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2013, Vol., No.60

  • 1.

    The Political Effects of Judicial Decisions : A Critical Review of Constitutional Court Decisions Concerning Political Parties

    Shin, Woo Cheol | 2013, (60) | pp.1~28 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The Constitutional Court of Korea, under the influence of the German “Parteienstaat(party state)” theory, has widely accepted the constitutional privileges of political parties, even more widely than the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. Moreover, the Constitutional Court of Korea has strongly upheld strict party discipline, even more strongly than the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. However, such “pro-party” tendencies of the Constitutional Court cannot be consistent with our presidential system, which requires weak and undisciplined parties. They don’t match with our plurality election system, either. In 2004Hun-Ma246 decision, the Constitutional Court of Korea accepted the high standard of party registration as constitutional, holding that it can promote political stability in our parliamentary democracy. In 2004Hun-Ma655 decision, the Constitutional Court also accepted the discriminative standard of public financing to parties as constitutional on similar grounds. With the two decisions, the Constitutional Court discouraged new and minor parties, as well as regional parties, and thus substantially reduced political competition. In both cases, the Constitutional Court of Korea went far beyond the Supreme Court of Canada in its Figueroa v. Canada case and the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in its party finance cases. In 97Hun-Ma262 and 99Hun-Ma135 decisions, the Constitutional Court gave high priority to the constitutional right to participate in political parties. Together with the existing strong party discipline, however, it may cause dangerous situations in our “yet young” presidential system. In conclusion, I maintain that the Constitutional Court should send new judicial signals to “soften and smoothen” the current “strong and stubborn” party politics.
  • 2.

  • 3.

    Die öffentlich-rechtliche Untersuchung der lokalen Polizei

    Joo-Young Kang | 2013, (60) | pp.29~64 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Anders als anderen Städte in Korea, wurde das lokale Polizeisystem im Jahr 2006 in Jeju eingeführt. Dies stellt ein Wendepunkt des koreanischen Polizeirechts. Dennoch ist dies als zurückhaltend angesehen, da die wichitgen polizeilichen Funktionen nicht von der lokalen Polizei, sondern von der staatlichen Polizei besetzt. Insbes. kann die lokale Polizei Jeju keine strafrechtliche Ermittelungen leisten. Und sie kann die Trunkheit am Steuer nicht kontrollieren. Der Gesetzgeber hat der lokalen Polizei Jeju lediglich beschränkten Rollen gegeben. Obwohl Jeju die speziale Selbstprovinz, die starke Autonomie besetzt, darstellt, beherrscht der Staat die Polizeiverwaltung in Jeju. Dies ist vom Finanzmangel der Provinz und Misstrauen gegen Provinz verursacht. Trotzdem muss der Gesetzgeber die wesentlichen polizeilichen Funktionen der lokalen Polizei gewähren, wenn man vollständige Idee bzw. Stärken des lokalen Polizeisystems verwirklichen möchte. Dass die lokale Polizei Jeju gut funktioniert, ist auch von Bedeutung als ein Vorbild, da in 2014 das lokale Polizeisytem in allen Städten in Korea durchführen wird.
  • 4.

    Range and Judgement of Perjury

    Byung-Gak Choi | 2013, (60) | pp.65~98 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    If a sworn witness makes a false testimony he or she commits a perjury. The party in civil suit may be sanctioned with perjury when he or she swears an oath and gives a false testimony without exemption or denial of oath. The defendant in criminal court is free from perjury because oath is not necessary to present defendant’s own statement. The co-defendant is subject to perjury if he or she is called as a witness in a separated proceeding. The convicted have a right to refuse testimony which may incriminate himself or herself or close family members in the accomplice’s case. When the presiding judge omits informing the witness of the right to refuse testimony, the witness should not be found guilty of perjury even if the testimony is false. A false testimony consists of statements which are inconsistent of objective truth and are presented against subjective memory. Perjury is accomplished when a witness examination day is over. So if a witness reverses a false statement in a single day, he or she does not commit a perjury. A same testimony which is a reliable evidence by a court might be a false statement by another court.
  • 5.

    Die Entwicklung der Drittinformationshaftung im deutschen Privatrecht bezüglich der Auslegung des neu geregelten § 311 Abs. 3 BGB

    Lee, Dong Su | 2013, (60) | pp.99~133 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Nach der Modernisierung des deutschen Schuldrechts 2002 kann ein Schutzpflichtsverhältnis auch außer den vertraglichen und deliktsrechtlichen Schuldverhältnisse begründet werden. Ein typisches Beispiel dafür befindet sich vor allem in den neu geschaffenen § 311 Abs. 3 BGB bzw. § 241 Abs. 2 BGB, die eine besondere Dritthaftung des Informationsgebers unter Umstände rechtsfertigen können. Im Rahmen der Neuregelung des modernsierten Schuldrechts wird die bisherige Entwicklungstendenz in der Rechtsprechung, die unter besonderen Voraussetzungen eine Drittinformationshaftung anerkannt hatte, als einer grundlegende Ausgangspunkt für Überlegung zur Reform des Schuldrechts unter Betracht gezogen. Als typische Fallkonstellation hierfür lassen sich beispielsweise Sachwalterhaftung, Vertragsverhändlerhaftung, Geschäftsfühershaftung für GmbH bzw. Prospekthaftug auszählen, die überwiegend mit dem Rechtsgedanke des culpa in contrahende ausgeprägt worden sind. Das Charakteristikum dieser Haftung liegt nämlich darin, dass ein Informationsgeber mit einer Inanspruchnahme des Vertrauen auf die Entscheidung einer (zukünftigen) Vertragsparei wesentlich beeinflusst, die daraus an einem Vermögensschaden leidet, für welchen ursprünglich seiner eigene Vertragsgegner eine Ersatzleistung zu erbringen hätte. Darüber hinaus ist für die Begründung der Schutzpflicht iSd § 241 Abs. 2 BGB auch vorausgesetzt, dass der Informationsgeber für sich in besonderen Maßen in Anspruch soll genommen haben. Im Hinblick auf diese strikte Voraussetzung lässt sich erkennen, dass die Drittinformation für den Entsschluss einer Vertragspartei wesentlich beeinflüssen kann. Somit ist jedenfalls ein wesentlicher Ursachezusammenhang zwischen der Inanspruchnahme des Vertrauens und Entscheidung erforderlich. Es stellt sich des weiteres die Frage, ob aus Sinn und Zweck der §§ 311 Abs. 3 und 241 Abs. 2 BGB von nun an ein allgemeine Vetrauenshaftung als ein Haftungsprinzip im BGB als anerkannt angesehen werden darf. Diese Betrachtungsweise ist zwar theoretisch denkbar, dennoch ist vorliegend schwer anzunehmen, denn die gesetzliche Vertrauenshaftung setzt eine gesetzliche Rechtsgrundlage voraus, die übrigens lediglich für die besonderen Fallkonstellationen gilt. Die Expertenhaftung ist seitdem durch den Rechtsgedanke des Vertrags mit Schutzwirkung zugunsten Dritter wesentlich geprägt, der seitens ebenso mit der Schutz- bzw. Försorgepflicht des Schuldners begründet werden kann. Insofern gibt es eine Gemeinsamkeit im Hinblick auf die Haftungsgrundlage zwischen dem Ansatz des Vertags mit Schutzwirkung zugunsten Dritter und dem der Vertrauenshaftung nach §§ 311 Abs. 3 und 241 Abs. 2 BGB. Die gesetzliche Schutzpflicht iSd 241 Abs, 2 BGB ergibt sich dennoch aus der gesetzlichen Regelung wie § 311 Abs. 3 BGB, während man bei dem Vertrag mit Schutzwikung zugunsten Dritter die Rechtsgrundlage aus der Vertragsauslegung finden kann. Somit lässt es sich kurz sagen, dass die Rechtsgrundlage der Schutzpflicht zwischen beiden Rechtsinstitutionen völlig anders zu betrachten ist. Diesbezüglich ist eine Ansicht, dass die Vertrauenshaftung nach §§ 311 Abs. 2 bzw. 241 und 280 BGB auch für Fallkonstellation des Vertrags mit Schutzwirkung zugunsten Dritter umfassend gelte, schwer zu überzeugen.
  • 6.

    The construction contractor’s lien on the building under construction and the building site - a critical review on the Supreme Court's decision -

    TAEKWAN KIM | 2013, (60) | pp.135~167 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The construction contractor who put their effort and cost of the construction was stopped. At this time the building or building under construction on the site of the construction process, separated by a lien under construction to determine the legal nature of the building, based on which the lien shall review the establishment. Part of a building under construction on the building and building sites owned established an independent is the thing. The lien shall be established for a building under construction. If you own part of the building under construction does not constitute a building under construction is a part of the building sites. Construction contractor for the building sites occupancy is positive, building sites and building construction is closely related to the positive case, the construction contractor lien on the building sites can also be positive.
  • 7.

    The Public Auction of Movables Registration Security

    Lee Sung Jin | 2013, (60) | pp.169~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The act on movables security system which is called 『Act on Security of movables and claim etc.』 was enforced in order to activate a movables security system recently. This act introduced the new collateral system which is different with the existing collateral which utilized movables. Also, scope of movables collateral transactions will be gradually extended by enforcement of this act, because of solving a problem which is given too much importance in real security. When a mortgagor of movables sets up a security right of movables, a mortgagee of movables can occupy a collateral object, but generally this act is planning the case that a mortgagor of movables occupies movables. So a mortgagor of movables unlike pledger can use a collateral. Therefore, a disadvantage of the right of pledge that a pledger can't use a security, can be overcome. This act makes it a rule to do a public auction on right of movables registration security and admits personal enforcement exceptively. The system of movables registration security was enforced for shirt period. Therefore, there is not many cases that is involved in a public auction on right of movables registration security. But many defaults is expected to happen soon. Eventually many defaults will be connected to a public auction on right of movables registration security. thus, in this research paper I research problems of a public auction on right of movables registration security that will be able to happen. I deduct solution plan and various interpretive method on several problems of a public auction on right of movables registration security from this research.
  • 8.

    中国划拨土地使用权市场化的法律探讨 Inquire into Legal on the Marketization of Allocated Land-Use Right in China

    CHO DONG JE | 2013, (60) | pp.193~222 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    토지사용권 割當(划拨: allocate)은 중국토지사용 중에서 하나의 중요한 제도이며, 중국의 국유토지사용을 분배하고 조정하는 주요한 방식이다. 토지사용권 할당제도는 중국의 계획경제 시기에 형성된 것이며, 정부가 행정할당방식으로 국가소유의 토지를 토지사용자에게 무상으로 공급하고 무기한 사용하는 토지사용권의 최초 분배제도를 말한다. 중국은 국유토지이용 측면에서 공익목적 뿐만 아니라 상업목적 모두 단일의 행정할당용지방식을 취하였다. 계획경제체제하에서의 상공업 용지, 행정사업단위 용지는 영리성, 공익성이 뚜렷이 구분되지 않았다. 따라서 토지자원의 사용분배는 계획에 따라 진행하였다. 개혁개방 이후, 중국은 토지유상제도를 확립함으로써 토지사용권 할당제도가 입법 상에서 새로운 국면을 맞이하게 되었다. 즉 토지사용권 출양제도와 토지사용권 할당제도라는 2종류의 토지사용제도가 중국에 병존하고 있다. 이에 따라 중국의 시장경제체제의 수립으로 토지의 상품성이 두드러지게 나타났다. 중국은 도시토지사용제도개혁에 따라 토지시장화의 추진에 관심을 가짐과 동시에 토지사용권은 유상사용의 추세를 이루고 있다. 이로 말미암아 일정한 촉진작용이 있었으며, 특정의 거래시장과 유통영역이 형성되었다. 그러나 오늘날 존재하는 대량의 토지사용권할당은 할당 수단의 행정성, 사용의 무기한성, 무상성과 무유동성의 특징을 지니고 있어, 중국의 사회주의 시장경제체제의 수립에 따른 경제발전에서 이론적으로나 실무상에서 그 폐단이 날로 드러나고 있다. 그 주요 이유는 토지사용권 할당의 한계(범위)가 정확하지 않으며, 토지공급에 있어서 “복선제”가 존재한다는 것이다. 특히 토지공급의 “복선제”는 시장의 불공평경쟁을 초래하게 되며, 사회주의시장경제의 건전한 발전에 불리하다는 점이다. 이에 따라 많은 심층적인 문제가 점차적으로 나타나고 있다. 이에 중국정부는 역사적으로 형성된 토지사용권 할당을 어떻게 대할 것인가, 또는 현재 규모가 방대한 경영성 토지사용권할당을 어떻게 순리적으로 시장에 진입할 수 있도록 할 것인가 등이 새로운 과제로 대두되고 있다. 아무튼, 개혁개방의 심화에 따른 이러한 현상은 토지할당의 시장화를 탄생하게 하였다. 토지사용권 할당의 시장화는 할당토지가 일종의 특수한 상품으로 토지시장에 진입하여 시장규율에 따라 자유로이 유동되고, 나아가 토지자원을 합리적으로 배치하는 것을 말한다. 현행 토지할당에 관련한 법률근거는 법률 측면의 ≪土地管理法≫, ≪城市房地产管理法≫과 ≪物权法≫ 이외에, 행정법규 측면의 ≪城镇国有土地使用权出让和转让暂行条例≫가 있다. 이 외에도 많은 관련 규정이 각 부분의 행정규장, 부분규장, 행정통지, 행정방법과 사법해석 등에 분산되어 있다. 토지사용권 할당의 시장화의 실질은 비공익목적의 토지사용권 할당이 유상출양의 토지사용권으로 전환되어진 이후에 시장에 진입되어 시장화 처분을 진행하는 것이다. 실제적으로 중국의 토지사용권 할당 시장화를 추진하고, 공평경쟁의 환경을 유지보호하고, 국유재산의 보호증식을 달성하려면, 반드시 이론제도에서부터 실무적인 측면에까지 입법, 법집행, 평가 등에서 전방위적으로 중국토지제도 개혁을 이루는 것이 절박하게 필요하다.
  • 9.

    The need to regard fairness in cartel penalty

    송태원 | 2013, (60) | pp.223~251 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Conventionally, businesses agreeing on price terms are regarded as unfairly attempting to restrict competition in the market through the creation of a cartel, and were penalized with a surcharge under the category of “very serious offense.”However, the common purpose of setting prices can affect the market in different ways depending on the degree of bargaining power held by the transaction partners, and thus whether to impose a penalty should be determined according to the degree by which competition is lessened, and even when a penalty is imposed, the motives and reasons for the agreement, as well as any applicable background information, should also be considered. Imposing penalties on such agreements with the single yardstick that they limit competition could lead to law enforcement attempting to “protect the freedom of competition”. In other words, before judging a pricing agreement as illegal, the criteria of unfairness and values other than freedom of competition should be considered as well. In addition, when penalties are imposed, not only the specific lessening of competition, but other values related to the reasons and motives behind the common action should be taken into account. In this way, more rational regulation of cartels can be assured by assessing appropriate penalties on gains that may conflict with fair competition.
  • 10.

    Duty of Utmost Good Faith under MIA

    이민정 | 2013, (60) | pp.253~276 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Marine insurance contracts are the ones based on utmost good faith. Article 17 of English Marine insurance Act establishes that marine insurance contracts are based on utmost good faith, and the other party can cancel the contract when the party comply with utmost good faith. Marine insurance impose duty to notify and duty of sue and labor on the insured on the basis of duty of utmost good faith. Both the insurer and the insured should comply with the duty of utmost good faith as the person directly concerned in the marine contract, but more sense of obligation is demanded for the insured. The reasons that more obligation of the duty of utmost good faith are required for the insured are as follows. First, important facts for charge insured in marine insurance are possessed by the insured. The insured should comply with the duty to notify because of information imbalance on important items affecting conclusion of a contract. Second, the insured under marine contract may have moral hazard in sue and labor because they may think that the cost from loss can be compensated from the insurer. Duty of sue and labor on the basis of duty of utmost good faith is imposed on the insured to prevent such moral hazard. When the insured breaches the duty of utmost good faith, the insurer may cancel the insurance contract or be relieved of liability for compensation for damage. The duty of utmost good faith should be strictly complied with because its violation significantly affects the insured.
  • 11.

    Untreue und die Lösung durch The Business Judgment Rule

    최성진 | 2013, (60) | pp.277~305 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Risikoreiche Entscheidungen sind im wirtschaftlichen Geschäftsverkehr tagtäglich. Vorstände, Geschäftsführer, oder andere Bevollmächtigte treffen diese Entscheidungen und gehen damit Risiken ein. Diese tragen sie aber nicht selbst, sondern in aller Regel das Unternehmen und deren Aktionäre, etc. Die Entscheider haben eine Vertrauensstellung inne, welche sich in dem Vermögen widerspiegelt, das ihnen für ihre Tätigkeit zur Verfügung gestellt wird und welches ihnen gestattet gewisse Risiken einzugehen. Dabei bleibt die Frage offen, wo die Grenzen zwischen dem erlaubten unternehmerischen Risiko und dem kriminellen Umgang mit Fremdvermögen zu ziehen sind. Dabei ist Maßstab der im koreanischen Strafrecht verankerte Untreuetatbestand, anhand dessen Merkmalen verschiedene Lösungsmodelle vor allem im Hinblick auf The Business Judgment Rule aus USA diskutiert werden. Die Frage ist aber sehr stark umstritten, ob The Business Judgment Rule aus USA von dem höchsten Gerichtshof in Korea angenommen ist. Meiner Meinung nach ist The Business Judgement Rule noch nicht eingeführt, weil die Kriterien für The Business Judgement Rule noch nicht von dem höchsten Gerichtshof in Korea aufgestellt sind. Falls solche “The Business Judgment Rule” in unserem Strafrechtsystem irgendwann eingeführt würde, würde es bedeuten, dass die Prozeduralisierung auch beim Strafrechtsystem eine grosse Rolle spielt.
  • 12.

    The Legal Examination for “Indirect Expropriation” provision in the Investor-State Dispute Settlement System

    KWON HAN-YONG | KIM YUN-IL | 2013, (60) | pp.307~344 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Many countries strive for a fair competition in the field of Foreign Direct Investment protection. Some controversial issues such as the Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISD) provision in the Korea-U.S. FTA may have crucial consequences in the settlement of investment disputes. Current issues in the ISD focus on indirect expropriation which is having an effect that is equivalent to direct expropriation. During 1990s ,the relevant issues remained to be highly uncertain which led to legal debates. Thus, foreign investors need to have an effective compensating instrument when the domestic rules and policies cause them suffer damages. However, it would not be easy for a foreigner to trust a national judicial system when he confronts disputes related to a domestic rule or any action taken by the government. The complex body of law governing indirect expropriations reveals a tension between the interest; on one hand, protecting the rights of foreign property owners and investors, and on the other hand, the interest of protecting the sovereign authority of states to regulate public goods, environmental protection, public health and so on. Between foreign investors and host states, there have been many disputed cases about indirect expropriation under the NAFTA’s and number of BITs dispute settlement mechanism. The definition of indirect expropriation in the provision is vague and thus, host states must be free to exercise their regulatory powers. Studying these NAFTA cases and some cases under international arbitration may provide implications on areas that are vulnerable against foreign investors’ indirect expropriation claims, criterias that are applicable in government’s breach of obligations, and improvements that could be done to prevent investment disputes. The judicial decision of Mahon and Penn Central should be considered among these three factors: the character of the governmental action or regulation, the economic impact of the regulation on the foreign property owners and investors, the extent to which the regulation has interfered with reasonable investment-backed expectations. In addition, period of duration and proportionality should be considered. Aim to balance the conflicting interests of host states and investors are applied to find government’s regulation as indirect expropriation, and thus, so far only one tribunal upheld investor’s indirect expropriation claim. In particular, it examines the development and the meaning of indirect expropriation in the context of ISD in the Korea-U.S. FTA. Indeed, an active use of indirect expropriation provision is necessary to protect the country’s own investment in other country.
  • 13.

    The Interpretation of Fair Use Provision and its Application in Copyright Law - Distinction from Derivative Works and Focus on Thumbnail Case -

    IL-Hwan, Moon | 2013, (60) | pp.345~374 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Whileas we had enumerated a specific set of limitations on copyright in the Copyright law, we adopted the general provision such as Fair Use provision in amending the Copyright law, pursuant to Korea-U.S. FTA execution in December, 2011. This provision seems to lay a foundation to coordinate the conflicting interests between copyright owners and its users in this technically and economically fast changing society. Therefore, the interpretation of this Fair Use provision is so crucial. Considering that this Fair Use provision was originated from the U.S. case law, we need to study and research the cases of the United States, and the criteria for interpreting this provision. This article concentrates on how the interpretation of this provision has been developed and the Transformative Use doctrine, presently the most prominent theory. However, this Transformative Use doctrine is facing the criticism that it does not provide the explicit distinction from Derivative works, resulting in nullifying Derivative works. This article proposes the solution for this problem. In addition, this article will review whether the thumbnail function of internet search engine may be included and therefore be protected as Fair Use, according to Transformative Use doctrine. Especially, the Korean courts have solved the problem of Thumbnail case, pursuant to Article 28 of Copyright Law, the Published Copyrighted Work. Predictably, the problem will be solved through the direct application of Fair Use provision in the amended Copyright Law. The amended Copyright Law has expanded the scope for the protection of the copyright owners, placing the users in dismay. The reasonable interpretation of this Fair Use provision only can abolish the worries of the users, and put the conflicting interests between the copyright owners and its users in harmony.
  • 14.

    Can "Identity of the Problem-solving Principles" be Equated with "Pertinence to Nonessential Part"?

    Koo Dae Hwan | 2013, (60) | pp.375~402 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    After the Korea Supreme Court (hereinafter, KSC) issued the first judgment providing five requirements for the application of the doctrine of equivalents in 2000, the KSC began to interpret the first requirement of the doctrine of equivalents rendered by the KSC, i.e. “identity of the problem-solving principle of the two inventions” to mean that “the difference does not pertain to an essential part of the patented invention” which was set forth by the Japanese Supreme Court (hereinafter, JSC) in the Ball Spline decision. The purpose of this article is to examine whether the first requirements of the doctrine of equivalents by the KSC and the JSC can be considered the same each other as the KSC interpreted. To accomplish this, this article introduces the doctrine of equivalents of Korea and that of Japan in general, and investigates the meanings of the key terms involved in the first requirements by the KSC and the JSC, e.g. “technical idea,” “problem -solving principle,” “essential part,” and “identity of problem-solving principle.” “Essential part” can be interpreted to mean “characteristic part” as well as “technical idea”(or “problem-solving principle”). As far as “essential part” can be understood as to mean concrete and physical part as well as abstract idea, it cannot be considered as the same as “problem-solving principle”. In addition, this article compares the adoption rate of the doctrine of equivalents between Korea and Japan. In Japan, the adoption rate is conspicuously lower than that of Korea and the low adoption rate mostly resulted from the first requirement of the doctrine of equivalents. The KSC applies the doctrine of equivalents even after it is confirmed that “essential part” of the patented invention is interchanged. Therefore, the equation of the first requirement of the KSC with that of the JSC is inappropriate as far as the KSC applies the doctrine of equivalents even after it is confirmed that essential part of the patented invention is interchanged. In addition, recently the KSC does not apply the doctrine of equivalents in many cases related with the doctrine of equivalents on the basis that “problem-solving principle” is not the same each other. This attitude is very similar to that of Japanese lower courts (before Manhole Cover case and Hollow Golf Club case) which denied equivalence on the basis that the characteristic part (i.e. “essential part”) of the patented invention was different from that of the accused product.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Proposals of Environmental Clauses in Korea-China FTA

    Sun Young Oh | 2013, (60) | pp.403~431 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Countries are increasingly integrating trade and environmental issues in FTAs. Korea and China need to enter into negotiations of environmental provisions in their FTA by reasons of that both countries adjoining each other have to solve common environmental problems shared and to contribute to the overarching goal of sustainable development. Therefore, this paper shows how environmental clauses have to be dealt with and how to negotiate environmental commitments in Korea-China FTA. In order to develop ideas, first of all, this paper analyzed key provisions related to environment in FTAs that are already come into force, and then, this paper gave an overview of environmental provisions in FTAs that each country made an agreement with other parties. Upon this analysis, this paper suggested possible types of environmental commitments for their common interests. It is better that environmental clauses are inserted in the related Chapters rather than independent Environment Chapter is established just like KORUS FTA has. But detailed and concrete provisions to implement such provisions in both countries need to be added in environmental side agreements such as Environment Cooperation Agreement. In addition, it must deal with environmental issues do so in the form of commitments by both countries to cooperate on environmental matters, and approaches including capacity building and clearing house need to be set because these are important in easing the tensions and in educing mutual support to improve environmental management. It should be added that environmental assessment is very significant in both areas because it has now become a critical tool for anticipating and managing the environmental impacts associated with increases in the volume of trade. Most important strategy to succeed in achieving both goals of free trade and environmental protection, Korea-China FTA recognizes discrepancy in ability to achieve such goals, both countries need to determine the scope of environmental negotiation to get benefits of environmental provisions, to strengthen enforcement of environmental laws and to raise the level of environmental standards, establishing environmental cooperation in environmental matters.
  • 16.

    The Global Undertakings' Access Rights to documents in EU Competition Enforcement Procedure

    Lee, Hosun | 2013, (60) | pp.433~466 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    From the perspectives of global undertakings, the international competition norms have real and legal binding effect on their business than any other domestic laws. It is not surprising and frequently occurred that they have been investigated and punished by the competent competition authorities abroad due to violating anti-trust law. Moreover, the mergers tried by those companies are subject to the approval of the abroad authorities as well as domestic one. Thus, in this article, the author tries to review the strategy of our global corporates for defending themselves in EU competition law enforcement procedures, in particular, focusing on the right to information. Under the EU competition law, the undertakings alleged to violate the competition law are allowed to access all the documents concerned to defend themselves. However, there are some exceptions; for example, the documents contain the trade secrets of other companies. If the disputes over whether or not to allow the right of file access occur, firstly, this matter may be referred to the Hearing Officer, and apart from this, the undertakings may complain to the Ombudsman. Although there are no explicit ground for Ombudsman’s intervening on competition matters, in practice, it has played active role in defending the procedural rights of the alleged firms. Therefore, it is recommendable that the global firms should take in mind to use Ombudsman complaining procedures as well as the EU competition ones. Finally, it should be noted that the alleged undertakings have to prepare responding to damages litigation from the third parties, e.g. consumers or their rivals, after punished for violation on EU competition law. To defend this litigation, by specifying confidential part on the documents required by the EU competition authorities, they must be careful not to disclose their trade secrets, or those documents not to be used as evidences for their civil responsibilities to plaintiffs.
  • 17.

  • 18.

    동아법학 60호 부록

    법학연구소 | 2013, (60) | pp.507~541 | number of Cited : 0