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2020, Vol.10, No.4

  • 1.

    Nurturing Early Childhood Creativity Based on Waldorf Education

    Byungyeon Choi | Yun-Kyoung chung | 2020, 10(4) | pp.1~25 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Waldorf education views creativity as the most important method to develop individuals’ personal, social and spiritual aspect. Characteristics of Waldorf Early Childhood Education include raising physical foundation for memory, imitation and example as a principle of early childhood education, the importance of rhythm and repetition, and the development of imagination for sensory experiences. In this paper, we explored the implications of Waldorf education for nurturing early childhood creativity. According to this study, play is helpful in the development of creativity of children when children do not follow the instructions of adults, but they play by means of their own needs. In addition, all educational activities should be able to maximize the development of children's imagination. Therefore, any form of play or educational activity that limits children's imagination should be avoided. Finally, like an artist, a teacher should think freely and flexibly.
  • 2.

    A Comparison of the Effects between Physical Activity Based on Object Control Motor and Physical Expression Activity Based on Visual-Perceptual Exploration on Young Children's Motor, Conflict Resolution and Space Perceptual Ability

    Gahye Min | Jung, Jin Hwa | 2020, 10(4) | pp.27~56 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects between physical activity based on object control motor and physical expression activity based on visual-perceptual exploration on young children's motor, conflict resolution and space perceptual abilities. Thirty-four young children were included in this study and their average age was 72.44(SD=3.49) months. The experimental group participated in physical activity based on object control motor, while the comparison group participated in physical expression activity based on visual-perceptual exploration for 6 weeks. ‘MPTYC', a ‘conflict resolution ability test’, and a ‘space perceptual ability test’ were used to collect data and an independent t-test was used to analyze the data. The results revealed statically significant differences between the post-test scores of the experimental and comparison group. The scores of the experimental group in the children's motor, conflict resolution and space perceptual abilities were significantly higher than the scores of the comparison group. This study showed that physical activity based on object control motor effectively promotes young children's motor, conflict resolution and space perceptual ability. It also provided implications about teaching-strategies for physical education for young children.
  • 3.

    The Effect of Peer Relationship, Teacher Relationship, Teacher Morale, and School Satisfaction on the Relationship between Parenting Type and Career Maturity of Adolescents

    kim,so.young | 2020, 10(4) | pp.57~77 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of peer relationship, teacher relationship, teacher morale, and school satisfaction on the relationship between the parenting type and career maturity of adolescents. This study used the Gyeonggi-do Institute of Education’s Education Longitudinal study of 7 years(2018, first grade of high school students). The total number of participants was 5,410, with 2,729(50.4%) male students and 2,681(9.6%) female students. Results obtained from the analyses were as follows. First, the parenting type(supervision type) had a positive effects on peer relationship, teacher relationship, teacher morale, and school satisfaction. The more positive the parenting type(supervision type), the more peer relationship, teacher relationship, teacher morale, and school satisfaction were increased. Second, peer relationship, teacher relationship, teacher passion, and school satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between the parenting type and career maturity of adolescents. Third, only teacher passion moderated the relationship between parenting type and career maturity.
  • 4.

    Development and Validation of General Academic Interest Scale for Secondary School Students

    Ha, Yu Kyung | Cho, Han Ik | 2020, 10(4) | pp.79~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a general academic interest scale for secondary school students. The subjects of this study were 477 middle and 482 high school students. In order to develop a general academic interest scale literature reviews were made. According to the literature reviews general academic interest was divided into three factors: cognitive interest, emotional interest, and valuable interest. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted with 24 preliminary items and revealed a general academic interest scale consisting of 20 items including; 5 cognitive interests, 7 emotional interests, and 8 valuable interest items. With the reference related validity of general academic interest scale achievement goal orientation, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement were revealed to have higher relation. In a cross-validation test of middle and high school students the two groups were found to have homogeneity in the analysis of configure, metric, and scalar tests. This study has developed and validated a general academic interest scale for middle and high school students. Due to this study, academic interest will be studied more deeply.
  • 5.

    Exploring Variables that Influence the Continuous User’s Intention of Online Classes Recognized by College Students who Participated in Online Alternative Lectures due to COVID-19

    Jeong, Hanho | 2020, 10(4) | pp.109~134 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we devised a model to explain the continuous participation intention of college students in online classes related to online alternative lectures at universities conducted in the first semester of 2020. We also explored the structural relationship between the variables and their influence on the intention to continue participation. The current study was conducted for college students who completed the 1st semester class in 2020 through an online course established at a university in the metropolitan area. In accordance with the guidelines of the Ministry of Education due to COVID-19, University A converted all face-to-face classes to 100% non-face-to-face classes in the 1st semester of 2020. Through this study, we were first able to find out that the perceived education service quality has the greatest direct or indirect impact on the students’ continuing intention to participate in online classes. Second, we found that satisfaction has the second greatest influence on university students' continuous intention to participate in online classes. Third, we were able to find out that the lecture service influences the continuing intention of students to participate in online classes through the perceived education service quality and satisfaction. Fourth, we were able to find out that non-instructional aspects such as user interface and administrative services influence the continuing intention of students to participate in online classes through perceived education service quality and satisfaction.
  • 6.

    The Effects of Educational Psychology Classes in Enhancement of Teaching Competence, Subject-Specific Competence and Differences in Types of Courses

    Choi Mi Jung | Byungyeon Choi | 2020, 10(4) | pp.135~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study verified whether educational psychology courses are effective in improving the teaching competence and subject-specific competence of university students. In addition, it was investigated whether the effects of educational psychology classes differed according to school types, i.e. elementary and secondary pre-service teachers, college, and general university students. To this end, pre- and post-tests were conducted for students who took the educational psychology courses for one semester. As a result, it was confirmed that the educational psychology courses were effective in enhancing students' teaching competence and subject-specific competence, but there was no significant difference by school types. Additionally, it was found that there was a significant correlation between the teaching competencies and the subject-specific competencies, which means that teaching educational psychology can cultivate both competencies. This study suggests that the importance of educational psychology courses should be recognized in teacher education curriculum.
  • 7.

    A Structural Analysis of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Neglect, Suppression of Emotional Expression, Maladaptive Conflict Coping and Interpersonal Problems Perceived by University Students

    Kwon Minhye | LEE Jeeyon | Kim, Hye weon | 2020, 10(4) | pp.163~193 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed to confirm the mediating effect of suppression of emotional expression and maladaptive conflict coping on the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and neglect perceived by university students and interpersonal problems. The data were collected from 316 university students and were analyzed through SEM (structural equation modeling). The main research findings of this study were as follows. First, greater childhood emotional abuse and neglect perceived by university students was associated with greater suppression of emotional expression and greater suppression of emotional expression was associated with greater maladaptive conflict coping. In addition, greater suppression of emotional expression and maladaptive conflict coping were related to greater interpersonal problems. Second, childhood emotional abuse and neglect perceived by university students did not necessarily lead to greater interpersonal problems Rather, childhood emotional abuse and neglect perceived by university students led to university students' greater suppression of emotional expression, which in turn predicted greater interpersonal problems. Third, childhood emotional abuse and neglect perceived by university students had an effect on interpersonal problems through the double mediation of suppression of emotional expression and maladaptive conflict coping. The implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for further studies are provided.
  • 8.

    Establishment of Values and Recognition of Importance on Happy Education

    Soonnam Kim | 2020, 10(4) | pp.195~220 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to establish the values of happy education and to investigate therecognition of the importance of the values. The method of the study includes literature analysis,survey analysis, and interview analysis. The results of this study are as follows. 1. Valueestablishment: The study analyzed the factors that affect happiness through many related papersand literatures, and established the values of happy education. These values are health, safety,relatedness, meaningfulness, achievement, engagement, appreciation, service, and forgiveness. 2. Recognition of the importance of the values : This study surveyed the students, parents, staff,and teachers in regular Daegu schools and happy schools to question their recognition of theimportance on the values of happy education with the Likert-type 5 scale. The importance ofthese values was rated very highly. The results are as follows : person safety is 4.8, object safetyis 4.73, health is 4.70, affirmation is 4.69, consideration is 4.69, dream and hope is 4.69,communication is 4.64, self-regulation is 4.61, appreciation is 4.54, forgiveness is 4.50, engagementis 4.49, service is 4.49, creation is 4.49, and scholastic achievement is 4.32. This study shows thevalues of happy education, and that the importance recognition of these values is very high, Ianticipate the values of happy education could be applied in Korean schools with positive effects.
  • 9.

    Validation Study of the BOSI Comprehensive Psychological Test

    An JinHoon | Park, Choonsung | 2020, 10(4) | pp.221~243 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to introduce and confirm the validity of the BOSI test, a comprehensivepsychological test. The BOSI test has six sub-factors including cognitive orientation, cognitiveenvironment, leading behavioral orientation, social behavior, task behavior, cognitive activity. Theresults were interpreted by the relationship between the sub-factors. In this study, the technicalstatistics and structural validity of the BOSI test were confirmed. According to the results of thestudy, the BOSI test showed skewness and kurtosis, and the reliability is higher than .80. As aresult of calculating the concept reliability determined, that the concept reliability was secured bysatisfying the standard value of .70 or more. This calculation provided data that, the conceptreliability value of each factor was .89 to .97. As a result, of checking the validity of thesub-factors of the BOSI test, it was found that all six sub-factors were appropriate. The resultsof the overall model were also found to be similar. The possibilities and limitations of the BOSItest as an aggregate test were described.
  • 10.

    Exploring Factors and Indicators for Measuring Quality of Non-Contact University Lectures

    Hae-Deok Song | Lee YeChan | 2020, 10(4) | pp.245~273 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the spread of university non-face-to-face classes due to the coronavirus, interest inmanaging the quality of university lectures is increasing, but the development of course evaluationitems considering the differentiation of non-contact university lectures has been rarely made. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop and validate a lecture evaluation items thatcan be used for non-contact university a lecture to monitor the quality of non-face-to-faceuniversity lectures. For this purpose, 13 areas and 17 questions were extracted as areas and itemsfor evaluating non-face-to-face lectures based on reviews of previous studies and expert reviews. The derived lecture evaluation items were validated by applying the Rasch measurement model to112 college students who took non-face-to-face university lectures in 2020. The item fit wasfound to be reasonable, and the result of the rating scale showed that a 4-point scale wasappropriate. It was confirmed that the lecture evaluation areas derived from the exploratoryfactor analysis converged to the one factor. The evaluation items developed in this study aremeaningful in that they can be applied at the level of individual professors and universities toimprove the quality of lectures in non-contact university lectures.
  • 11.

    Analysis of Educational Needs for Competency Development of Educational Officials: Focusing on Gyeonggi-Do Office of Education

    Minyoung Lee | Kang Hosoo | Kim HeungBok | 2020, 10(4) | pp.275~299 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to derive the basic and job competencies that educational officialsare equipped with in Gyeonggi-do and to seek ways to develop their competency through theanalysis of educational needs. To this end, first, interviews were conducted with two principals,one vice-principal, three administrative department heads, three heads of school affairs, and 12educational officials and established a competency pool of educational officials. Then, through asurvey, we looked at the priorities of competencies and preferred teaching methods. The surveytargets were divided into 25 educational support offices in Gyeonggi-do, and 15% of all schoolswere sampled by school level (elementary, middle, and high). Of the total 455 copies collected,451 copies with valid responses were used for analysis. The priority of competency was analyzedusing t-test, Borich demand, and The Locus for Focus Model, and the preferred education methodwas analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results shows that the 1st and 2nd ranks of thebasic competencies were flexibility and self-esteem, and the 1st and 2nd ranks of the jobcompetencies were the ability to express intention and the field orientation. The preferred formof education was a blended learning using both online and offline, the preferred place ofeducation was the regional education support office, and the preferred education period wassummer vacation and winter vacation. Based on the results, strategies for competencydevelopment of educational officials were presented.
  • 12.

    Difficulties and Demands of Early Childhood Teachers in Guiding Children Having Problem Behaviors

    JUNG, JAE EUN | 2020, 10(4) | pp.301~326 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect difficulties experienced by earlychildhood teachers in guiding children having problem behaviors and to find out what is requiredwhen teachers guided children’s problem behaviors. Three teachers were selected whoexperienced dilemmas while guiding children’s problem behaviors. Each participant wasindividually interviewed 2 or 3 times with deliberated questions for collecting data. After theinterview was analyzed, the contents were categorized into three major themes and eight subthemes. The three major themes were (1) a decline in authority as a teacher, (2) a behavior thatincrease to the stress of a teacher, and (3) hopelessness. The sub-themes were derived as a wayfor teachers to not give up on a child having problem behavior. Based on these results, severalspecific implications for effective ways of reducing young children’s problem behavior weresuggested.
  • 13.

    Cluster Analysis on the Transformational Leadership of Childcare Center Directors, Building Learning Organizations and Teacher Efficacy of Child Care Teachers

    Young Soon Yun | 2020, 10(4) | pp.327~348 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to analyze clusters of childcare teachers on the transformationalleadership of childcare center director’s abilities to build learning organizations and teacherefficacy in childcare teachers. A survey was conducted of 307 teachers in private childcarecenters located in G Metropolitan City. The survey provided questions about the director'stransformational leadership, and teacher’s learning organization building and teacher efficacy. Asa result of cluster analysis, on teacher backgrounds, three types of clusters were derived. Thethree clusters were divided into teachers working in small centers, and high and low-careerteachers working in large centers. As a result of cluster analysis, first, it was found that therewas a difference in the transformational leadership of the daycare center director’s according tothe cluster and the background variable of the childcare teachers. Second, it was found thatthere were differences in the learning organization’s building factors and sub-factors. Thesefactors include continuous learning opportunities, team learning, vision sharing and empowerment,knowledge sharing systems, mutual connection between the organization and its environment, andstrategic leadership. Finally, it was confirmed that there is a difference in teacher efficacyaccording to the background variable of the childcare teachers.
  • 14.

    Difficulties and Practices of Early Childhood Teachers in Parents Cooperation Experiencing with the Multicultural Background Families

    Kwon, Hye JIn | 2020, 10(4) | pp.349~370 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to explore the difficulties and practices experienced by earlychildhood teachers through cooperation with the father of multicultural background families. Forthis, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten early childhood teachers who have taughtmulticultural background families. The collected data were transcribed and qualitative analysis wasconducted. The findings are as follows. First, early childhood teachers experienced the blockedcommunications by cooperating with the multicultural background family fathers. Therefore,teachers tried to communicate more with fathers and mothers. Second, the early childhoodteachers experienced difficulties caused by the inappropriate demands for child development bycooperating with the multicultural background family fathers. Teachers were seen accepting thesedemands as a teacher's role. However, some teachers did not accept them in terms of thechild-equality. Based on the above findings, the contents and direction of fathers of multiculturalbackground families in early childhood education were discussed.
  • 15.

    A Study of the Retirement Anxiety Adaptation Process for Middle-Aged Men in their 50s

    Lee, Eun-Joo | LEE Jeeyon | 2020, 10(4) | pp.371~403 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study presents the basic data of career psychological counseling and lifelong pedagogicalreality theory from the perspective of the Psychology of Working Theory (PWT) of the retirementanxiety adjustment process of middle-aged men in their 50s. For the purpose of this study,Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory research method was used. Participants in this studyrecruited 11 middle-aged men in their 50s who are currently employed in Seoul and themetropolitan area according to theoretical sampling. The question of this study is 'What is theexperience of the retirement anxiety adjustment process of middle-aged men in their 50s who arecurrently employed in a personal, social and cultural context?' As a result of analysis withgrounded theory, a total of 105 concepts, 40 subcategories, and 17 categories were derived. Inaddition, a model of the retirement anxiety adaptation process, which changes into four stages of‘a self-awareness period, a search period, a receptive period, and an adaptation period’, and acore category of ‘advancing toward maturity in old age through pain caused bydisconnection’was found. The results of this study were to help middle-aged men in their 50swho are currently employed in their retirement anxiety adjustment process and to understand theprocess of adaptation, and to grasp the realistic experiences of middle-aged men in their 50s whogrew up in the 1960s and 1970s, which has great significance. Theses results imply that agovernment-private policy support system should be prepared for them, taking into account thespecificity of being a middle-aged man in his 50s.