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2019, Vol., No.83

  • 1.

    A study on the type and conformity of granting losing political parties power to govern - focus on the rule of government in opposition in the modern constitutional democracy-

    CHO JAEHYUN | 2019, (83) | pp.1~31 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The idea about government of granting losing political parties the right not just to dissent from and obstruct the efforts of the winning political party, but also to exercise the power to govern as well, is an approach as a means of dividing power among political groups, what this Article calls “government in opposition”. Government in opposition rules a represent a distinctive approach to structuring the separation of powers in democratic system. Government in opposition rules exists for the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. In the legislative branch, losing political coalitions are sometimes given the power to chair standing or temporary committee, are given special powers on a committee even if they do not chair the committee. In several countries, losing political coalitions chair important legislative committee. In Korea, the forms of legislative government in opposition exist. Losing political coalitions also exercise winners’ power in the executive branch. Government in opposition rules also exists for the judical branch. Judical government in opposition rules extend not only to the appointment of individual to the courts but also to the operation of the courts. Government in opposition rules have normative benefits because they result in a more attractive role for losing political coalitions. It is an essential part of democracy that minorities should be adequately represented and losing political coalitions are represented in democratic institutions. Government in opposition rules would also create a more equitable distribution of political power, ensuring that political minorities, so even if government in opposition rules would be a welcome in our constitutional system, there are still some major issues of institutional design that need to be resolved. How mandatory are these rules and what is the exact amount of these rules present and so on. In conclusion, it is desirable that government in opposition rule should be implemented by an informal norm or a normal political process rather than statutory regulation or constitutional provision. And the power that would be available to losing coalition should be negotiated between losing political parties and winning political party in political process.
  • 2.

    Reconsideration on the Litigation for Execution of Ministerial Duty

    Kim Hak Soo | 2019, (83) | pp.33~78 | number of Cited : 1
    Today, under the Circumstances that must be noverted to the Welfare state, actions of the past negative administration are expanded into a benefit administration or a positive administration, Therefore, the administrative measures on an unfair or illeagal act of public power violate individual rights and interests. Comparing with this, an infringement of rights and interests caused by delict about omission has held an important role. And its remedy has been acknowledged as a reasonable claim of new legal-governing Principle in meaning. Faced with historical requirement, omission lawsuit institution became an important topic for discussion. If someone asks for administrative action to an agency and the agency refuses the request without reasonable response, there is no direct method to let the agency excuse their duty for him by lawsuit in current Administrative their rights because agency did not execute their duty. Recently Supreme Court has introduced amendments to reform Administrative Litigation Act to the National Assembly. The amendments have incuded an article which is a litigation form that people can request to the agency to execute thir duty by lawsuit. In this amendment there are some disputes about the expansion of the object of a lawsuit, the expansion of the standing of administrative litigation, interperetation the principle of official authority detection. The extent of an object of a lawsuit needs to be expanded. The precedents of administrative litigation have shown that the object of a administrative lawsuit has been interpreted narrowly. In my opinion, it is not proper interpretation to save people's rights and interests easily. The standing of administrative litigation has to be expanded like the object of administrativelitigation. These days administration operations have been diversified, expanded. So, there are some third party who are damaged their rights indirectly by agency but they are not authorized as a party in a suit. Those people have increased nowdays. To protect people's rights and interests the standing of adminitstraive also needs to be expanded. The principle of official authority detection should be selected. In administrative litigation lawsuit, agency have a lot of information for suit, and power, so the other party is weaker than agency reatively. Then, the principle of pleading is not adoptable especially in the litigation for execution ministerial duty. Therefore, the court needs to search evidence for the suit by his own official authorty.
  • 3.

    Whether to constitute a crime of need under Japanese criminal law applied to Yoo Gwan-soon

    Taesoo Kim | 2019, (83) | pp.79~102 | number of Cited : 0
    March 1, 1919 is the Independence Movement. The representative figure of this March 1 Independence Movement is Yu Gwan-sun. On April 1, 1919, when many victims were killed in the process of suppressing the independence movement by force, the Japanese military was sent to the police box with the crowd to protest against the suppression of the armed forces and to treat the victims. Yoo Gwan-soon complained to the Japanese military police, "Why use military force to kill my people when I did what was right to get the Empire back?" and the crowd made a fuss. In response to such actions, the Gongju District Court sentenced Yoo to five years in prison and the Gyeongseong Restoration Court declared him a violation of the law. However, in order to establish the crime of rioting recognized by the Gyeongseong Central District Court, multiple groups must be assembled and assaulted and threatened. Multiple acts of assault and intimidation do not constitute a crime. In order for the crime to be committed, it must be violence and intimidation to the point of harming the tranquility of a province. This goes beyond personal legal interests and punishes them for the dangers of public tranquility and safety. Thus, if not to the extent of harming the tranquility of a province, this is nothing more than an individual assault or threat. Looking at the facts recognized by the Gyeongseong Restoration Court, the assault or intimidation committed by martyrs Yoo Kwan-soon and others at the police station was aimed at protesting against the treatment and suppression of force by the Japanese military police during the independence movement. For such acts to constitute a crime of rioting, they must undermine the tranquility of a province. However, Yoo Gwan-soon and others caused a disturbance at the police station, which did not cause any harm to an unspecified number of lives, bodies or property, and did not intend to do so in the future. Nevertheless, it is necessary to punish Yoo Gwan-soon strongly and to prevent such an independence movement in the future, as he spearheaded the independence movement, including the production of the Korean national flag.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Improvement of Anti-terrorism Law for the Protection of the People's Safety and Human Rights

    Baek Su Woong | 2019, (83) | pp.103~130 | number of Cited : 4
    The Republic of Korea is an area of the National Assembly of Terrorism. There are also few religious conflicts. Police are strictly managing gun guns, artillery guns, and gunpowder, which are the means to use terrorism. To date, there has never been a direct attack from international terrorist groups such as ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, ISIS). It is not wrong to say that the outside world is a country that has heard of terrorism. However, it is questionable whether the country will be able to maintain the status of a terrorist This is not only because of external conditions, but also because domestic conditions are changing. In order to proactively respond to changes in security and security situations in Korea in 2016, it passed the Terrorism Prevention Act for the Protection of the People and Public Security (the “Terrorism Prevention Act”). Although there were political objections, it was meant to prevent serious crimes such as terrorism. However, a sober evaluation of the anti-terrorism bill, which has been 33 years since its enforcement, is needed. After the anti-terrorism bill, it should be considered whether it effectively supports anti-terrorism activities. We need to examine how the problems raised at the time of the enactment of the anti-terrorism bill have been improved. If necessary, the government should discuss resuming the anti-terrorism bill based on public consensus. Therefore, in this paper, after the Anti-Terrorism Act, we will evaluate the achievements of domestic anti-Terrorism policy, and then study the ways to improve the Anti-Terrorism Act for the Protection of Human Rights.
  • 5.

    Civil Corruption Crime

    최성진 | 2019, (83) | pp.131~156 | number of Cited : 2
    A corruption case of a senior civil servant with a large social impact is a structural crime rather than a personal crime. This corruption case is much larger than the other common crimes of infringement on the fundamental value and order of society. Criminal bribery of public officials may result in contrary to the legal feelings and common sense of the general public due to the reduced interpretation of job relevance and the difficulty of proving the value. The comprehensive bribery theory, which has emerged as a reflective consideration, has also been limited in practice and has not contributed significantly to problem solving. Therefore, it is necessary to apply the comprehensive bribery theory to the bribery crimes of not only high-ranking officials but also the judges and prosecutors. The extent of job relevance in Article 8 Clause 2 of the Improper Solicitation and Graft Act should be considered to have expanded compared to bribery in criminal law because it is necessary to provide money within the scope of facilitate performance of duties or for social relationships as well as to cover the scope of the value.
  • 6.

    A study on the warranty liability for defects in collective housing - On the main issue of the period of warranty liability for defects -

    Shin, Mi Youn | 2019, (83) | pp.157~186 | number of Cited : 2
    Clvil act, Act on ownership and management of Condominium buildings(hereinafter ‘AOMCB’), Housing Act, Multi-family housing management acts, Framework act on the construction industry, Act on contracts to which the state is a party, regulate warranty liability for defects of Condominium buildings. If the Object is the condominium buildings and multi-family housing, regulated by AOMCB, Housing Act, Multi-family housing management acts simultaneously. Multi-family housing management act is in force August. 12. 2016. But there is question whether AOMCB, Housing Act, Multi-family housing management acts will apply to responsible for the defect the object is the condominium buildings and multi-family housing such as apartment. This study suggests relations between AOMCB and Multi-family housing management acts, legal nature of the period of warranty liability for defects on Multi-family housing management acts by comparing meaning of defect, related statute.
  • 7.

    Haftung des Aufsichtspflichtigen bei unerlaubter Handlung von schuldunfähiger Volljährigkeit

    Yi, Jaekyeong | 2019, (83) | pp.187~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Die folgende gesetzliche Pflicht – Schutzpflicht im Seelische Gesundheit und Fürsorge Gesetz, Unterhaltspflicht des BGB und Gesundheitssorge des Betreuer aus BGB begründen die Aufsichtspflicht für Psychiatire-Patienten und fungieren zum Schutz von solchen Patienten, nicht für die Dritten gegen die unerlaubte Handlungen. Zudem ist die Gefahr der Fremdschädigung nicht durch die Erziehung vorzubeugen. Deshalb für die Psychiatrie ist die umfassende allgemeine Aufsichtspflicht wie bei Minderjährige nicht zu bejahen. Als Alternative sind die ärztliche Behandlung und die Unterbringung im Krankenhaus zu betrachten. Sie dürfen jedoch von Rechts wegen nicht gezwungen werden, d.h. die Aufsicht durch Behandlung und Unterbringung ist unzulässig. Keine Annahme von gesetzlichen Aufsichtspflicht zum vollhährigen Schuldunfähige führt zu keinen Aufsichtspflichtigen. Der Schaden wegen widerrechtlicher Handlung von Schuldunfähigen kann völlig nicht ersetzt werden. Es ist auch nicht überzeugend, dass die Aufsichtpflicht aus einer gewissen Beziehung von Schuldunfähigen zu bejahen ist und damit die Schadensersatzpflicht einzuräumen ist. Eine Ansicht, durch Versicherung zu lösen, ist im Schrifttum vertreten, aber es ist m.E. vorzugwürdiger, im Bereich des BGB zu lösen, beispielweise Schuldfähigkeitsprinzipen des BGB nachzudenken oder Billigkeitshaftung im BGB einzuführen. Dieser Beitrag liefert einen Ansatzpunkt für diesen Problematik.
  • 8.

    The Study on Corporate litigation - Preliminary Injunctions regarding Corporate Law -

    Eunkyoung Yun | 2019, (83) | pp.217~242 | number of Cited : 2
    Through a preliminary injunction regarding corporate law, the moving party might obtain the control over a corporation. Injunctive reliefs including preliminary injunction are much more useful and prevalent in resolving corporate disputes such as shareholders disputes, disputes over corporate management and issuance of new shares of a company than a trial on the merits. In certain circumstances, preliminary injunctions regarding corporate law are powerful way for minority shareholders to direct or stop the activities of a corporation. Courts have broad discretion to grant or deny the motion for a preliminary injunction. If a preliminary injunction regarding corporate law issued by the court, parties take appeals as a waste of time. However, a preliminary injunction is issued on the grounds of procedures that are less formal and complete than those in a trial on the merits. The possibility of the reverse conclusion in a trial on the merits is at the heart of concerns. To address this concern, the Korean Civil Execution Act(the “KCEA”) should be amended to restrict the broad discretion of courts under the KCEA in the injunction relief procedure. In conclusion, it seems to be appropriate that (i) the judicial procedures of motion for preliminary injunction should not be held without pleading proceedings; and (ii) the appeal court should have the exclusive jurisdiction of appeals of the preliminary injunction order from the district court.
  • 9.

    Die Forschung über das selbständige Beweisverfahren in Deutschland

    Lee, Myoung Min | 2019, (83) | pp.243~268 | number of Cited : 2
    Der koreanische Zivilprozessrecht hat überhaupt das Prarllele Verfahren und tatsächliche Vorschriftensverfahren. Unter diesem System haben die schwierige Situation. Wir können nicht so genuge Diskussion über den Sachverhältniss und die rechtliche Meinung zwischen miteinander Parteien und zwischen Partei und Gericht im Gericht haben. Weil man die geringe Austauchmeinung zwischen die Partei und die Richter im erstens Instanz hat, die Parteien ab der Verkündiung des Urteils im erstens Instanz zum Berufung legt ein und deswegen die Geschäftsbelastung der Richer wird weiter hoch sein. So wir sollen die Notwendigkeit das System für die Geschäftsbelastung der Richter zu vermindern und die erstens Urteil im Gericht über die Parteien zu vertrauen haben. Dafür wir brauchen die Einführung über das intensive Verfahren, ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) und das Beweisbeginn und die den führere Streitpunkt sind und das heißt, dass das das Verfahren des Beweisbeginn vor der Klage zu erheben sind. Das Verfahren des Beweisbeginn vor der Klage zu erheben ist das notwendige Insturment für die Erhöhung des rechtliche Dienst über den Volks. Das Verfahren des Beweisbeginn vor der Klage gibt es “pretrial discovery” in U.S.A. und das selbständige Beweisverfahren in Deutschland. Die Beweissicherung ist das Beweisuntersuchungsverfarhen für die Zukunft vor den Prozessbeginn oder außerdem Prozess. Ds Beweisuntersuchungsverfahren kann nur in den Augenscheinsbeweis, Zugenbeweis und Schchverständigenbeweis erlauben. Und das Verfahren nur erlaubt, wenn es der Gegner zustimmt, das Beweismittel verlort und seine Benutzung des Beweis erschwert. Während oder außerhalb eines Streitverfahrens kann nämlich auf Antrag einer Partei die Einnahme des Augenscheins, die Vernehmung von Zeugen oder die Begutachtung durch eine Sachverständigen angeordnet werden, wenn der Gegner zustimmt oder zu besorgen ist, dass das Beweismittel verloren geht oder sein Benutzung erschwert wird(ZPO §485 I). In Deutschland in 1991 unter ZPO § 485 hat das selbständige Beweisverfharen eingeführt. Und der Antragsteller/in den untersucht den Beweisgegenstand ohne die Notwendigkeit der Beweissicherung vor der Erhebung der Klage für den Prozess zu meiden. Das selbständige Beweisverfahren im deutschen Zivilprozessrecht (ZPO) ist nicht den Beweis zugrunde geht, sondern das System über die Sache bei der Beweisunterschung festgesetzt.
  • 10.

    A Comparative Analysis of US and EU Data Privacy Laws

    PARK, SEONUK | 2019, (83) | pp.269~310 | number of Cited : 2
    Disputes highlighting the tension between American and EU laws regarding privacy and Personal Information Protection are on the rise. This is largely due to rapid changes in technology over recent decades that allow businesses and governments to aggregate and store massive quantities of data that can reveal personal information. In the commercial context, businesses use big data and metadata, to increase market efficiency and lower barriers to trade. In the national security context, governments rely on metadata to conduct criminal investigations and combat grave threats to society, such as those posed by terrorism and transnational crimes. At the same time, the proliferation of data collection jeopardizes important privacy rights. On April 2014, in Digital Rights Ireland, the European Court of Justice(ECJ) struck down the Data Retention Directive, an EU legislative act that allowed telecommunications service providers to retain metadata from every EU citizen's emails, text messages, and telephone calls for up to two years, finding that it failed to meet the proportionality requirement under EU law. Similarly, on October 2015, in Maximillian Schrems v. Data Protection Commissioner, the ECJ struck down safe harbor agreements between the US and EU, finding that the US Government's ability to require third-party ISPs to turn over metadata of EU citizens to the US Government without “adequate protection” violated rights protected by the EU Data Protection Directive. These decisions were the result of European courts balancing domestic privacy rights against global security concerns and market interests. As a similar balancing test, in Microsoft Corp. v. United States, the US Second Circuit decided that it is unlawful for a US magistrate judge to issue a warrant, pursuant to the Stored Communications Act(SCA), a domestic statute, to attain data exclusively stored abroad, and that it constitutes an unlawful extraterritorial application of the statute. The priorities of EU member nations stand in stark contrast to those of the US. The EU takes a much stronger stance on privacy and data protection and restricts how companies transfer data to non-EU nations. In the EU's Data Protection Directive(“Directive”), the right to privacy is described as a “fundamental right and freedom.” This sentiment is echoed in other landmark EU documents such as the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Despite the very different treatment of the right to privacy in the US and EU, individuals live in an era of lightning-quick information transfers and an interconnected global economy in which the sharing of private data across borders is essential. Therefore, the standards for personal information protection establish legal remedies for infringement of rights for data subject and contribute to the development of law on personal information protection by emphasizing procedural justice, while dealing with the collection, processing, and exchange of information and developing practical legal principles such as object limitation.
  • 11.

    Interpreting the Amendment of Medical Method Inventions: focus on New Matter Prohibition, Definiteness Requirement and Written Description Requirement

    Kim, Suk-Joon | 2019, (83) | pp.311~344 | number of Cited : 0
    Medical methods for humans are not patentable in our patent practice. Therefore, if a patent application is filed against a wide range of animals including humans, it will be subject to a decision of rejection. By amending the patent application, the claim scope can be passively limited to 'animals except humans' so that the patent can be obtained. The process of obtaining such a patent is obviously accepted in the patent practice. This paper review whether the negative limitation amendment is legitimate within new matter prohibition and furthermore whether the negative limitation element is legitimate within definiteness requirement and written description requirement. Amendments to reduce the subjects of surgical methods and etc. is legitimate and claim to reduce the subjects of surgical methods and etc. is not indefinite and satisfies written description requirement legally. However, as the various examples and regulations of the countries mentioned above disprove, these amendments are still subject to dispute as interpreted. It is proposed to interpret it as amendments to clarify matters that are not clear in place of the negative limitation amendments. The concept between animal and human needs to be distinguished, and claims have the legal function, so the aspect of the legal concept must take precedence. This can be helpful in resolving the conflicts in relation to the negative limitation amendment and furthermore, I think that this interpretation more closely matches the ambiguous concept of animal.