Helping teens acquire life skills applicable to daily life in addition to knowledge or desirable attitudes is essential in health education to lessen their health risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine upper elementary students’ life skills and health risk behaviors and to identify factors, including variables associated with life skills, influencing their health risk behaviors. 190 of fifth and sixth graders was recruited from two elementary schools in Korea. Between September and October 2017, Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed (i.e, descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis). Demographic differences in life skills (self-esteem, critical thinking, decision-making, and communication skills) were significant. Multiple regression analysis of factors impacting elementary students’ health risk behaviors indicated an explanatory power at 23.9% of the model. Decision-making skills, gender, academic achievement, and critical thinking skills about media were variables influencing elementary students’ health risk behaviors. The participants possessed inadequate life skills, and their health risk behaviors were influenced by their life skills, substantiating the need to develop and utilize educational programs based on life skills in health education.