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2009, Vol.18, No.1

  • 1.

    The New Aspect of the Narrative Literature Written in Chinese Characters in the later period of Joseon Dynasty

    김성수 | 2009, 18(1) | pp.7~37 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to investigate the features and characteristics of Chinese prose narration in the later period of Joseon dynasty. Through comparing with that of the previous era, the features and characteristics of this period will be revealed. As a result, in the areas of subject, contents, structure and vocabulary, something new was discovered. It is possible to explain that the causes of the change are spontaneous but they are investigated in terms of Chinese causes because this study is on Chinese literature. The change is too big and we can not say that the change are only spontaneous. As a result, the change was caused by the works of China, especially Cheong dynasty. This change is considered the inflow of Chinese prose narration in the Cheong dynasty. On the basis of the result, we can say that the characteristics and significance of Chinese prose narration are ‘the modernization escaped from the Cheongi literature’, ‘the free discourse through the acceptance of colloquial chinese style’, ‘the realization and actualization of subject and contents.’ This achievement was acquired through comparing with Chinese literature and in conclusion more interested in this area are needed.
  • 2.

    A Study on Lee, Ahn-nul’s poem <Jeungyukogyeokri>

    KIM Chang Ho | 2009, 18(1) | pp.39~57 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study purposed to examine the background and thematic characteristics of Lee Ahn‐nul’s poem Jeungyugokyeokri(贈幽谷驛吏). Through this study, we attempted to review an aspect of the tradition of Chinese poems during the early and mid Chosun Dynasty and to suggest a viewpoint to prospect the thematic and stylistic characteristics of Lee Ahn‐nul’s poems, which represent the mid Chosun Dynasty. Jeungyugokyeokri is not an optimal poem for explaining the ultimate thematic and aesthetic level of Lee Ahn‐nul’s poems. However, this work reveals the general characteristics of his poetic spirit and contents, and the characteristics can be summed up into the record of facts and the consciousness of family. Essays on poetry and anthologies mentioned Sawolsipoil(四月十五日), Munga(聞歌), etc. as Lee Ahn‐nul’s poems representing Mogreungseongse(穆陵盛世 – the flourishing days of literature during the reign of King Seonjo. – Previous research also tried to evaluate his literary achievements based on these works. It is quite important to discuss the characteristics of a writer and his works through analyzing the writer’s finest works and to set the thematic and aesthetic position distinguished from other poems written in the same period. However, this process should be performed through efforts to identify the writer’s most typical work and the work’s attributes guaranteeing the typicality. Only then, the history of Chinese poems may secure a substantial area of the history of thought comprehending the life and spirit of historical beings. In this sense, Jeungyugokyeokri shows an important ground for explaining the typical characteristics of Lee Ahn‐nul’s poems and plays the role of a stepping stone for evaluating the thematic and aesthetic achievements of his poems in the history of literature.
  • 3.

    A study of the cause and transition of prose’ development in 17th century

    Yeong-Gil Ahn | 2009, 18(1) | pp.59~79 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause and transition of prose’ development in the 17th century. The first cause was the change of environment. From the end of 15th century to the middle of 18th century was the iced age. Expecially Chosun dynasty from 16th century to 17th century had a many disaster such as drought, cold-weather damage. On the whole the temperature was droped about 1. Because of this point the practice books was punished. The second cause was a frequent wars. The period(1592-1637) occurred fourth wars. The tragedy of war made men to write documentary letters. The peoples began to write documentary letters as their experiences. Considering the facts the prose was showed up more than the poems. The increase of prose in the 17th century has two means. the one in the negative view the prose is low level, the other in the positive view is diversity. To improve low level of the prose a man of letters indicated a standard sentence. A standard sentence was based on Han dynasty and Dang dynasty or Song dynasty in the ancient china. At that time many man of letters regarded a great book tried to write something. Also the multifarious prose contain a variety of express. On the while the transition of prose had three characters. The first it was to write a long work. In the past a short story was changed a long work. The home problems or social problems was showed up more than private’ matter. The second it was to write a standard letter. For the sake the point most literary men made reference to the trend of literary thoughts in the end of Myeong dynasty and the early Cheong dynasty. The third it was to write practical letters such as agriculture books, an epitaph.
  • 4.

    The sentence technique research which appears from 「Jaemoon」 of Kim, Chang-hyeop (Nong-am)

    Oh Seok Hwan | 2009, 18(1) | pp.81~112 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Most mind the writing which gets up an impression will be a writing of Ajearyu in shrine of the dead people informs from the sentence middle which the person makes. The sentence of Ajearyu cherishes memory with the writing which sends to the soul of the dead person the person who is living and will can comfort to collect and the contents is sad because is to put has not been extremely sad. Jaemoon of ancient times sacrificial offering the rank made a work with the thing, but to Jaemoon of medieval after that praised the thing and the conduct which says from together. Ancestry will put on that informs a various numerical formula must contribute to a truth than make descend. With sincerity being sad, as the essence did. The works which from here presents with the master piece of Nongarm’s Jaemoon about the child whom all him loves most and the teacher and the sibling are the writing. That much because like that will be able to guess the fact that he will put the heart and soul. He uses a various branch technique from this writing and also the self between does not know letting with the person and naturally to being sad is doing to make fall into. He uses technique of ‘Cherishes and does not distinguish’ first from sentence technique and a fact entirely with the expression which is simple and he does not distinguish not to be he is emphasizing more. Uses techniques of ‘Controls the spirit of sentence freely’ and second time piles up, inserts, repeats a same phrase, or on intermediate center an intonation. Uses techniques of ‘with end the intention forms one’ at third and what kind of difference does not to make be does not exist to, form and matter with sentence there is animation and feeling is doing definitely. Used techniques of ‘Puts in an intention in thing’ at fourth and the form and intention of the object amalgamated composed the guard which is unique desires neatly finely. The function which prose is general is to a utility. Specially Jaemoon is a writing which informs in shrine of the dead people. Consequently the importance, justly cherishing the memory of a deceased person and is sad. No matter how superior door marriage to be beautiful there is a writing skill which is gorgeous but being sad in contents, this lacked, letting is earnest with the dead person and the person who is living being sad and if there is not a possibility of doing to make feel, this the gruel is the writing. That is like that, outspoken and factually being sad, if expresses, this the writing is only will become shallowly. Jaemoon of Nongarm when from like this viewpoint seeing, thoroughly to being sad, the importance, the sentence technique which is various leads and is about outspoken, or there will not be expression which is factual entirely, will buy with the person to become own one dies, will sob together and does there not to make be a possibility which will endure.
  • 5.

    An Essay on <Palace-poem of Koryo> of Chujae Cho, Su-sam

    kimyoungjook | 2009, 18(1) | pp.113~150 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Chujae Cho Susam, an eminent poet in the late Chosun dynasty who went to China six times and wrote his every travel in the form of poem, was very interested in folklore and wrote some poems of times and seasons of the year and also had bamboo-branch poems. ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ have a distinct style reflecting his dexterity of poems of times and seasons of the year. Nevertheless, this is not noticed yet. ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ consists of twenty-two poems with a little epilogue. According to the little epilogue, Chujae had read Chungho Paesa (Miscellaneous History of Blue Lake) and written some poems in the form of bamboo-branch poems. The book of Chungho Paesa (Miscellaneous History of Blue Lake) has not yet known to anyone but we could estimate its character by reading ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’. Chungho Paesa (Miscellaneous History of Blue Lake) would be a kind of unofficial history or historical episodes of Koryo dynasty. ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ would better be studied in the historical context of Palace-poem of Chosun dynasty. My way of reading this poems is different from it. I am aiming to lay ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ on the context of whole works of Chujae, and my method, I wish, leads us to understand its own value. In ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ were written various things in the palace. Compared to the absolute quantity of historical data of Chosun dynasty, those of Koryo dynasty is scarce, and first of all, true value of ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ is to give us some historical data. Most of existent Palace-poems before Chujae were created with positive attitude and depicted the bright side of palace affairs, whereas ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ is dealing with other side of palace such as corruption of Buddhism, real world of eunuch and private life of king. This approach to the materials helped us feel poet’s individuality. His some writings include Records of the weird, Bamboo-branch poems of new year’s fill moon day, and Poems of times and seasons of the year all based on the folklore, and these works inherits us new scene of cultural history. ‘Palace-poem of Koryo’ is on the same line of those works: it would be a significant data to let readers know palace affairs and moreover social lives of Koryo dynasty.
  • 6.

    A study on Donghae(東海) Cho, Jong-jin(趙琮鎭)’s Calligraphy and Literary theory from a viewpoint of ‘Yang-Gi(養氣)’

    Choi Yoo Jin | 2009, 18(1) | pp.151~178 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study discussed the fact that Donghae(東海) Cho Jong‐jin(趙琮鎭)’s theory of calligraphy and theory of literature were developed with emphasis on the cultivation of gi(氣). Starting from the idea that the original gi(氣) of nature grows muddled over time, he stressed the cultivation of gi(氣) in order to keep gi(氣) from fainting away in the process of socialization. First of all, in the process of literary creation, along with ri(理) as a literary principle, gi(氣) was regarded as an important element to rule the work in harmony with other elements of creation. In addition, the work of heaven’s inspiration(天機), which is the writer’s psychological element of creation, can reach the ideal state of Shin(神) only when artificiality and consciousness are excluded, and with regard to this, he emphasized the importance of the role of gi(氣). In his theory of calligraphy, Donghae(東海) is pursuing the learning of the old and the cultivation of gi(氣) as major elements. As a method of restoring damaged vitality and faulty calligraphic skills, he emphasized the accumulation of gi(氣) in the writer by the learning of old rules, the excursion of noted mountains and rivers. Going beyond the subjective limitation of learning through books, he pursued the refining of inner mind and the restructuring of inner competence through excursing together with noble figures and expanding experiences. Gi(氣) cultivated in this way becomes an aesthetic base for ruling the work, and the more gi(氣) is emphasized the more it is configured into the perfect form of the inner structure of the work.
  • 7.

    A study of Ching Dynasty poetry Discussing Theory on Calligraphy

    Lee Gi Bum | 2009, 18(1) | pp.179~202 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Nonseosi means a poem which discusses calligraphy by poem. This Nonseosi was originated from the poem of musical piece by Josik with the pen name of Jageon who was the first ranking person in terms of Geonan style. This model was established and developed through Leebaek and Doobo in the time of Tang Dynasty. In the time of Song Dynasty, the Nonseosi which pursued ‘lofty mind’ by Sosik and Hwang Jung-kyun was very popular and in terms of quantity, it made a rapid progress. On the other hand, in the times of Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, it was slowly dwindled without many changes and with reaction to this decline, there was a tendency to pursue traditional style of caligraphy and feelings of ancient sages. In Ching Dynasty, Nonseosi arrived at its meridian life along with epigraphy and the methodology of historical research. It did not mean meridian glory only in terms of quantity but also meant prosperity in terms of content since there were more poems which discussed more different types of calligraphy in earnest than previous times. In addition, as there was unsatisfactory point of expression to represent the feelings with short poems, Nonseosi of long poems and Nonseojeolgoo as the sequence type of Chinese quatrain came into vogue. In this thesis, the researcher examined what new forms of features were demonstrated in Qing Dynasty when Nonseosi was actively generated compared to previous times and through this investigation, the researcher analyzed Nonseosi of those times per type.
  • 8.

    Character of Early the Sixteen Century Jo-seon Dynasty Sung-Confucianism

    조창열 | 2009, 18(1) | pp.203~225 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    At the end of Koryo Dynasty, to accept Joo-Ja Confucianism was a result of deep consideration to avoid corruption of social system that Buddhism as Governing Doctrine for long years Koryo Dynasty. After establishing Cho-Seon Dynasty as new era of history in Korea, Confucianism had become to the practical way of politic and social system. Since the king Tae Jong, Sung-Confucianism had remarkable progress and bare many leaders(talented person) by the way of Confucian doctrine. Especially when King Seo-Jong ruled, Sung-Confucianism was the motive establishing golden cultural age of Cho-Seon Dynasty in her history. The center was the scholars of Jip-Hyun-Jeon School. This time seems that to ready blooming of Eastern Confucianism. That atmosphere cultivated many Confucianism scholars. After King Sei-Jo, Jeol-Eui School was formed and it became minority among Confusion Schools. Jong-Jik Kim who descendent of Jeol-Eui School of the end of Koryo Dynasty became the center figure of Sa-Lim School. Jeol-Eui School converted to Jong-Jik Kim, Koing-Pill Kim, and Kwang-Jo Cho. At the time of Yeon-San Gun Dynasty, between Hun-Gu Part as Conservative Part and Sha-Lim Part as Progressive Part happened a massacre that called Sha-wha. King Joong-Jong who is immediate following Yeon-San tried to reform Yeon-San’s failure due to stir Poong-wha up. As a result Joong-Jong’s reformation, Moral Philosophical Governing Ideology seemed to become the mainstream. Gee-meo Sha-wha(Massacre) caused to be in vain of the will of “New revolutionary leaders which called “Shin-Jin Confucian Scholar” such as Kwang-Jo Cho. After the massacres, Confucian scholars avoided to involve the political practice, but took a life in seclusion and studying alone. Such not involving caused Confucianism of Jo-Seon Dynasty to move from focusing on practicing to ideological thought. Wha-Dam and Hoi-Jae were main figures and funders of the sixteen century Jo-Seon Confucianism. Hwa-dam shirked involving political circles, but focused on study. He stressed spiritual monism. He opened Confucianism as Korea-naized as a new and special field of Confucianism. Hwa-dam’s ultimate purpose, however, was to deal Mystic place where ‘Spirit(Gee, 氣)’ and ‘Theory(Lee理)’ can united. Thus, no one can identify him as Spiritualistic Spiritualist and also just Spiritualist For Hoi-Jae to study of Chinese Classics which called Keung School was a study practical politics concern. It was better and more creative work than Joo-Ja. The political mind of Hoi-Jae expressed through studying Chinese Classics. Basic idea of Hoi-Jae is Min-Bon Thought(Ordinary People Centered Thought as much as Democracy of Western thought. That governing mind was pursuing the peace in the world, and the people is center of the politics. For Hio-Jae, the way of governing the nation is in the mind of the ruler. Sung-Confucianism of the sixteen century is Korea-ized Joo-Ja Confucianism. Thus, Hoi-Jae tried to re-understand the philosophical method of Joo-Ja. His studying achieved an independence of Jo-Seon Confucianism among variety of Confucian schools.
  • 9.

    The Life and Scholarly Realm of Ryeoahm(厲菴) Jung, Do-hyeon(鄭道鉉)

    Lee Yi Kang | 2009, 18(1) | pp.227~255 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper shows studies on the life and scholarly realm of Ryeoahm Jung-dohyeon(1895-1977) by analyzing 『Ryeoahm-jib(厲菴集)』which consists of his writing and appendixes. As a scholar Jung-dohyeon established a value system, by which he lived whole the colonial period of Japanese imperialism. What kind of life should one lead when the social needs do not accord with his value system? To search answers of this question, studying on his life and studies furnishes some guidance. Jung-dohyeon was born at Micheon in Hamyang on July 22, 1895(Kojong 32) as a first son of Jung-jaeok and Nho from Pungchoen family. His family origin is Hadong. Jung-yeochang, one of the five wise in the Joseon Dynasty, is his fourteenth-upper-generation ancestor, by whose life and studies Jung-dohyeon was deeply influenced. At the age of 7 Jung-dohyeon starts to study in a village school. By the age of 20 he deepens his studies keeping company with virtuous scholars. His full-dress scholarly steps start when he has Jeon-woo(1841~1922) as a teacher. Jeon-woo’s studies on Sungrihak(性理學) was handed down from him to Jung-dohyeon, who concentrates on studying deeper in obedience to Jeon-woo’s will after his death. Jung-dohyeon’s scholarly realm is established on the two wheels. One is Shimsungron(心性論); and the other is Yehron(禮論) His Shimsungron stands on the perspective of Shimzukki(心卽氣) that derives from Jeon-woo. Jeon-woo consistently argued that Sungjonshimbiseol(性尊心卑說) and Sungsashimjaeseol(性師心弟說). The former means that Sung(性) should be place higher and Shim(心) lower. The latter means that Sung(性) should be regarded as a teacher and Shim(心) should follow obey Sung(性) as a disciple. Jung-doHyeon is devotedly following Jeon-woo’s theory of Shimsungron. Jung-dohyeon considered practice of Yeh(禮) to be as important as the theory is. He was very thoughtful and scrupulous on searching every proper theoretical basis on each item of decorum. For him ‘Yeh(禮)’ meant more than etiquette that only indicates the formal rules of correct of polite behavior in society. His theory of Yeh(禮) holds a very normative feature, which is related to the Shimsungron of Shimjukki(心卽氣). Three types of reaction of individuals can be shown against a perverted society. The people from the first type are those who try to correct the society according to their value system. Secondly, there are people who await the change of society sticking on their value-system. The last type is who converts his value-system to adjust himself to the society. People from the first type deserve to be valued highly for the most positive way to live while the one who is from third type deserves to be denounced. He compared his life to an orchis that preserves its fragrance against cold wind of autumn even though nobody appreciates it. Like orchis he devoted his life to heighten his Sung(性) and preserve his Yeh(禮) awaiting the change of society. However it should be concerned carefully that an orchis could live with its fragrance if the soil where it roots does not exist.
  • 10.

    A study on writing-letter guide books published in Chosun Dynasty

    Junkyung Ryu | 2009, 18(1) | pp.257~291 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The ‘Bangkakbon(坊刻本)’ is the book published by wood-print for commercial profit. The important cultural meanings of Bangkakbon(坊刻本) publishing is in commercial publishing by common people, for common people. There are two types in Bangkakbon(坊刻本), one is written by Korean, the other is written by classical Chinese. The representive type of Bangkakbon(坊刻本)-books written in classical Chinese is the type of write-letter guide books. Especially Gansikyupyeon『簡式類編』, Hwanhwoncharok『寒喧箚錄』, Gandokjeongyo『簡牘精要』 are the most popular books in the late Chosun Dynasty. Gansikyupyeon『簡式類編』 was published by Lee In-Seok(李寅錫) in 1739. And that book is a new edition revised and enlarged of Gansikyupyeon『簡式類編』』 written by Jeon Gyeom-Ik錢謙益. Hwanhwoncharok『寒喧箚錄』 published in the first half of 18th century is the Bangkakbon(坊刻本) write-letter guide book, filled with a great store of letter examples. Gandokjeongyo『簡牘精要』 was pulblished in 1850’s for the first time and in 1861 for the second time and in 1869 for the third time. Gandokjeongyo『簡牘精要』 was so much popular books. The publishment of ‘Bangkakbon(坊刻本)’ write-letter guide books has the meanings in cultural history in spread of practical writings in classical Chinese.
  • 11.

    A study on the teaching and learning of the contents of the Parts of Speech in the Classical Chinese in Accordance with the New Curriculum of 2007

    SunyoungJung | 2009, 18(1) | pp.293~324 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studied teaching and learning the contents of ‘the Parts of Speech’ which is described new elements of learning in the Classical Chinese in Accordance with the New Curriculum of 2007. Korean is ‘the Agglutinative Language’ type of words which is composing various types of analyzing as ‘the Morpheme’ respectively, but Classical Chinese is ‘the Isolation Language’ including type of a word which is composing by ‘the Morpheme’. For the reason of differences, reference of identity for ‘the Parts of Speech’ have three parts of ‘form’, ‘meaning’, and ‘function’, but reference of identity of Classical Chinese have two parts of ‘meaning’, ‘function’, because which have not changing of type. So, types of ‘the Parts of Speech’ is identified unequally and Korean is changed type if ‘the Parts of Speech’ is changed, but as a isolating type, Classical Chinese is used ‘Conversion’ by ‘the Parts of Speech’ which is locating in the sentence without characteristics of types according to ‘the Parts of Speech’. So called, ‘the Parts of Speech’ of Classical Chinese have changing of meaning and structure of sentence using other ‘the Parts of Speech’ in the special language environments. This paper studied the difference between Korean and Classical Chinese of ‘the Parts of Speech’ and not only studied generality, identity, but also studied how to compose which is ‘function’ and ‘meaning’ of ‘the Parts of Speech’ in the special language environments. We expect a better contents for teaching and learning of Classical Chinese grammar which is more science, system that might be improved ability of reading of Classical Chinese through the this paper.
  • 12.

    A Study of Recording Aspects of Methods used with the 『Analects of Confucius』 in High School Sino-Korean Textbooks

    Kim Byoung Joo | 2009, 18(1) | pp.325~358 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this manuscript, we intended to study recording aspects of the 『Analects of Confucius』 in high school Sino-Korean textbooks for the purpose of reshaping the 『Analects of Confucius』according to each curriculum. In the course of events, we systematically established a small unit of the 『Analects of Confucius』in Sino-Korean textbooks and intended to apply as a fundamental data for directivity and the guidance scheme to education of the 『Analects of Confucius』. With consideration for this matter, in this study, we selected the 84 volumes of textbooks which contain a prose as a research object. First, we compared each unit contained proses which belong literature, history, and a sort of thoughts in each curriculum for the purpose of understanding the situation of acceptance for the small unit of the『Analects of Confucius』 in Sino-Korean textbooks. Second, we grasped the relative importance for the classics of the 『Analects of Confucius』unit corrected in prose of a sort of thoughts. Finally, we studied on the base of the chapters contained classics of the 『Analects of Confucius』 showing the high citing rate. The results are as following. First, the aspects of acceptance for the 『Analects of Confucius』 in each textbook at the first and second curriculum showed a high score for the constitution of the small unit, however, in the course of the sixth and seventh curriculums the small unit constitution of the 『Analects of Confucius』 in each textbook was almost same. Second, to say nothing of any curriculums, all curriculums were accepted the use of the 『Analects of Confucius』 as a content, and the relative rate of acceptance in all sorts of thoughts as a small unit showed the maximum of 15.5%, the minimum of 8.8%, and the average of 11.7%, respectively. Third, the 『Analects of Confucius』 was accepted in all curriculums, especially in the third curriculum it showed the highest citation rate. Fourth, the high citation rate was ordered as followed: 「chapter 1」(「學而篇」), 「chapter 2」(「爲政篇」), 「chapter 4」(「里仁篇」), 「chapter 6」(「雍也篇」), 「chapter 7」(「述而篇」), 「chapter 12」(「顔淵篇」), and 「chapter 15」(「衛靈公篇」). Fifth, the chapters with high citation rate of the 『Analects of Confucius』 were bring to the conclusion of benevolence through a man of honor, fidelity, andpractice. Lastly, the average small unit for the 『Analects of Confucius』 showed about 1.2 per one textbook and the average number of line showed 4.9. As results above, the citation of the 『Analects of Confucius』 for a learning content in the textbook will be desirable, which means it should be selected by the contents according to the classified subject showed high citation rate because Sino-Korean textbook was confined by the restriction of educational Chinese character and on account of space consideration.
  • 13.

    A study on translation of Chinese poetry - Focused on Chinese Writing textbooks in highschool

    Choi, Yun-yong | 2009, 18(1) | pp.359~380 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The range of chinese poetry in Chinese Writing textbooks of highschool is approximately 10%, and there are 12 pieces of these in more than two kind of textbooks. In course of translation, there are some mistranslation and errors of the 12 pieces of Chinese poetry such as 鄭夢周’s 「春」, 鄭知常’s 「送人」, 申師任堂’s 「踰大關嶺望親庭」, 李珥’s 「花石亭」, and 王維’s 「送元二使安西」. In case of 「春」, the poetic word order of the concluding part is different from that of 『圃隱集』, which reads as follows : 多少草芽生. And in case of 「送人」, ‘君’ of 起句 is explained ‘임(님)’ or ‘벗’, and elucidation of ‘動悲歌’ of 承句 divided into ‘be seized with laments[動悲] and sing a song[歌].’ and ‘be heard[動] sorrowful song[悲歌].’ In case of 「踰大關嶺望親庭」, ‘暮山’ of 結句 explained ‘mountain of drawing to a close’, so ‘暮山’ of 結句 should be fixed to ‘evening mountain’ from ‘mountain of drawing to a close’, because ‘drawing to a close’ means ‘It is getting dark why sun closes.’ or ‘Some tasks are delayed to when the day closed.’ or ‘Season or a year is passing.’. Moreover, in case of 「花石亭」, ‘暮雲’ of 結句 should be fixed to ‘evening cloud’ by interpreting of ‘cloud of drawing to a close’. In case of 「送元二使安西」, some textbooks which have errors in translation, ‘going to 陽關 now’, should be fixed, because ‘陽關’ of ‘西出陽關無故人’ of 結句 means a boundary gate of the border of a country, and 安西 is to where friend will go. 1. Moreover, these are poetries that have errors in translation, wrong sentences unnatural expressions putting in one textbook; 張繼’s 「風橋夜泊」, 宋時烈’s 「金剛山」, 賈島’s 「尋隱者不遇」, 許楚姬’s 「採蓮曲」, 韓龍雲’s 「雪夜」, and 鄭夢周’s 「丹心歌」. 「風橋夜泊」 should be fixed to ‘the moon is sinking, the crow is crying, and it is filled with frost in the sky’ from ‘it is filled with frost in the sky because of sinking moon and a crying crow’ of 起句, because we can be understood that the reason of being filled with frost in the sky is sinking moon and a crying crow. 「金剛山」 should be fixed to ‘The mountain stands alone when the cloud is dispelled’ from ‘The cloud is dispelled, and the mountain rises high’ of 轉句. 「尋隱者不遇」 doesn’t be used corresponding respect languages. 「雪夜」 should be fixed to ‘In the prison being enclosed by mountains of all direction’ from ‘The mountains of all direction enclose the prison’ of 起句. In case of 「丹心歌」, ‘寧有改理也歟’ of 6句 is translated ‘How is it going to be fixed?’. ‘fix’ means ‘Some objects which are broken or cannot be used be fixed.’, ‘Some diseases are cured.’, ‘correct one’s faults or wrong things.’ or ‘change the shapes or the postures.’. So ‘be going to be fixed’ should be fixed to ‘will change’ because ‘改’ means 變心. Pointing out mistranslation of chinese poetries is not bring trouble to authors of textbooks but looking forward to appear the perfect textbook by being published by revised Chinese education curriculum which will not have any mistranslation and wrong sentences.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Chinese character’s education of Korean and Japanese ellementary school

    SE JIN PARK | 2009, 18(1) | pp.381~407 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese character is widely used in a cultural area of chinese character including Korea, China, and Japan. However, linguistic conditions of each countries are different although they have same cultural base on chinese character. In this thesis, Education of chinese character in Korean elementary school is examined, compared with situation of Japan where chinese character is normally used. It is emphasized that systematic education of chinese character should be carried from elementary school in order to expand cultural exchange and global communication by using the link of chinese character. Also, the education of chinese character in elementary school of Korea and Japan is fully researched in order of transition, number, the form of the chinese character of scholastic, the stroke count of the chinese character of scholastic, a radical and text of chinese character. The result of research shows that a level of elementary education of chinese character is very low in Korea. According to studies of chinese education in east asia, the most impending matter of Korea is that teachers, students and parents know the importance of chinese character. It is necessary that the education of chinese character is included in a required subjects of regular classes in elementary school, and that systematic and proven textbook and training professional teachers are supplied. When this educational condition is accomplished, a cultural area of chinese character will have common cultural sympathy. Furthermore, it will give growth and prosperity to life to be respectful of heritage.