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2009, Vol.19, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on the Works of Chook-lim-ko-hoe(竹林高會)

    허남욱 | 2009, 19(1) | pp.7~29 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    According to this literary view-point, their criticizing the literary spirit(文風) finally appeared as a movement of Ko-mun Renaissance(古文復興運動). This movement, like every Ko-mun writer of China, started with a negative view of reality in their unlucky situation. This movement made much of Yang-ki(養氣) theory and Yon-tak(鍊琢), and accepted Poong-kol(風骨), and Hung-ki(興奇) which were the essence of the movement, and followed a satire and a composition of Ka-jon(假傳). They were in pursuit of new meaning(新意), even the slightest meaning hidden in the word, and through looking for a new genre continuously, they published Pa-han-jip(破閑集), the first critical essay on poetry in Korea. They also opened the scene of sa(辭) literature through Hwa-Kwi-ko-rae-sa(和歸去來辭). They followed Ko-mun spirit in poetry and mainly did long poems, so that their poems contain many meaningless words, which made them unaesthetic and remained real. However, there was a deep gap between their literary works and theories because they couldn't neglect reality as contemporaries. Hardships in life and friendship among them forced them to follow existing literary spirit. Finally, members of Chook-rim-ko-hoe(竹林高會), according to the new literary trend, advocated Ko-mun Renaissance and tried to correct a literary vice but in vain. It was not because of inconsistency of problem consciousness or insincerity of inventive trial, but because of the limit of level for which social public situation called at that time. The level was of Chinese literature on process beyond the usual standard.
  • 2.

    Kim Ahn-Kook(Mo-Jae)’s perception of Japan

    Son Yoo Kyung | 2009, 19(1) | pp.31~53 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Diverse studies have been constantly conducted about the exchanges between Chosun and Japan since the late 1980s, making significant performances. However, the subjects of the studies are largely about Chosun delegates that visited Japan 12 times after the Korea‐Japan War[壬辰倭亂], leaving a lot to be desired regarding studies on the exchanges with Japan during the early period of Chosun. While the Chosun delegates’ literary works wrote poems and left descriptions on natural scenes, costumes and customs, the products of the bilateral cultural exchanges were made by those who stayed in Chosun based on what they heard and knew about Japan. This study aims to study the awareness toward Japan held by Mojae[慕齋] Kim Ahn‐Kook[金安國], who worked as an official meeting foreign envoys during the reign of King Jung‐jong[中宗]. Kim Ahn‐Kook never visited Japan in person, but he was recognized as a Japan expert for his constant exchanges with Japanese envoys. Thus, a close look at Kim Ahn‐Kook’s awareness toward Japan is meaningful since it can shed a light on the status of an individual’s exchange activities with Japan and exchanges with envoys. Kim Ahn‐Kook was in charge of a lot of Japanese envoys, but this study focuses on his exchanges with Boong-Jung[弸中] and Ahn-sim-dong-dang[安心東堂] as his exchanges with them were made on a constant basis. It is regrettable that the only available data are Kim Ahn‐Kook’s writings and some records found in Royal Chronicles in examining the awareness toward Japan held by Kim Ahn‐Kook, a scholar in the early Chosun period. Lastly, it is expected that a variety of Japanese literary works addressing the status of literary exchanges with scholars in the early Chosun period are discovers and portrayed.
  • 3.

    Study on academic position Deasan based on criticism on scholars of the Ming⋅Ching dynasty and Japan

    Lee Gyu Pil | 2009, 19(1) | pp.55~88 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Deasan Kim mea-sun red books extensively covering all sort of books of the day, through it, he made a minute diagnosis of academic world of Chosun. Although he was moralist and confucianist, he researched and took study more flexibly, in this process he remained 『Kwoulyeosanpil』 describing his thinking freely six volumes and three books. Kim kwi-sun(1793-1869), Deasan’s cousin, evaluated deasan’s this excellent work (『Kwoulyeosanpil』) ‘These several tens of chapters are the essential of 『Mummokpyobo』『Yugo』’ - Frankly speaking, it is no exaggeration to say that this remarks cover the whole volume of 『Kwoulyeosanpil』. There are criticisms on scholars more than ten scholars of the Ming⋅Ching dynasty including 顧炎武, 陸隴其, 阮元 Japanese scholar 太宰純. All of them had considerable influence on academic world of the Ming⋅Ching Dynasty and Japan, Deasan remained short criticism, it was impression criticism, almost he pointed out their academic quality of them very sharply and criticize logically. This thesis researched point of view and thought of later Chosun’s confucian scholars on the bibliographical study, Buddhism the philosophy of Wang Yang-ming, through the criticism of Deasan on the scholars of the Mign⋅Ching Dynasty and Japan.
  • 4.

    Two dispositions from Bangsan(舫山) Yoon Jungki(尹廷琦)’s kihaeng si(紀行詩) - Historical relics as scenery and Lyrical exression of pathos

    Chul- Hee Lee | 2009, 19(1) | pp.89~111 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Bangsan Yoon Junki, Dasan(茶山) Jung Yakyong(丁若鏞)’s grandson, spent his life traveling Korea and published <DongHwanLok(東環錄)>, which is an old map of Korea, and also wrote several HweGo Si(懷古詩), a poem which dealt with past history. This report is based on Bangsan’s currently existing poems to uncover the truth that it was misunderstanding that he traveled throughout Korea for his entire life. Through this study of Bangsan’s poetry collection, there were two dispositions which support the misunderstanding part of uncovering the truth. First, he used historical sites in his poem for rhyming couplet, which shows similar form from HweGo Si, but those sites are only used for background purpose. Second, exoticism of sorrow is well explained throughout the poem, and also historical sites kind of play a role in his poems to setup a subjective sentiment. These characteristics of using historical sites in his poems to setup a background shows his belief of JoSunSiLon(朝鮮詩論), which means Koreans should be writing poems about Korea only, and also supporting lyricism throughout his work.
  • 5.

    Suanggangqianbiao[瀧岡阡表] of Ou Yangxiu[歐陽修] and epitaphs in the latter Joseon period

    An Soon Tae | 2009, 19(1) | pp.113~132 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to consider the special feature of the epitahps in the latter Joseon period under the influence of Ou Yangxiu’s epitaphs. Ou Yangxiu’s epitaphs were esteemed in the latter Joseon period, especially by Kim Changhyup[金昌協]. Epitaphs for women in the latter Joseon period had two trends: The one is that it embodied the traditional feature of women resting on the basis of traditional Confucian morals. The other is that it described daily experiences emotionally. The general trend of epitaphs for women in the latter Joseon period followed the former. I studied how Ou Yangxiu’s Suanggangqianbiao[瀧岡阡表] did influence to the epitaphs for women in the latter Joseon period. Suanggangqianbiao[瀧岡阡表] is the epitaph written after 60 years since Ou Yangxiu’s father had passed away and based on Ou Yangxiu’s mother’s message. This writing influenced on the epitaphs and especially on the epitaphs for women in the latter Joseon period as following: A. This writing was renowned to the illustrious official women and they asked their sons to write an epitaph like this writing for them. So we can notice that the writing epitaphs for women was a more general current situation in the latter Joseon period than the former period. B. The literary men set forth this writing as a precedent when they wrote epitaphs for their parents. C. The description technique of Ou Yangxiu’s Suanggangqianbiao[瀧岡阡表] was regarded as a good exemplary by the literary men in the latter Joseon period when they wrote epitaphs for women or parents. Ou Yangxiu’s Suanggangqianbiao is the epitaph that praised the virtue of his parents. Though Suanggangqianbiao represented the traditional Confucial moral, Ou Yangxiu described his parent’s virtue in detail and emotionally. And Ou Yangxiu let his mother be highlighted as a active speaker in his epitaph. So we can recognize that Suanggangqianbiao enlightened on the general epitaphs or the epitaphs for women in the latter Joseon period.
  • 6.

    A comparative study on Zhu-xi’s interpretative books of The Book of Odes - Focused on 『Shijizhuan』, 『Shixubianshuo』, 『Zhuziyulei』, 『Shizhu anyishuo』

    Yang, won seok | 2009, 19(1) | pp.133~165 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    It can be said that there are following four kinds of literature related to study on Zhuxi(朱熹)’s The Book of Odes. That is the literature includes Shijizhuan(詩集傳) and Shixubianshuo(詩序辨說) directly written by Zhuxi; a portion related to The Book of Odes of Zhuziyulei(朱子語類), records of questions and answers between Zhuxi and his disciples; and Shizhuanyishuo(詩傳遺說) compiled by Zhujian(朱鑑), a grandson of Zhuxi. In this paper, characteristics and characters of each book were analyzed by comparing and reviewing the above-mentioned four kinds of notes and interpretative books. To summarize the review result, it is as follows. Shijizhuan is a typical book among commentaries on Zhuxi’s The Book of Odes and evaluated to have compiled the study results on Song(宋)’s science The Book of Odes. This book mainly consists of notes and comments on each poetry. The main contents of Shixubianshuo are arguments against problems of Shixu(詩序). It discussed about Daxu(大序) and Xiaoxu(小序) corresponding to each poetry. In Volume 80, Volume 81 and Volume 23, which are portions related to Zhuziyulei’s The Book of Odes, the key facts of the theory of Zhuxi’s The Book of Odes are contained. These books include diverse and detailed materials on main contents of the theory of Zhuxi’s The Book of Odes as well as comments of each poetry. Shizhuanyishuo was compiled to supplement the contents of Shijizhuan. It was compiled by extracting and writing down materials related to the theory of Zhuxi’s The Book of Odes which can be found in Huianji(晦庵集), Zhuziyulei, etc. in addition to Shijizhuan. It is significant in that it collected the contents of the theory of Zhuxi’s The Book of Odes which can be contained in various books.
  • 7.

    A study on the change and development of law history in ancient China

    Chun, Young-mi | 2009, 19(1) | pp.167~201 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Generally, in oriental political history Soon-ja and Sang-ang are often mentioned when considering the change of laws: the change from the rule of courtesy to being against the rule of courtesy. Soon-ja seemed to be the role of bridge connecting a confucianist with Bub-ga because he tried to establish humane order by physical forms. Also Sang-ang helped Hyo-gong carry out the change of laws based on Hun-gong(the king of Jin)’s reform, so that Jin which used to be a savage country became the first country to have the centralizing system among seven powerful countries of the age of civil wars. And he contributed to make Jin a powerful country by achieving a wealth country and a powerful army through the policy of farming and war. Also he was considered as a contributor to build a base for the emperor Qin Shihuang’s domination of the whole world. However, the change and the development of laws was not attempted for the first time by the thinkers with complete knowledge of laws. This could be through formation of monetary penalty system in the process of Ju’s development of commercial business and the circulation of money. It should be noted that this change continued in Chunchu era and operated in Jung which had the development of commercial business. Therefore, in this paper I will reexamine the existing assertion that the change and the development of laws was remarkably made by thinkers with complete knowledge of laws in the age of civil wars. And my goal is to find out the start and the spread of the change of laws in Ju’s monetary penalty system and Jung’s enactment of the written law. Besides, it is noted that Jung’s enactment of the written law means the establishment of national order through right protection for subjects and detached law enforcement. And Jung achieved the development of laws at high levels which coincides with enactment of laws and its purpose of modern society. I will make it clear that independent legal character could be formed, based on this kind of change, due to generalization of regulations by criminal law in Sang-ang’s time.
  • 8.

    An Interrelationship of Teaching - Learning in Confucian Education

    Kim,Il-Hwan | 2009, 19(1) | pp.203~226 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Teaching is a social matter, for teaching has been mostly realized in relation with the subject and the object. The prominent characteristic in Confucian Education is the fact that Confucian Education has its root in the interrelation(相關性) between an educator and an educatee. One of Teaching and Learning spirits in Confucian Education is ‘Kyohaksangjang(敎學相長)’ and ‘Hyohakban(斅學半)’. The two spirits with which new relationships can be formed have social functions as well. While ‘Kyohaksangjang’ is the term which means Teaching is equal to Learning, ‘Hyohakban’ is the term which means that Teaching can be also Learning as an educator. Besides ‘Hyohakban’ focuses on Learning rather than Teaching. Therefore, ‘Hyohakban’ assumes human relations between an educator and an educatee in the mutual complement(相補) of Teaching and Learning. In this sense we find the reason to reconsider the Confucian Education spirits. Confucius exemplified himself as a steady inquirer not as a completed man. Teaching could be the half of Learning. Regardless of wealth and royalty, the strenuous attitudes for Learning will be the bases to form the social bond of sympathy in modern society. ‘Kyohak(敎學)’ is chained by human relations. Now is the time when the spirits of educator’s open mind, rapport(交信), and harmony between educators and educatee are strongly needed.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Multicultural Education Teaching methods of Sino-Korean Classics Education

    DongJae Lee | 2009, 19(1) | pp.227~247 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Multicultural society means a society where minorities’ diverse native cultures are not absorbed into the dominant culture but preserve their originality and coexist with other cultures. Multicultural education is education for respecting myself and being considerate of others, and is human right education for resisting wrong prejudices and fixed ideas and making peaceful decisions. Thus, it is closely related to classical Chinese education. The ground for multicultural education in classical Chinese education can be found in the educational goals of the classical Chinese curriculum. Until now, however, classical Chinese education has been focused on traditional culture, aiming at the preservation of national homogeneity and traditional culture and, for this reason, it has paid little attention to other races and cultures although one of its educational goals was the understanding of other cultures. Accordingly, multicultural education through classical Chinese education should pay attention to three points as follows. First, the contents of classical Chinese education should be based on philosophies respecting human beings like ‘In (virtue),’ and focus on the realization of democratic ideals through tolerance education like ‘Chungseo (faithfulness and forgiveness).’ Second, the contents of education should be expanded by including successful Korean immigrants like Kim Chung‐seon in Korean history who moved to a foreign country and achieved success or adapted themselves to foreign culture successfully. Third, the contents of the classical Chinese curriculum are mainly about human rights and equality, but some of them deal with gender equality and suggest the exclusive superiority of Korean people as a racially homogeneous nation. Such contents should be excluded. Furthermore, multicultural education through the current classical Chinese curriculum should promote the understanding of the diversity and heterogeneity of emigrants’ cultures and the coexistence of such culture, targeting native Koreans rather than emigrants.
  • 10.

    Study on Evaluation of revised 2007 Chinese writings curriculum - focusing on Chinese writings textbook I in High School

    Namgung Won | 2009, 19(1) | pp.249~272 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study is focused on evaluation of revised 2007 Chinese writings curriculum. I looked into the aims and problems so far. Now I add to the lists about suggestions and overlooks here. I feel like suggesting to evaluation of revised Chinese writings curriculum as a criteria. It will use for making a textbook and basic principle of teaching methods. These contents look good on new trend of educational evaluation. Also, it matches evaluation with revised curriculum of general survey. It shows flexible criterion of evaluation. This point is outstanding. This time it is mainly focused to knowledge about Chinese writings such as grammar and syntax. It doesn’t fully mention it about affective filters of learners. It doesn’t feedback usage about evaluation. It needs to be complemented. Especially it changes drastically about evaluation of revised Chinese writings curriculum since 2007. So teachers have trouble in teaching Chinese writings. It should take actions to help teachers. Teacher’s guide and teaching methods help teachers to make it easier. Moreover, It should improve the needs to teachers about evaluation ability. It should supply good training programs of Chinese writings with teachers. It will help varieties of teaching methods in Chinese writings with evaluation of revised Chinese writings curriculum. There are several imitation tests and college entrance exams. During years, authorities about Chinese writings are skillful to make items about evaluation abilities. There are also several imitation tests about connecting private organizations. There are lots of teachers’ associations and meetings and forums about Chinese writings education. Without disorder at first stage, it will work in the classroom. There are much accumulated know-hows in Chinese writings department. Therefore, it is important to minimize disorder at first stage.
  • 11.

    A study on the development of teaching-learning methods of Classical Chinese education in college - Through the case of Classical Chinese-related course as general elective course

    김진경 | 2009, 19(1) | pp.273~298 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    In college education, the demand for learning classical Chinese seems to be decreasing while the demand for learning Chinese characters is continuously increasing. Under this situation, in order to encourage learning Chinese classics, teachers need to identify the needs of learners and develop contents and management methods of lessons that they can enjoy. The present study used a case of classical Chinese related course as an elective course in order to search for effective ways of developing teaching-learning methods of classical Chinese education for college students. Specific contents and management strategies of the course, that is <the wisdom of Orient> were introduced and an effective direction of classical Chinese education was searched for from the view of practical approach to classical Chinese education in college. In general, ideal teaching-learning conditions include reasonable goal setting, interesting contents, systematic management designed to motivate learners’ participation, and valid criteria of evaluation. Among these conditions, the present study focused on the contents development and systematic management of the course that can trigger, increase, and maintain learners’ interests and participation. The teaching-learning method that I used in the course <the wisdom of the Orient> was to re-interpret the Oriental classics in terms of everyday life by the use of cultural contents. In addition, I encouraged the students to understand the wisdom of the ancestors and the Oriental culture through learning allegories. Research on the contents development of classical Chinese courses has been conducted for the past several years in order to investigated teaching -learning methods for the activation of decreased classical Chinese education. However, case studies on the contents utilization in classical Chinese education for college students have not been reported. Therefore, the present case study may be expected to contribute to the development of teaching-learning methods of classical Chinese education in college.
  • 12.

    Research of Chinese literature teaching - studying method which applies an video media

    Choi Jong Chan | 2009, 19(1) | pp.299~325 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Image Media means any image that passed through by television, video, computer, DVD and so on. Image means a scene, image or reflection of light refracted by the object that is designed in the light of the statue. Students create their own footage bring a great educational effect in many ways. Because the video is a synthetic art which embraces a variety of literature, music, art and so on. When the students produce these types of media, they can participate and accept the contents of the lesson as active parties. While they produce these image media, they can discuss and review about the contents of the lesson. So this type of lesson can be a great way to apply to the students. The 7th Chinese literature training courses mentioned to use educational technology media or computer communications media, from teaching plan to assessment. The 7th Chinese literature training courses also present to enlarge its meaning to ‘various media’. Nowadays, the students might be considered as the ‘generation of video’. The teachers should understand the characteristics of those students and find out the point of the class to attract them. The teachers also need to let the student to actively participate to produce and apply the various educational materials in the class of Chinese literature.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Teaching Chinese Letters through Textual Analysis on Improving Reading Comprehension

    Lee Hyung Ju | 2009, 19(1) | pp.327~352 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to select Chinese letters through Korean textual analysis, and to verify the effects on improving reading comprehension. First, the Korean textbook used at th first semester of second grade was analyzed, and then 135 Chinese letters related to learners’ reading comprehension were selected. Next, learners’ level about reading comprehension between a controlled class and an experimental class was analyzed by total tests for reading comprehension. An experimental class was taught Chinese letters through completing worksheets using pictures and cartoons, joining end to end with Chinese letters, using mind-map, reading an editorial article, finding a word using a dictionary, and so on. Some tests for learners’ reading comprehension were carried out through some testing papers made by the investigator, and then some change between a controlled class and an experimental class was verified. There is a meaningful difference between the controlled class and the experimental class in terms of the before-test and after-test related to reading comprehension. Teaching Chinese letters had a positive effect on learners’ reading comprehension.