Donna Haraway’s “situated knowledges” was presented in the context of feminist critique of science in the 80s. Haraway, not only recognizes the inevitably partial and situational knowledges, but defends it against the fantastic belief system of modern science that brings forth transcendental universality and absolute objectivity as basis for scientific knowledge. Partiality and situationality are not grounds to deny the possibility of valid scientific knowledge, but rather a foundation to understand the complicated and turbid networks of concrete and empirical fact.
This article will first introduce the background of the debate about ‘objectivity’ on feminist critique of science, where the concept of Haraway’s “situated knowledges” first appeared, and explain why the concept of “situated knowledges” become “a work of changing metaphor,” and further “the work of changing the entire narrative of scientific knowledge”. Recently, the concept of “situated knowledges”, which was introduced as the ‘literacy’ required by technoscience, are connected to Haraway’s bio-eco-politics that views the relationship of ecological connections among all critters. This article studies the meaning of ecological turn of such situated knowledges, and observes how Haraway’s techno-eco-feminist project views and forecasts the present and the future of technoscience in “different” manner.
Recently, there has been a debate about Real Doll in Korea. It seems that there has never been such a hot discussion in Korea regarding adult products. The above criticisms on real dolls are objections that can be applied to sex robots that will appear in the future. This paper examines those objections in relation to sex robots, and tries to assess the limit of the individual's sexual freedom that can be socially recognized. This paper first examines the reasons for favor or disagreement related to the introduction of sex robots, centering on Kathleen Richardson's view, and evaluates its justification. The most important issue implied by Richardson's criticism is the symbolism of sex robots.
It is criticized that sex robots are a symbol that promotes distorted perception of sex by sexually objectifying women, and that ignores the norm of gender-related consent norm of sex. This paper focuses on criticism of sex robots based on symbolism in particular, and considers how to circumvent such criticism.
Seitō (青鞜) represented women who questioned the ideology of the ‘good wife and wise mother’, which had been strengthened after the Meiji Restoration, as a “new woman” and led the women’s movement in Japan in the 1910s. After modernization, Japan strengthened the logic of patriarchy, divided women into wives and prostitutes, and made women with jobs such as female workers invisible. The female intellectuals of Seitō also showed limitations in internalizing this premise. However, in the abortion debate, women’s right to self-determination in sexual and reproductive sexuality within the institution was highlighted, and in the debate on the abortion, the human rights of women outside the institutional sex as the nucleus were highlighted.
Also, as in the case of Hiratsuka Raichō”s eugenics and Itō Noe’s life-centrism, scientific thinking at the time influenced the feminist movement. It cannot be overlooked that this aspect, pointed out as their limitation, was intended to expand the extension of the women’s movement by securing scientific guarantee and ideological universality in the context of the time.
How should we live in an era of crisis in the 21st century, when the extinction of species and climate change caused by human activities threaten the future of the planet? To these questions, a well-known feminist science studies scholar Donna Haraway presents the concept of the ‘Chthulucene’, which chooses to stay with troubles and imagines the future of tomorrow by shaping new kinds of relationships with various human beings, animals, and non-human beings. This paper tries to reinterpret three well-known bioart works by using an insight of ‘biophilosophy’ of the philosopher Eugene Thacker, which understands life as a process that constantly changes in a complex network, as well as the sympoietic view of life of the Chthulucene. This re-examination of bioart works will bring a richer and more practical interpretation of contemporary bioart.
This research investigates memorial museums in the context of consumer society.
Unlike the existing studies, which focus mainly on the exhibition, this research differentiates itself from the current studies by inviting society to its examination. Based on Jean Baudrillard’s critical views on image and consumer society, this study tackles memorial museums in a new light largely in three aspects. First, this study inspects why the phenomenon of “indistinguishability” can be “most diabolical.” Second, this research examines how the image in memorial museum’s exhibition replaces the past with “artificial memory” by causing visitors to become “totally indifferent” to the message the museum is trying to convey. Third, based on Baudrillard’s theory on the consumer society, this research locates memorial museums in consumer society to explore how museums are consumed happily by visitors, who enter the museum from where consumption is prevalent. Thus, this research proposes a new perspective for understanding museums by connecting the museums to consumer society, which is an aspect that has been overlooked so far in the discussion of memorial museums. For the discussion, cases of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.
and Museum of Memory and Human Rights in Santiago, Chile will be introduced.
The purpose of this study is to present the moral and educational implications of Dong-hak(東學)’s thought, which was founded by Suwoon(水雲) Choi, Jewoo(崔濟 愚). First of all, in this study, we defined ‘Han-ul’(한울) as the Earth’s life system and the order system of the universe, and under the premise that ‘Si-cheon-ju’ is to serve humans as moral subject. Si-cheon-ju’s first moral educational implications provide a theoretical basis for the fact that the competence of moral education and the beginning of our value relationship are ‘I’. The second moral and educational implication provides intuitive and heuristic clues about how individuals should perceive and accept objects such as civil society, the state, the earth, etc. In this work, we then defined ‘Bul-yeongi- yeon’ as Si-cheon-ju’s existential justification process and an epistemic explanation of how moral subjects should look at the world. Bul-yeon-gi-yeon’s first moral implication provides the validity to be taught in school moral education by clarifying the characteristic of the ‘relationship with nature and transparency’ area of the ‘extending the value relationship’. The second implication illustrates the fact that it is ‘self as a moral subject’ that relates to and gives meaning to the area of ‘nature and transcendence’.
The male protagonists in Korean classic novels both written in Korean and Written in Chinese characters were usually heroes, noble men, or men of literary talent, all of who were patriarchs measuring up to the Confucian standards. Hwanmonggwagi belongs to the genre of dream journey stories and Jongsaengjeon belongs to the genre of fictional biography. As these genres are written in Chinese letters and feature male intellectuals.
The protagonist of Hwanmonggwagi is a jobless widower who calls himself a drunkard. The protagonist of Jongsaengjeon is a poor and incompetent 40-year-old bachelor. In the 19th Century Korean Novels written in Chinese characters, these kinds of worthless male protagonists are visualized. This seems to be related to the realities of the collapsed yangban men without prospects at that time. These two novels were written by humbled yangban men who lived in Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces respectively. Although the literary achievements of these novels are not high, they are significant in the sense that negative or insignificant male characters appear as the protagonists. In the narrative literature of the 19th century Korea, worthless male protagonists were visualized while female characters were presented as being independent and having problem-solving capabilities. This change in character types reflect the realities of the time.
<Parasite> was a Korean film that received worldwide attention, and it was a work that showed considerable success as a box office. Recently, researchers at home and abroad have expressed explosive interest in this <Parasite>, and are actively conducting research on this <Parasite>. The research related to <Parasite> thus calculated takes the spatial background of the work as an important observation point, and concludes that this film is a work that reveals the structural problems of Korean society. However, in order for this work to reach a more precise interpretation of human society, it is necessary to pay attention to the natural ecological (scientific) observation accepted in the work. <Parasite> is a work that closely examines the relationship between parasites and hosts in natural ecosystems, and reflects the results of examining the similarity before describing the characteristics of human society. Therefore, in order to obtain the results of in-depth research on <Parasite>, it is necessary to examine the similarity between the ecological conditions and the method of parasitism, the principle of the ecosystem maintained based on this, and the human social environment.