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2016, Vol., No.70

  • 1.

    The Content and Features of the Preliminary Examination System of North Korea’s Criminal Procedure Act - The construction comment of related provisions and the implications -

    HA TAE YOUNG | 2016, (70) | pp.1~73 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The criminal procedure of Republic of Korea is made up of procedure of investigation, procedure for judgment and procedure of execution. On the other hand, The criminal procedure of North Korea is consisted of four parts; investigation, preliminary examination, prosecution, and judgment. The criminal procedure Act of North Korea has the special preliminary examination system. All criminal cases in North Korea go beyond the trial after the preliminary examination. In fact, The preliminary examination performs a very important task enough to influence the outcome of the trial. The preliminary examination in the criminal procedure Act of North Korea serves to connect the investigation and prosecution. It is the most important procedure that is made up of 103 provisions from the Article 147 to the Article 259 in criminal procedure Act of North Korea. It has formidable provisions which embedded with the substantive truth discovery and a meaning of the criminal policies. It is considered that the preliminary examination conducts the first trial role. The preliminary examination must finish within 2 months from date of the commencement. The preliminary examination institution will determine the preliminary examination within 48 hours after receiving the case from law enforcement agencies, and will determine inquiring into criminal responsibility. The parties are notified of those determination and selected lawyer within 48 hours. And the decision in writing of inquiring into criminal responsibility is sent to prosecutor. Interrogation is to give the parties an excuse opportunities for crimes. Interrogation is carried out within 48 hours, and finishes between 8:00am and 8:00pm. It prohibits threat, induction, and forced interrogation, and will be an individual and separate interrogation. The parties state the case and then the preliminary examination institution interrogates them. The preliminary examination institution recorded all the witness statements, puts even two witness, and can take advantage of an interpreter. Finally, The preliminary examination institution writes the interrogation record, shows the parties it, gives an opportunity to the parties to modify or supplement the content, and gets thumbprint from the parties. After terminating the preliminary examination, the preliminary examination institution notify the parties of it and give them the right to read a recording. At this time, the lawyer is also possible to read a recording. This record is sent to the prosecutor. This is the preliminary examination process of North. The author examined the preliminary examination in North Korea’s criminal procedure Act; duties, conditions, procedures, format, conclusion. And the author also examined provisions about the preliminary examination institution in North Korea’s criminal procedure Act. In conclusion, the author compared the preliminary examination system with the Criminal Procedure Act of the Republic of Korea, pointed out a few other points and found implications. It is suggested that it needs to organize legal terminology until the unification. It is necessary to analyze the similarities and differences about investigation procedures between North Korea and the Republic of Korea and to establish a standard of judgment for recognition and denial of the evidence gathered in the investigation procedure of North Korea. In addition, it has to select the victims(pending investigation into the parties, pending trial the parties, final and conclusive judgment parties). And then it has to review the measures to remedy victims who is suffered from illegal investigations in North Korea's criminal procedure. It’s time to study the batch processing, selecting processing methods, and measures to be handled by separating criminal groups(serious criminal offense, misdemeanor, a political crime). If the core of the investigation is realization of justice and human rights protection, it is thought to be an important criterion in the integrated process. I​t is as in the following; Constitution of the Republic of Korea Article 10 (human dignity and fundamental human rights guarantee), Article 12 (the body's freedom, due process, evidence of the ability of confession), Article 13 (penalties nonretroactivity, the principle of not reopening a settled case, retroactive legislation limits, prohibit guilt by association system), Article 27 (rights to a trial, the accused presumption of innocence), Article 28 (criminal compensation), Article 30 (criminal injury structures). It needs an integrated approach beyond the implicit approach.
  • 2.

    Die Untersuchung im nordkoreanischen Strafprozessrecht

    Jun Ji-Yun | 2016, (70) | pp.75~111 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Die Nordkoreanische Strafprozessordnung wurde 3. März 1950 war in Kraft gesetzt mit dem Titel “in Bezug auf Übernahme der Strafprozessordnung im Demokratischen Volksrepublik Korea”. Die Bestimmungen über die Untersuchung wurden im Kapitel 8 vorgeschriebene “Untersuchung” der Strafprozessordnung in Kraft gesetzt. In der Zeit des Erlasses der Strafprozessordnung waren die Bestimmungen der Untersuchung insgesamt 14 Artikeln im Kapitel 3. Mit diesem Aufsatz werde ich die Regelungen der Untersuchung in der Nordkoreanischen Strafprozessordnung überprüfen wie im folgendem; 1) Einführung in die Untersuchung der Nordkorenischen Strafprozessordnung 2) Subjekt, Zuständigkeit und Aufgabe der Untersuchung 3) Anfang der Untersuchung 4) Methode der Untersuchung 5) Zwangsmassnahme mit oder ohne Verhaftungsbrief in der Untersuchungsebene 6) Kontrolle der Untersuchung durch den Staatsanwalt 7) Die außer Zuständigkeit stehende Untersuchung 8) Beendigung der Untersuchung 9) Schlusswort
  • 3.

    The Contents and Features on Evidence Law in North Korean Criminal Procedure Law

    Suh, Bo Hack | 2016, (70) | pp.113~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Given a formal appearance of North Korean Criminal procedure law, especially evidence law, It looks close to that of a constitutional state's counterpart. for instance, rule of scientific investigation and trial by evidence (article 29-1, article 31), collection of evidence by legal procedures (article 29-2), confession exclusion rule (article 37-1), confession supplement rule (article 37-2) and rule of free evaluation of evidence (article 36). In formal aspects, there are also many rules not much lacking in the form of law, compared to the South Korean criminal procedure law. for example, rule about collection and seizure of evidence. registration of evidence, drawing up of a protocol, keeping the evidence, review and assessment of evidence, participation during seizure and search, transfer and handing of evidence. Furthermore, article 33 shows a distinct feature of North Korean Criminal procedure law which can't be found in South Korean counterparts. It says that collection of evidence should be firmly based on the force and wisdom of awaken people. However, scrutinizing the actual contents in more detail, we can find out that North Korean evidence law includes some limitations which are difficult for us to accept from the viewpoint of principle of a law abiding country's criminal procedure law. Here are the typical examples. First, in order to determine whether the suspect is guilty or not, North korean evidence law still focuses on ‘class point of view’ or ‘the best way to a revolution’. as the most important appraisal guidelines, although its face represents trial by scientific evidence. Second, the evaluation of statement’s credibility is mainly based on political environment, class position, level of consciousness and loyalty to a party of person making a statement. Third, in the event that statement about denials of the charges proves false, the suspect should prove himself to be not guilty (article 37-3). This article is not adequate enough to be admitted to the legal system of a law-governed country because it makes the country become immune from the responsibility of proof and actually forces a suspect to make a confession. Fourth, the fundamental principles of a constitutional state’s criminal procedure law - the presumption of innocence, in dubio pro reo, the exclusive rule of hearsay - are excluded in North Korean evidence law, because such principles are considered as the deception and hypocrisy that capitalistic and bourgeois criminal procedure law has. Finally, it has another problem that a high value is put on the policy of the party and the working class, not the principles of free evaluation of evidence, during the evidence evaluation. In conclusion, it is difficult for us to believe that in North Korea, the investigation and trial for finding of substantial truth and procedural justice are running to protect human rights and the defence rights, because the evidence part of the North Korean criminal procedure law is still in the beginning stage.
  • 4.

    Search and Seizure in North Korean Criminal Procedure

    Jae-Bong Kim | 2016, (70) | pp.155~188 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    South and North Korea should achieve a reunification in the near future, that is the aspirations of Korean people. For this purpose, we should prepare for it in many fields, such as politics, economy, culture etc.. Above all, research for the laws of North Korea should not be underplayed. As a way of it, this paper tries to research the provisions and theories of search and seizure in the North Korean criminal procedure. In the first place, this paper takes a view of relation of preliminary procedure and search or seizure in North Korean criminal procedure. Secondly, the requirements of search and seizure are examined. And then, procedure of search and seizure are investigated. Additionally, factors in search and seizure are researched, that are to be observed. Moreover, provisions and theories of search and seizure in North Korean criminal procedure are reviewed from a historical perpective. And a comparative study on search and seizure is made, that compares provisions and theories of North Korea and South Korea and other socialist states, e.g., USSR(the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), China(the People's Republic of China). Although it seems that a sufficient study on the North Korean criminal procedure is essential for preparation of reunification, there are not currently enough material for research on it, therefore it can not be said, this paper has achieved a complete research result. A Research baded on sufficient informations and latest materials should be continued.
  • 5.

    Arrest and Detention under the Criminal Procedure Act of North Korea

    Lee, Baek-Gyu | 2016, (70) | pp.189~221 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Chapter 4, Section 4 of the Criminal Procedure Act of North Korea prescribes about arrest and detention. Arrest and detention are compulsory disposition against human body. Such compulsory disposition is executed at a prosecutor’s sole discretion. In other words, arrest and detention can be executed only by a prosecutor’s approval and the court warrant system is not adopted. Accordingly, systems for reviewing the legality of detention, requesting bail, etc. are not in place. In principle, arrest and detention shall be executed by ye-sim-won at the investigation (ye-sim) stage (Article 175). Ye-sim-won shall make a decision on whether to question the criminal responsibility of a criminal prior to the execution of arrest/detention (Article 177). In principle, arrest and detention may be executed if a criminal who is acknowledged to have committed a crime subject to a limited-term correctional labor (yu-gi-ro-dong-gyo-hwa-hyeong) or heavier punishment is likely to either avoid ye-sim/trial or obstruct investigation into a criminal case (Article 178). An arrest warrant shall be issued by a prosecutor so as to arrest a criminal (Article 180). In case of emergency, an investigative agency (su-sa-won) may also arrest a criminal subject to investigation without obtaining a prosecutor’s approval (Article 142). This is the case with flagrant offenders, etc. In case of such emergency arrest, an investigative agency shall prepare a written decision on imprisonment within 48 hours, obtain approval therefor from a prosecutor, conduct investigation within 10 days and refer the case to the court of preliminary trial (Article 143). Detention is classified into penal detention, house detention and area detention and ye-sim-won shall prepare a written decision on detention and obtain approval therefor from a prosecutor (Articles 183 through 185). The detention period is (i) 10 days at the investigation stage, (ii) up to 5 months at the ye-sim stage, (iii) up to 15 days at the prosecution stage, (iv) 25 days at the first trial stage and (v) 25 days at the second trial stage (Articles 143, 186, 187, 262, 281 and 365). As such, detention for a long period of time is granted at the investigation stage in North Korea, which differs from the detention system of South Korea.
  • 6.

    Serious aspects of the North Korean Criminal Procedure Act against International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Tae Hun Kim | 2016, (70) | pp.223~248 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This article deals with the main points of North Korean Criminal Procedure Act, legal force of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in North Korea, and violation parts in North Korean Criminal Procedure Act in terms of such International Covenant. The North Korea government entered into International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and officially admitted that such covenant has same effect as a domestic law. However, North Korea Criminal Procedure Act refused to accept the warrant-issuing by an independent judge, to have independence of trial, and to guarantee the principle that the accused is presumed to be innocent until proved to be guilty as well as to ensure the right to be silent, so the Act obviously violated the Covenant. The Unified Germany used Eastern Germany’s violation of the Covenant as legal ground for admitting illegality in the case of Berlin wall gun-shot killing during the transitional justice period. Such violations can play a critical role in the course of punishment of North Korea government’s illegal wrongdoing and the nullification of judgment of North Korea court. On top of that, it can be the legal standard for “Crimes against Humanity.”
  • 7.

    Study on the Charter Party under the Chinese Maritime Law

    Cheong Yeong Seok | Hai-Yan Cheng | 2016, (70) | pp.249~280 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    As of the end of the year 2013, Korea was ranked number one in the import of China and China was the biggest trade partner of Korea, which directly shows the economic development between the two countries. Most of the import or export goods are carried by sea transportation. In this sense charter parties are widely used as an important contract type for carriage of goods by sea. Therefore maritime law can be said to be a very important source of law in international transaction. Considering the volume of the trade and the shipping power of both countries, the Korean Commercial Code or the Chinese Maritime Code should be the governing law with respect to the trade between Korea and China, though English law is still chosen as the governing law in many contracts. Nevertheless we need to enhance our understanding on the charter party law of China in preparation for the future when the Korean Commercial Code or the Chinese Maritime Code are more often chosen as the governing law of contracts. While English law, which can be said to be the origin of the charter party law, has a case law system and does not have a written code for the charter party law, China has a written code, i.e. the Chinese Maritime Code, which regulates charter party contracts. Thus, the Chinese Maritime Code can be said to have features for written codes and written contracts and it has the maritime procedure and courts under the Maritime Litigation Special Code. As a manifest feature of the Chinese Maritime law, disputes under the charter parties belong to the maritime litigation. A charter party law is a dispositive law, which is a natural feature of it. All the maritime laws of the world are interpreted in that way. A bare boat charter party is one of the typical leasing (or demise charter) contracts and the Chinese Maritime Code has relatively specific regulations for the rights and obligations of the ship owners and the rights and obligations of the charterers. It has adopted the contents of Barecon 89 in general and thus does not have its own features. For time charter parties, the Chinese Maritime Code has adopted the contents of Baltime and, for voyage charter parties, it has adopted Gencon. It does not have its own features for both time charterparty and voyage charterparty, too. Nevertheless, though the Chinese law makers tried to adopt English law widely, they were already influenced by the Japanese academia and they regulated time charter party and bareboat charter party under the concept of the vessel leasing contract and regulated voyage charter party under the concept of contract of carriage of goods.
  • 8.

    Public Works and the Legal Characteristic of Free Use in Korea

    Kye, Seung-Kyoon | 2016, (70) | pp.281~306 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The purpose of this article is to review the legal characteristic of free use of public works in Korea. It can be called as public works in general in Korea which are produced on business and already made to be public by the State or a local government, or a work of which the author's property right is owned in its entirety by the State or a local government under a contract. Public works are specially characteristic of so-called free use which means that they may be used without permission. In Korea, the State and local government are obliged to establish and enforce policies to promote the use of public works, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, in order to promote the use of works which are produced and made to be public by a public institution or of which the author's property right is owned in its entirety under a contract by a public institution pursuant to Article 4 of the Act on the Management of Public Institutions. Even though the purpose of this new system is useful for Korean people, I think that free use system of Korean Copyright Act is conflicted with the clauses of managements of State-owned property under the State Property Act or of public property under the Public Property and Commodity Management Act in the viewpoint of Korean legal system.
  • 9.

    The Study of the prohibition on employee's transfer to a competitor

    Kang Myung Soo | 2016, (70) | pp.307~341 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Prohibition of competitive transaction or prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies prohibit managers or workers cannot work for competing companies in same or similar business field or for same or similar task after termination of contract of service. That has been a subject of studies in UNFAIR COMPETITION PREVENTION AND TRADE SECRET PROTECTION ACT and LABOR STANDARDS ACT. However, there is no clear division between prohibition of taking job on competing companies and prohibition of dealing with same or similar tasks, and those two terms are commonly used. Two terms should be clearly divided since those terms restrict workers in consideration of freedom of occupation. Based on that, requirement and tolerance range of prohibition of competitive transaction or taking jobs on competing companies should be studied. Requirement or tolerance range of prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies compared to those of prohibition of competitive transaction should be strictly limited. Since previous studies were not able to give a detailed analysis for those requirement or tolerance range, it is necessary to study properly to give a detailed analysis for those requirement or tolerance range to apply prima facie standard given by precedents. In addition, prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies is accepted under certain conditions even though there is no contract of prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies to protect trade secret of business. therefore, there is no difference whether there is contract of prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies or not. In other words, prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies is accepted to protect trade secret of business whether there is contract of prohibition or not. However, there should be differentiated between there is contract of prohibition and there is no contract of it since that decides whether obligation duty can apply to workers or not. Thus, there should be studies and researches to define specific differences in prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies based on whether there is contract of prohibition or not. In addition, about prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies, it is necessary to demand strict proof of existence of prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies, to investigate effectiveness of prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies, and to find standard on exclusion of application. It is also necessary to consider effectiveness of breaching the prohibition between prohibition of competitive transaction and taking jobs on competing companies and to affirm the contract which is the amount of compensation for breaching the prohibition. Based on this, we should establish general system of prohibition of taking jobs on competing companies.
  • 10.

    Gutgläubiger Erwerb bei Pfandrecht bestelleten beweglichen Sachen und Schutz von Pfandrecht an beweglichen Sachen - nach dem Gesetz über Sicherheitsleistung von beweglichen Sachen, Forderungen, usw. -

    BYEONG-JU JANG | 2016, (70) | pp.343~378 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Das Gesetz über Sicherheitsleistung von beweglichen Sachen, Forderungen, usw.(kurz: Gesetz über Sicherheitsleistung von beweglichen Sachen), nach dem die mittleren und kleinen Unternehmungen mit beweglichen Sachen finanzieren können, wurde am 11. Juni. 2012 in Kraft treten. Dennoch ist das Pfandrechtsan beweglichen Sachen nach diesem Gesetz infolge der rechtlichen Unsicherheit von Kreditanstalt nicht rechtgemäß auswertet. Anders als die Erwartung des Entwerfers bestehen die Gutgläubiger Erwerb bei Pfandrecht bestelleten beweglichen Sachen und das Risiko von Extinktion des Pfandrecht an beweglichen Sachen in diesem Gesetz. Für die Auswetung des Pfandrecht an beweglichen Sachen ist es von großer Bedeutung, die trechtlichen Unsicherheit zu beseitigen. Das Gesetz über Sicherheitsleistung von beweglichen Sachen wurde nicht mit der Gewöhnlichkeit des Rechtsverkehrs, sondern mit dem Erfordernis Gesetz gegeben. Daher ist es wichtig die Sicherheit des Rechtsverkehrs und Schutz von Geldgebern. Für die Sicherheit des Rechtsverkehrs wird Gutgläubiger Erwerb bei Pfandrecht bestelleten beweglichen Sachen daher durch Unformenauslegung des Begriffs von Gutgläubiger Erwerb anerkannt. Für die Beseitigung der rechtlichen Unsicherheit sind die gute Wille und Infallibilität unter die Tatbestand streng auszulegen, dadurch wird die Wirksamkeit des Pfandrechts an beweglichen Sachen verstärkt. Außerdem wird im Text i)Ausdehnung des Anwendungsbereichs von Subrogatond ii)Objektfestsetzung der gesammelte beweglichen Sache, iii)Darlegungs- und Auskunftspflicht von Pfandschuldner, iv)Vollstreckung von Pfandrecht diskutiert. Zum Abschluss wird ein Vorschlag zur Einführung vom verschärfter Schadenersatz gemacht
  • 11.

    Regulierung der globalen Höchstbetragshypothek

    Kim Seongeun | 2016, (70) | pp.379~407 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Die Höchstbetragshypothek im koreanischen Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch (KBGB) wird nur einziger Paragraph geschafft, deshalb hat sie Beschränkungen, verschiedene juristische Relationen zu behandeln. Aus diesem Grunde werden in der Praxis die Erfahrungen und Anwendungsbeispiele in Japan sehr viel angenommen. Für die Disjunktion zwischen dem Paragraph über die Höchstbetragshypothek im KBGB und der Praxis gibt es z.B. die globale Höchstbetragshypothek. Die Problematik dafür ist die Wirksamkeit der globalen Höchstbetragshypothek und die Beschränkung auf die gesicherte Forderung der Höchstbetragshypothek. Infolge des Missverständnisses der deutschen Pandektisten über römisches Recht, entstand das Akzessorietätsprinzip der Hypothek. Darum ist es als absolutes Dogma nicht anzunehmen. Die globale Höchstbetragshypothek im KBGB besteht durch den Höchstbetragshypotheksvertrag, der die Bestellung der Höchstbetragshypothek für die Sicherung der bestimmten Forderung bezweckt. Wenn die globale Höchstbetragshypothek bestellt wird, kann akzeptiert werden, dass die Akzessorietät der Höchstbetragshypothek mit der gesicherten Forderung entsteht. Und die globale Höchstbetragshypothek kann mit dem koreanischen allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungengesetz reguliert werden, also dass Wirksamkeit des Höchstbetragshypotheksvertrags sowie Umfang der gesicherten Forderung beschränkt werden. Auf dem Entwurf im KBGB 2004 wurde der Umfang der gesicherten Forderung beschränkt, damit die globale Höchstbetragshypothek verneint werden wollte. Aber wurde dieser Entwurf infolge des Ablaufs der Legislaturperiode aufgehoben. Auf dem Vorentwurf im KBGB 2013 ist die globale Höchstbetragshypothek weiter zuzustimmen. Dagegen wird mit der Führung des Instituts für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht die globale Höchstbetragshypothek in der Praxis reguliert. Auch während der deutsche Gesetzgeber die durch die Rechtsprechung und die Lehre anerkannte Sicherungsgrundschuld im BGB kodifizierte, wurde dieses Prinzip für den Zweck des Schulnerschutzes revidiert. Die Disjunktion zwischen dem Paragraph der Höchstbetragshypothek im KBGB und der Finanzpraxis wird immer vergrößert. Daher ist die Veränderung im KBGB zum Verbot der globalen Höchstbetragshypothek nötig.
  • 12.

    A Study on Institutionalization of Neutrals for ADR Establishment

    Park, Chul-Gyoo | 2016, (70) | pp.409~438 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    In order to establish a successful ADR system, it is important to operate neutrals with good quality as ADR professionals. This paper reviewed foreign institutional practices concerning qualifications of neutrals as ADR professionals and examined the current situation of the neutrals system and its new establishment methods in Korea. In order to set up the neutrals system of Korea, it is necessary to introduce the system of qualifications for neutrals and to achieve the professionalization of neutrals for competent people’s participation from all walks of life by realizing the benefits or treatment of neutrals. Also we need to create an ADR research fund to support the excellent researchers and research projects for the expansion and substantiality of education and training for neutrals, and the development of ADR-related courses and various programs for educational institutions like law schools, etc. should be promoted. Additionally, we need to expand the base of training institutions for neutrals in order to give many people the opportunity to become ADR professionals, and ultimately the legislative supplement that supports the ADR, including the ADR Basic Law that covers the concept of neutrals, qualifications of neutrals, the selection process of neutrals and the neutrals Association, etc. should be made as soon as possible.
  • 13.

    Die Forschung über die öffentliche Behelfe der Verbraucherverbandsklage im Arzt durch das Gewinnabschöpfungsanspruch

    Lee, Myoung Min | 2016, (70) | pp.439~469 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Mein Ziel ist es das Ideal im Zivilprozessrecht, “Treu und Glauben”, Allgemeine Theorie für die koreanische Verbrauchyerverbandsklage im Arzt im KVGG zu erforschen(öffentliche–rechtliche oder privatrechtliche Wertung). Die koreanische Verbraucherverbandsklage im Arzt ist aus der deutschen Verbandsklage hervorgegangen. Wir sollen die deutsche Verbandsklage überprüfen. Dei Gesetzideologie des “Verbandsgedankens”. ist auf Otto von Gierkezurückzuführen. Im Gesetz zur Bekämpfung des unlauteren Wettbewerbs aus dem Jahre 1896 und im Gesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb(UWG) von 1909 wurde dei Klageberechtigung dem Verband zu erkannt und im Gesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb(UWG) aus dem Jahre 1965 und im Gesetz zur Regelgung des Rechts der Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingunen (AGBG) wurde die Verbraucherverbandsklage anerkannt. Im Falle des Verbrauchergruppenstreits kann der Versuch unternommen werden, den illegalen Gewinns die Staatskasse zurückfallen zu lassen(Gewinnabschöpfungsanspruch : UWG §10). Die Verbraucherverbandsklage in Korea hat im Vergleich zu Deutschland ein realistisches Problem, da es in Korea keine klare gesetzliche Regelung über den Schadenersatz gibt. Da die Gesetzgebung ähnlich wie Deutschland gestaltet worden ist, sollten die Eingliederungsmöglichkeit im allgemeinen Zivilprozess überprüfen werden, um das kurze und ökonomische Prozessverfahren in Zivilprozess zu bemühen.
  • 14.