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pISSN : 1225-3405 / eISSN : 2713-5470

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2016, Vol., No.71

  • 1.

    Changes in the Land Policy and Land-related Legislative System Incidental to China’s Reform and Opening up, and Their Implications for the Unified Korea

    Bae, Sung Ho | 2016, (71) | pp.1~28 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study proposes to specifically review the land policy and land-related legislative system before and after China’s reform and opening up, grasp its system of land ownership along with its features, understand the land policy and land-related legislative system of North Korea, and, furthermore, derive implications for the land policy and land-related legislative system for the unified Korea in the days to come. Thee are a variety of discussions and views with respect to the integration of the land-related legislative systems regarding the land ownership and so forth after the unification of the two Koreas. In view of the historical process, realities and so forth due to difference of political systems of the two Koreas, considerable obstacles and difficulties lie ahead until a consensus on the integration of the land ownership systems has been reached. As a prerequisite to the unified system now under consideration, experiences from the special economic zones and special economic belt now under way in North Korea is expected to serve as a basis for the drafting of the land ownership-related legislative system for the unified Korea. At a time when the introduction of the right to use land in urban areas in the 1980s and its subsequent expansion into rural areas in China in order to solve problems related with the land is now starting to affect North Korea, it seems necessary to develop the current situation into a system congruous with the North Korean situation. In doing this, numerous elements including both positive and negative aspects of such developments could be taken into account that include the fact that the introduction of a dual system of right through the separation of land ownership and land use in the early days particularly in China that assumes joint land ownership as a basic premise made it possible to steer clear of conflicts with socialistic ideals and to lower costs incurred in the process of t he systems transition, that privatization of the use of national lands was being accelerated through such measures as automatic extension of the right of using land sites for urban housing projects and so forth after the period of the government transfer of the right to use lands has expired, thereby causing such problems normally observed under the private land ownership system as land price bubbles, speculations and housing price hikes to take place all too often recenlty in the Chinese real estate market. While, in the case of farming villages in China, such system as the farmer’s right to cultivate lands is implemented proved to be somewhat successful, migration of farming population to urban areas and so forth as a result of urbanizing trends may cause farming villages to be hollowed, which in turn will cause reduction of farming village productivity, ultimately leading to reduction of farmer’s incomes. This will cause income gaps between urban areas and farming villages to further widen, thereby causing inequality of the Chinese society. The foregoing elements could also be taken into account in understanding the Chinese society.
  • 2.

    The type of other associatioThe n than a juristic person revealed in legal cases and the theory of legislation to regulate it

    Lee Hye Jin | 2016, (71) | pp.29~56 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In order to be a juristic person, an entity must get a legitimate administrative permit and register in proper form. But there are entities that don’t get a proper permission of the competent agency to avoid an administrative regulation or to achieve their intended goal. They are called ‘other associations than a juristic person’. For example, Jongjung(the families of the same clan), churches, temples and apartments tenant representative meeting belong to them. In this paper, various types of other associations than a juristic person revealed in legal cases are listed and discussed from the point of substantive and procedural matters. In conclusion, other association than a juristic person does not deserve a juristic person in a capacity for being party and litigation capacity. So as a theory of legislation, it needs that a more easy way to establish a juristic person should be prepared and a stronger measure should be made to regulate other association than a juristic person.
  • 3.

    Die Untersuchung über die besondere Bestimmungen für Computerprogramme im Urhebergesetz

    Choi, Sang Pil | 2016, (71) | pp.57~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Ein Computerprogramm ist “eine Folge von Anweisungen sowie Befehlen, die zur unmittelbaren oder mittelbaren Benutzung in einem Computer bestimmt sind, um ein bestimmtes Ergebnis zu erzielen”. Nach der Definition der WIPO handelt es sich um “eine Folge von Befehlen, die nach Aufnahme in einen maschinen lesbaren Trägerfähig sind, zu bewirken, dass eine Maschine mit informationsverarbeitenden Fähigkeiten eine bestimmte Funktion oder Aufgabe oder ein bestimmtes Ergebnis anzeigt, ausführt oder erzielt (§1 Abs.1 WIPO). Der Begriff umfasst dabei nicht nur das Objektprogramm, sondern auch das Quellenprogramm. Zur Förderung der Softwareindustrie schützt Korea die Computersoftware durch das Urheberrechtsgesetz, jedoch bleibt die gesetzlich unerlaubte Nutzung, insbesondere die Vervielfältigungshandlung, von Computerprogrammen heute noch ein großes Problem. In dieser Arbeit werden zunächst Entwicklungen des Urheberrechtsschutzes von Computerprogrammen in Korea und danach Erörterungen des Computerprogrammschutzes nach dem koreanischen Recht in Theorie und Rechtsprechung behandelt.
  • 4.

    Study on the Range of Evaluation and Remedial Measures about the Combination of Undertakings by Business Transfer

    Hong Myung Su | 2016, (71) | pp.85~114 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    on the basis of competition restraints in Monopoly Regulations and Fair Trade Act(hereafter MRFTA). 5 types of combination of undertakings are suggested on article 7 clause 1 in MRFTA, and a business transfer belongs to the types of combination of undertakings. The arguments about the combination of undertakings have been progressed from the perspective of the combination itself, that is the formation of single control, but the features and contents of the concrete types of combination of undertakings have been excluded from the combination arguments. In the case of business transfer, the transferer will be ultimately removed from the merged entity. Consequently the transferer will not be included in the range of the evaluations of the competition restraints of the combination of undertakings from the perspective of merger specific, and not be the object of the remedial measures by the Korean Fair Trade Commission(hereafter KFTC), specially in the imposition of behavioral remedy. In the case of the combination between Microsoft and Nokia, KFTC has excluded a transferer, Nokia from the evaluations and remedial measures, and this approach will correspond to juridical legitimacy and competition policy.
  • 5.

    Débat international sur la gestion des catastrophes et capacité de réponse aux catastrophes en Corée

    KWON HAN-YONG | 2016, (71) | pp.115~146 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    qu’elles soient d’origine naturelle ou humaine. En effet, de nombreuses catastrophes imprévisibles provoquent des dommages et des souffrances sur notre territoire et à l’étranger. Cependant, le système de réponse aux catastrophes au niveau de la société internationale n’est ni assuré comme il faudrait, ni même discuté. À la suite de grandes tragédies incontrôlables ? avec la capacité de réponse aux catastrophes d’un pays, telles que le séisme du Népal, l’ouragan Katrina, la catastrophe nucléaire de Fukushima, etc., ce sujet fait l’objet d’une préoccupation majeure la société internationale. Il est grand temps d’élaborer des définitions et une terminologie normalisées pour les activités de lute contre les catastrophes et d’améliorer le système de gestion de crise. Dans ce contexte, un droit international d’intervention lors de catastrophes doit être mis en place. Pour le moment, les opérations internationales de réponse aux catastrophes se cantonnent aux activités internationales de secours en cas de catastrophe, au niveau des organisations locale, nationale et internationale et privée. Dans ces circonstances, le système de réponse aux catastrophes en Corée n’est pas encore établi ; la capacité effective de réponse aux catastrophes présente des lacunes. Récemment, le naufrage meurtrier du ferry Sewol démontre la nécessité d’une réforme du système de réponse aux catastrophes. En nous basant sur les débats locaux, nationaux et internationaux à propos d’ interventions effectuées lors de catastrophes, nous pouvons trouver des pistes à suivre pour l’amélioration de certains systèmes coréens de réponse aux catastrophes : l’organisation destinée aux interventions en cas de catastrophes, le système du soutien mutuel, les mesures de prévention et de suivi, la coopération des ministères et de leurs organisations apparentées, la formation de spécialistes, l’accumulation de bases de données pour la création de plans d’intervention en cas de catastrophes et l’établissement d’un système de communication destinée aux catastrophes, la coopération internationale à travers l’organisation internationale et le soutien actif de secours internationaux, la formation dans le cadre de la prévention des catastrophes et des exercices de simulation de catastrophe en permanence..
  • 6.

    A Review on the ‘Military Necessity’ under International Law - With Special Reference to Related Clauses in International Humanitarian Law Treaties -

    LEE JIN-KYU | KWON HAN-YONG | 2016, (71) | pp.147~171 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    An balance between military necessity and humanitarianism underlies the establishment of military necessity as a material norm within the international legal system. A variety of conditions are required for balancing between both. As an exception, military necessity exempts certain measures from application of specific rules of international humanitarian law prescribing contrary action to the extent that the measures are required for the attainment of a military purpose. But, that does not mean that all of arbitrary measures based on military necessity are available. When such an exempt is not required any longer, it is ceased and returns to the principal rule of international humanitarian law. Considering that the aspect of armed conflict is becoming very diverse in contemporary international society, it is required that the standard on military necessity be re-established in detail. First of all, measures taken by military necessity within legitimate standard and boundary should be distinguished from mere wanton acts. Secondly, military necessity should be invoked for only defensive and passive purpose, as an “exception” of international humanitarian law. Finally, the legitimacy of the measure based on military necessity should be estimated with the standard at that time of taking the measure.
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