höchsten Gerichtshofs -

    HA TAE YOUNG | 2013, (58) | pp.287~372 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Diese Studie behandelt die aktuelle Position des koreanischen höchsten Gerichtshofs in Bezug auf die Adäquanztheorie. Die Frage nach der Adäquanz dient als Eingrenzungskriterium für Fragen der Kausalität und Zurechnung. Nach der Adäquanztheorie muss der Schädiger nicht für solche Ereignisse einstehen, die nach der normalen Lebensanschauung eines objektiven, informierten Dritten völlig außerhalb der Erfahrung und Erwartung liegen. Im koreanischen Strafrecht ist die Adäquanztheorie in der Lehre von der objektiven Zurechnung aufgegangen und bildet dort einen Zurechnungs- typus neben anderen, innerhalb der Fallgruppe des “atypischen Kausal- verlaufs”. Als Kausalitätstheorie wird sie im deutschen Strafrecht abgelehnt, weil sie nicht zwischen Kausalität und Erfolgszurechnung differenziert. Im schweizerischen Strafrecht wird sie hingegen weiterhin selbstständig verwendet. In dieser Arbeit habe ich die ‘Adäquanz’ in die gesetzmäßige Bedingung und die objektive Zurechung aufgeteilt, die durch die Normschutzzweck- theorie, die Risikoerhöhungstheorie, die Voraussehbarkeitstheorie und die Erreichbarkeitstheorie gegründet wurde. Mit der gesetzmäßigen Bedingung und der objektiven Zurechung habe ich die Rechtsprechung des koreani- schen höchsten Gerichtshofs analysiert. Fast alle modernen koreanischen Strafrechts-Lehrbücher erklären die Erfolgsverursachung und die objektive Zurechung im Bereich der Adäquanztheorie. Die Theorie der objektiven Zurechung stellt nur eine reine Theorie am Ende der Erklärung der Theorie der Kausalität vor. In einigen Lehrbüchern werden die Begründungen der Rechtsprechung kritisiert. Deswegen bin ich der Überzeugung, dass diese Arbeit eine wissenschaftlich sinnvolle Untersuchung ist. Im Ergebnis meiner Analyse der koreanischen Rechtsprechungen stelleich fest, dass in den Änderungen des Artikels 17 und 19 KStGB dieLehren von der gesetzmäßen Bedingung und der objektiven Zurechungberücksichtigt wurden. Als Schlussfolgerung schlage ich folgende neueRegelungen vor, welche auch als Anregung für das Gericht dienenkönnten:[표]Ich verstehe diese Änderungen als ein Ergebnis der praktischen undakademischen Erkenntnisse im Zusammenhang mit Artikel 17(Kausalität)KStGB, die während der siebzigjährigen Geschichte des modernen,koreanischen Strafrechts entwickelt worden sind. Meine Änderungsvorschläge hätten zwei Vorteile. Sie könnte dieverschiedenen Arten von Kausalitäten und die verschiedenen Arten vonDelikten (Begehungsdelikte, Unterlassungsdelikte, vorsätzliche Handlungund fahrlässige Handlung und erfolgsqualifizierte Delikte) durch eineRegelung systematisch lösen. Das ist der Zweck und Sinn dieser Arbeit. Ich hoffe, dass auch in Deutschland und Japan Interesse an meinemEntwurf einer Änderung des Artikels 17 KStGB besteht.
  • 11.

    Urteilskriterium über Versuch und Vollendung der Unterschlagung

    Hyunwook Cho | 2013, (58) | pp.373~399 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Das Tatobjekt der Unterschlagung sei Vermögen bzw. Sache. Das Vermögen enthält nicht nur bewegliche Sache sondern auch unbewegliche Sache. Die herrschende Meinung und Rechtsprechung des Koreanischem Oberstgericht schätzen schützenden Grad von Unterschlagung als Gefährdungsdelikt. Dagegen schätzt die Minderheitsmeinung als Verletzungsdelikt. Eigentlich kann man nicht vorstellen Unterschlagungsversuch der beweglichn Sache. Gegebenenfalls Unterschlagungsversuch der unbeweglichn Sache ist vorstellbar. Das 2011do9113 Urteil bejaht auch zum ersten Mal Unterschlagungsversuch der unbeweglichen Sache. In Bezug auf Wesen der Unterschlagung gibt es Meinungsstreit über Unterschlagungsversuch zwischen Manifestationstheorie und Verwirklichungstheorie. Nach Manifestationstheorie muss der Täter eine Handlung vornehmen, die seine Zueignungswillen nach aussen hin manifestiert, ihn erkennbar macht. Zweifelhaft ist aber, unter welchen Voraussetzungen eine Handlung diese Eigenschaft erfüllt. Nach Verwirklichungstheorie lässt jede beliebige Handlung genügen, die als Betätigung des Zueignungswillens verstanden werden kann. Entscheidend ist, ob ein objektiver Beobachter bei Kenntnis der Täterabsicht die Handlung als Betätigung des Willens ansieht, die Sache dem Berechtigten auf Dauer zu entziehen und sich oder einem Dritten zuzueignen. Nach Manifestationstheorie in Verbindung mit abstrakter Gefährdungsdeliktstheorie sowie Verletzungsdeliktstheorie ist Unterschlagungsversuch der unbeweglichn Sache unvorstellbar. Nach Verwirklichungstheorie in Verbindung mit konkreter Gefährdungsdeliktstheorie sowie Verletzungsdeliktstheorie ist Unterschlagungsversuch der unbeweglichn Sache vorstellbar. Meiner Meinung nach Urteilskriterium über Versuch und Vollendung der Unterschlagungsversuch der unbeweglichn Sache nach Verletzungsdeliktstheorie sowie Verwirklichungstheorie zu urteilen ist sinnvoller als andere Gefährdungsdeliktstheorie sowie Manifestationstheorie.
  • 12.

    Admissibility of Attorney's Memorandum

    Song, Si Seob | 2013, (58) | pp.401~422 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Recent supreme court's decision attracts public eye because it rejected the appellate court decision based on admitting as evidence in criminal case attorney memorandum made in the process of consulting and counselling. Some discussion about supreme court decision focus on the specific issue like attorney-client privilege, but it could not grasp the big picture of this issue. This article aims to approach broader perspective to understand this issue. In this article, first in the course of collecting evidence in criminal case, there must be filtering process considering the attorney-client privilege. Secondly, privilege should also considered to decide admissibility of attorney's memorandum as evidence. Thirdly, deep concern about hearsay evidence rule when exploring the admissibility of attorney memorandum step by step through section 313 to 314 of Korean Criminal Procedure Law (“KCPL”). Attorney-client privilege related to the attorney's memorandum should be codified in the KCPL. Furthermore, it also needs screening process attorney's memorandum as criminal evidence by hearsay exception.
  • 13.

    Einheitliche Auslegung der Rechtssprechungen über dem Zeitpunkt des Fristbeginns der Besitzersitzung von Immobilien

    BYEONG-JU JANG | 2013, (58) | pp.423~455 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Bei der Verjährung handelt es sich um einen Tatbestand, dass das Eigentum am Grundstücken durch den Ablauf einer bestimmten Frist und den Eigenbesitz erworben wird. Im Koreanischen Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch(KBGB) liegt zwei Arten vor: erlöschende Verjährung und erwerbende Verjährung oder Ersitzung. § 245 Abs. 1: Wer ein Grundstück mit dem Willen, Eigentümer zu werden und nicht durch verbotene Eigenmacht oder heimtückisch zwangzig Jahre im Besitz gehabt hat, erwirbt durch Eintragung im Grundbuch das Eigentum an der Sache. Aber Es ist nicht ausreichend, die Probleme im Bezug auf der Rechtsposition der Besitzer mit den Bestimmungen der Ersitzung(§§ 245 - 248) im KBGB zu lösen. Deshalb ist diese Rechtsprobleme durch den Theorien und Rechtssprechungen gelöst worden. Bezüglich der Rechtsposition des Besitzers im Bereich der Ersitzung begründet der Koreanischen Obersteren Gerichtshof(KOGH) 5. Rechtsprinzip. Hierbei ist der Zeitpunkt des Fristbeginns der Besitzersitzung von großer Bedeutung. Diesbezüglich hat KOGH im Prinzip beschlossen, dass die Besitzersitzungsfrist zum Zeitpunkt gerechnet wird, zu dem man den Grundstück besitzt, wenn der Eignetümer im Grundbuch im Verlauf der Ersitzungsfrist nicht geändert wird. Jedoch erkannte KOGH ausnahmsweise an, dass der Eigenbesitzer den Zeitpunkt des Fristbeginns der Besitzersitzung nach Belieben geltend machen kann, wenn der Eigentümer im Grundbuch im Verlauf der Ersitzungsfrist geändert wird, denn es gibt keinen Konflikt zwischen dem Zweck von Besitzersitzung und Eintragung.
  • 14.

    Legal status and regulation of the unincorporated association

    Song Oh SiK | 2013, (58) | pp.457~508 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The Korean civil law had denied the legal capacity(Rechtsfähigkeit) of an unincorporated association only stating that its members own the property in the form of collective ownership(KBGB §275). Korean civil code drafters did not enact regulation on the unincorporated association. But we can find out the provision on the unincorporated association in the Civil Porcedure Law(§52) and the Registration of Real Estate Act(§26). Though the provisions do not exist in Korean civil code, there have been many kind of the unincorporated associations in reality. Caused by their activities, we came to decide whether we acknowledge their legal status or not and legal effect on their activities. KBGB distinguishes the unincorporated association from the partnership in the form of the ownership and its registration clearly. Common view stay in line with the precedent on the point that provisions relating to the incorporated association applied by analogy except provisions applied merely to the incorporated association. I point out a problem which the same principle can be applied to all unincorporated associations regardless of its purpose or origin. Unincorporated associations can be classified by its purpose, origin, commerciality. They are largely classified into three categories, that is, conventional unincorporated association, purposive unincorporated association, establishing incorporated association. Conventional unincorporated association can be divided into blood relationship community and communion. purposive unincorporated association also can be divided into religious community and cooperative non-profit organization and profit organization. Classified method would be useful for understanding to their characters. Essential factors of incorporated association are autonomous norm(articles of association), definition of members, Forming of agreement organization, organizing of organ(representative organ, executive organ). The Law of Reality prescribes that if a piece of property is owned by collectively by members of an unincorporated association, it shall belong to collective ownership. It has dualised system of collective ownership which divides into management/disposal and use/profit. This system is very unique, but its system is more or less effective corresponding to a variety of unincorporated associations.
  • 15.

    Auction application by lien holders and legal theory of extinction principle

    choo sin young | 2013, (58) | pp.509~539 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Previous precedents and theory has to treat alike formal auction in the auction application by lien holders. For this reason, this auction process not to extinct lien and buyer take over the lien. Judgment of the original court ruled that the secure in auction application by lien holders was impossible. Procedure of exercise of security right and Procedure of compulsory auction has to collect debts. But this judgment ruled that the lien to extinct in the procedure of auction application by lien holders. this judgment have adopted principle of takeover. The Supreme Court announced that Civil Execution Act §91 ② ③, §268 regulated the principle of extinction, Civil Code §322 ① regulated the auction application by lien holders, buyers has precarious position by principle of takeover, lien holders may be educationally disadvantaged. I insists that the firstly, the Civil Execution Act not regulated the formal auction in the auction application by lien holders. the secondly, Civil Code §322 ① regulated the collect debt by auction application by lien holders, in other word principle of takeover in the auction application by lien holders violated the principle of legislation. third, lien is identical to that of the other real rights granted by way of security.
  • 16.

    The Liabilities for Tort on Natural Environment

    Yoon, Taeyoung | 2013, (58) | pp.541~576 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The natural environment issues in civil law are related to the matters of tort liability for damages caused by environmental pollution or neighbor relationship. However, there is little study about the rights of nature in civil law. The problem of rights of nature begins with how to recognize and honor that nature; trees, oceans, animals, and mountains has rights just as human beings. We have regarded the nature conservation as a matter of public law rather than civil law. Nowdays, however, nowadays, the several environmental organizations, which is concerning about the destroy of natural environment, are trying to claim the tort liability to people who causes damages through destroying nature. The recent salamander’s case in Korea shows one example that the right of nature is an important issue in civil law. Therefore, this article discusses the tort liability issues relating the destroy of the natural environment. This article includes four major concerns : 1) Korean Supreme Court negates a concrete entscheidungsnorm on the Korean Constitution Article 35(environmental rights) because those are not specific and direct benefits protected by law, so this article tries to materialize a legally worth conserving interest 2) This study attempts to set a standard of judging the illegality about development 3) It is hard work to calculate the damages by nature development, this article introduces some discussions in the U.S. to solve that problem 4) Nature damages are difficult to be recovered, a claim of injunction against the wrong should be accepted directly on Korean Tort law Article 750.
  • 17.

    A Study on the Theory of Treatment Opportunity Loss - focusing on the debates in Japan and implications in Korea -

    SONG YOUNGMIN | 2013, (58) | pp.577~601 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The theory of treatment opportunity loss appeared to solve the difficulties that validate the causal relationship between medical malpractice of the doctor and bad effect on the patient, thus the medical practice is basically a collaborative work that proceeds to treat a disease between a doctor and a patient. For collaborative working, there would be the premise that a doctor and a patient should do their best to fulfill the obligations, and the obligations should be based on their fiduciary relationship. The patient has the obligation to validate the causal relationship in traditional malpractice suits, however the theory of treatment opportunity loss can be considered as a new theory because it attempts to lighten the burden of proof of the causal relationship imposed on the patient, regarding ‘the opportunities to be treated’ as the benefit and protection of the law. On the other hand, the theory should be severely applied, considering it can destroy the traditional medical liability laws. Thus, they can be summarized as follows. Firstly, the treatment opportunity loss is acknowledged to be an independent benefit and protection of the law according to the theory of treatment opportunity loss. Thus, the theory of treatment opportunity loss should be understood as the benefit and protection of the law to create behavioral obligations of the doctor, considering as ‘the guarantees of the opportunities to be treated with a suitable level of medical care’, not considering as the problem of ‘damages’. Secondly, the theory of treatment opportunity loss originated from the difficulties to validate the causal relationship in the first place, so this theory would be confined to the case that it is difficult to validate the causal relationship and there is non-performance of the doctor. Thus, I suppose that it is necessary to review the malpractice due to non- performance of the doctor. Lastly, the amount of damages based on the theory of treatment opportunity loss should be confined to compensation.
  • 18.

    A Study on the Legal Systems for Protecting Marriage Immigrator - Focused on the Interpretative Problems -

    임영수 | 2013, (58) | pp.603~635 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    International marriage refers to the union of the individuals whose nationalities are different and which leads to the formation of the legal relationship of interest at multiple nations when it comes to the nationalities of the parties of a marriage, place where marriage took place or address. This type of human union is the result of the rational agreement with sense of voluntariness pertaining to the concerned parties to a marriage. Thus, a third party should not discriminate or exert any negative influence on this type of relationship. Accordingly, migrants who moved after getting married are subjected to systemic support and regulation of the tangible and intangible formats via diverse routes until they gain the approval for naturalization. Policies related to support include 「Family law」, 「Act on the Treatment of Foreigners in Korea」, 「Support for Multicultural Families Act」 and others, while policies related to regulation include 「Immigration Control Law」 among others. However, there are still paradoxes and areas for improvement that are found during the process of executing these laws. Accordingly, this paper mulled over the sincerity of the willingness to get married of the concerned parties to a marriage after organizing the concept of foreigners who migrated to Korea after getting married to Korea through marriage middleman contract and after examining the process ranging from the encounter with the Vietnamese women to the actual marriage. In addition, this paper detected problems and areas for improvement found in the related laws through the process in which foreigners settle down in Korea after getting married to Korean.
  • 19.

    Damages under CISG(UN Convention on Contracs for the International Sale of Goods) Article 74

    Gwak,Minhui | 2013, (58) | pp.637~689 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This paper discussed this CISG provision(art. 74) that govern the Contract Liability in breach of contract. This article contains some meanings. Firstly, the compensation system of the CISG adopted the rule of full compensation. Secondly, the CISG lays down that the debtor who is not guilty is only liable for damage which he in breach foresaw or which he ought to have foreseen at the time of the conclusion of the known, as a possible consequence of the breach of contract. Thirdly, This paper discusses the reliance interest as a damages in breach of contract, too. In this paper, it was treated what the meaning of the rule of “full compensation” is. And This paper treated the principle of foreseeability, too. This is one of the several provisions which define an limit the extent of the debtor’s liability. The principle of foreseeability has been an exceedingly. It forms one of the comparatively rare instances in which a major doctrine of the Civil law appears to have been taken over in the nineteenth century by the Common law. The principle of foreseeability has more recently been adopted as the leading test remoteness in the CISG. The princlple that foreseeability determines the extent of contractual liability is generally thought to have entered into the Common law through the leading English case of Hadley v. Baxendale. But foreseeability under the CISG different from that of Common law which used in formulating the English test of remoteness in someways. Whatever the historical origins of the matter may be, the CISG concept of foreseeability as the limit rule of the extent of the debtor’s liability in the breach of contract owes little or nothing to its Common law counterpart. This paper discusses the reliance interest. The CISG compensation rule or the starting principle is that the object of awarding damages for the breach of contract is to put the aggrieved party into as a good a financial positions as that in which he would have been if the contract had been duly performed. This process has been called compensating the aggrieved party for loss of his bargain or of his expectation interest. Under the system of CISG, An alternative principle, also of general application, is to put the aggrieved party into the situation in which he would have been if the contract had never been made. This may be done by compensating him for expenses of other losses incurred in reliance on the contract. Here it is common to talk of protection of the reliance interest. The relationship between claims for expectation interest and reliance interest, meanings of reliance interest is more fully discussed in the paper.
  • 20.

    A Study about improvement plan for efficient operation of current claim adjuster's system : in concerning legislative improvement of the Insurance Business Act

    Cho, Gyu Seong | 2013, (58) | pp.691~724 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    According to insurance Business Act article 185(damage adjuster), a non-life insurance company shall employ a certified damage adjuster to take charge of adjusting the amount of losses caused by an insurance accident or adjusting the amount of insurance proceeds or appoint a certified damage adjuster or a person engaged in damage evaluation business to entrust him/her with damage evaluation services. However, the law does not properly maintained in damage adjuster's practice. In this paper, I analyzed about what is problems of currently facing damage adjuster' system, to solve this problem, I reviewed for the legislative, institutional improvement plan. Above all, in order to be properly settled damage adjuster' system, I think that giving the decision's rights of insurance amount for damage adjuster is important. And I think it is important to create an environment that respect for the rights with the insurance company's payout rights and the claim's received permission of policy-holders. To the proper settlement of damage adjuster' system, I suggest that legislative improvement of the Insurance Business Act and the Enforcement decree of the Insurance Business Act is need.
  • 21.

    Reflections on the author's moral rights

    Kang Myung Soo | 2013, (58) | pp.725~759 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    In Korean Copyright Act, there are three moral rights; the right to publish(Article 11), the right of attribution(Article 12), the right to the integrity of the work(Article 13), while the author’s moral rights are exclusive rights cannot be transferred or assigned(Article 14 paragraph 1). Since regulation of moral rights in Korean copyright act are about the right to publish eventually, the right to state the authors in works and the right to modify works, there is a doubt why these rights cannot be exercised by a third party. To answer these questions, it is necessary to take a look on other countries’ copyright acts; especially the regulation of the Berne Convention. Each country which has signed to the Berne Convention must ensure the author’s moral rights based on Article 6bis 1 paragraph of the Berne Convention. However, since there is a difference between the Berne Convention and Korean Copyright Act, it is necessary to compare them. Although, in the Berne Convention, the author’s moral rights are regard as intrinsic personal profit protection, moral rights in Korean Copyright Act are more than that in the Berne Convention. In other words, moral rights in Korean Copyright Act are protected more broadly and strongly than that in the Berne Convention. However, we should note that stronger protect of the author’s moral rights are likely to diminish the interests of the author, the safety of transactions of the work and economic value of it. Based on the phenomenon of the expansion of the market on particular programs or online contents, regulations of moral rights in current Korean Copyright Act entail the criticism that regulation of moral rights cannot cope with development of technology or interests of related parties. In Japan, Japanese Copyright Act, similar to Korean Copyright Act, has caused the concern that Japan might not catch up with progress of the world due to very strong protection of moral rights. We should try not to make same mistake as Japan did.
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  • 23.

    동아법학 58호 부록

    법학연구소 | 2013, (58) | pp.789~821 | number of Cited : 0