This paper aims to grasp the essential ideas of Félix Guattari’s “ecosophy”, which are developed in his books, The Three Ecology (1989) and Chaosmose (1992). Guattari proposes “The Three Ecology” in order to criticize radically the standardized mode of production of subjectivity in integrated global capitalism, and research the condition of the various modes of subjectivation. The three ecology means a general and transversal ecology which is extended to the spheres of nature, mind, and society. The “refrain” which he underlines means a kind of disturbing repetitions in everyday life, and it functions as a starting point for retaining an auto-referential existential territory.
This kind of mode of the production of subjectivity pays attention to the capture of concrete blocs of sensation, so it has basically characteristics similar to those of the Arts.
With global urbanization accelerating and concerns about the environment and ecology, technical and humanistic considerations are essential on how future cities should evolve. This study denotes innovation in which social values are realized, pointing to keywords that understand future cities, such as active seniors leading aging society, sharing economy, and localization of assets. It also reviews the importance of ecological factors in the city, interpreting them in new ways. Suggested proposals seek a cycle of resources and energy with new technologies and even a cycle of social values to examine interactions between ecology and technology. Finally, the author emphasizes the active response to technology and urban ecological issues and lays the foundation for multidisciplinary and cross-border discussions.
This study focuses on ‘community-based urban ecological art’, where different concepts or areas such as city, ecology, and art meet and achieve the most efficient result. To this end, I examine the concept and meaning of an eco-city, and examples of pioneering art work dealing with urban ecology. After explaining the process of shift from ‘publicity as site-specificity’ to ‘publicity as community-specificity’ related to the publicity issue of ecological art, I will discuss the concept of ‘community’ that has been the subject of debate along with the transition. Also I will introduce two projects: Art as Environment - Cultural Activity of Plum Creek implemented in New Taipei Region of Taiwan, and Green My Favela (GMF) carried out in the slum area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Focusing on two projects developed around urban communities, I will examine the characteristics and significance of urban ecological art.
Recent debates on the Anthropocene have provided opportunities to recognize humans as geological agents, yet leaving large disagreements on the historical context and political implications of the Anthropocene. Using Kipling’s imperialism as a leitmotiv, this cross-disciplinary review aims to crisscross a broad spectrum of discourses on the demarcation, spatiotemporal backgrounds, and political implications of the Anthropocene. Geologists search for the periods when stratigraphic records such as radioactive isotopes derived from nuclear bomb tests concur with attributable human activities, without offering a clear understanding of the historical force and development of those human activities. The American west travelled by Kipling provides a venue for the transformations from the ‘White Man’s burden’ as God’s calling to the ‘Civilization’s burden’ expropriating the nature and humans as tools for capital accumulation to the ‘Earth’s burden’ threatening the biosphere sustainability. Crisscrossing across the time and space of the Anthropocene suggests that recognizing the Earth as commons, not commodities, combined with political actions required for relieving ‘ecological debts’, would facilitate imagining the ‘Post-Anthropocene’.
The purpose of this article is to examine the characteristics and significance of Kim Suyoung’s people theory according to its relevance to Ham Seok-heon’s idea of Ssial. The idea of Ham Seok-heon provided the main reference point for poet Kim Su-young to make an ideological change before and after the April 19 Revolution. Ham Seok-heon tried to emphasize the independent capacity and potential growth possibility of each individual by placing the people in the Ssial as the source of life. His idea of Ssial was an attempt to present the people of the time as the true subject of revolution based on the properties of life itself, such as autonomy and expandability. Kim Su-young also discovered the self as a subject that could substantially change the current reality, and witnessed that contemporary people are being reborn as subjects who move history in the midst of hardship. In their writings, the people is represented in the form of grass that demonstrates the intrinsic activity of life. As such, their people theory has a special status in the discourse field of Korean in the 1960s.
This article deals with the discussion of Roberto Esposito who analyzes Foucault’s biopolitics as a modern immune paradigm concept, focusing on the problem of life as a bios. According to Foucault, bio-power emerges in the arena of political power as “power to ‘make’ live and ‘let’ die.” In the bio power, life is involved is a living human being, precisely the ‘population’. Esposito criticizes the modern bio-politics, which takes the population as the object of its rule, for constructing a community that pursues extreme security through the concept of immune sovereignty and strengthens homogeneous community membership. What is interesting in this discussion of Esposito is that it does not stop at criticizing bio-politics, but seeks an affirmative bio-politics. To this end, Esposito examines the possibility through munus, the condition of community and immunity. Munus means a non-reciprocal gift. The purpose of this article is to: By understanding the thought of Esposito that reflects on the establishment of a new relationship between community and immunity, we break away from the immune paradigm that pursues homogenization while expelling heterogeneity, and seek earth planet’s commons and community that affirm immunity as the capacity of genesis beyond modernity.
This article examines Western racialization of Asians reflected in popular culture through BTS’ case, and analyzes how racist representations poured on them are refracted and criticized in the YouTube reaction video space. I conducted a qualitative analysis of the communication in the reaction space, noting that in YouTube conventional audiences can become producers and play a role in forming participatory discourses. Western prejudice against Asians, especially Asian men, was projected on BTS who advanced beyond Western strongholds in the global popular music industry, where audiences in the reaction space talked and discussed that it was unfair to disparage their masculinity or the the values and artistry of their music. While reactors and viewers forming a critical discourse, BTS was also accepted as a model for dismantling the prejudiced representation of “Asians who lack creativity and are passive in civic activities as well as cooperation solidarity with people of other races”.
Communications in the YouTube reaction space revealed that BTS’ advancement has cracked the Western hegemony over even the beauty and attraction, and contributed to break the framework of racialization in which various historical and cultural heritages within Asia are crushed into a single category of “Asia”.
This thesis aims to analyze Snowpiercer and Interstella to explore what significance geoengineering has in terms of politics and culture. Geoengineering, in spite of its technological defectiveness and devastating potential side effects, is emerging as a feasible solution for climate change. However, Snowpiercer shows a skeptical attitude in a fiasco of CW-7, solar radiation management technique. Moreover, geoengineering reveals fundamental problems in its anthopocentricism that it still presumes humankind is the only actor to deal with crisis in the Anthropocene.
On the contrary, Interstella adheres to the belief in an independent and autonomous human subject to overcome environmental disasters. It is based on the American Frontier spirit that exhaustion of resource and social conflicts can be alleviated by expanding territory. American expansionism is involved with consumer capitalism to consider nature as an available resource for human use. Therefore, despite a optimistic ending for human future in the movie, it lacks a reflection on anthropocentric and materialistic modern civilization.
Snowpiercer focuses on imagining the world beyond the closed door of the train, where it is free from human control. Survivors should learn to coexist with other creatures in the frozen earth and interweave new geostory with them.