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2010, Vol.20, No.1

  • 1.

    A Poem Literature of No Su-shin

    조희창 | 2010, 20(1) | pp.7~48 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Collection of Gangseo poems, whose poets began to appear during the reign of King Seongjong, published in the end of Goryeo Dynasty and in the beginning of Joseon Dynasty, Gangseo Poetry Group said that they specified how to write a good poem and should learn it thoroughly. As they experienced the political difficulties, they gradually turned into resignation and comfort. People had good feelings toward the poems reflected their spirit. The poetry group which was called Haedong Gang Seo Poetry Group included Bak Eun, Yi Haeng, Bak Sang, Jeong Sa-yong, No Su-shin and Hwang Jeong-uk, was appeared during the reign of King Seong-jong and Seon-jo. No Su-shin who was a member of Haedong Gang Seo Poetry Group embodied Hwang Jeong-gyeon’s “Yi Sok Wi A” theory as the style of Yi Dynasty. Writing materials So Jae burst into strong feelings using alteration of Yo Chae(拗體). He realized its essence in the middle of learning Du Bo who was good at Yo Chae. People blamed him because he used vulgarism, proverb, place name, name, sexagenary cycle, date in his poems, but some critics such as Heo Gyun, Hong Man-jong and so on praised him. That’s why he had showed the stage of “Yi Sok Wi A(The ordinary things become beautiful)”. As he arranged the real and the false letters well, it made its meanings strong through the inversion in the sentences. It was said that he with Bak Eun and Yi Haeng took pride in the arrangement of the real letters. He also created the new meanings through using the precedent(典故), combined, borrowed and altered the letters partially. He used them to broaden the boundary of its meanings. When he arranged the sentences, he made the appropriate sentences using introduction, development, turn, and conclusion, four steps in composition. No Su-shin had lived in exile for 22years because of Ulsasahwa[乙巳士禍] three years after he entered the government. He was a genius and study very hard when he was young, so many people aspired him to be a great man. Although his exile was the ordeal for him because of the political cession, he read the Du BO and the Analects of Confucius more than two thousand times and mastered them. He established his theory which challenged the Neo-Confucianism and he obtained good results in his own way. He wrote papers such as Gon Ji Gi Bal[困知記拔], Suk Heung Ya Mae Jam, Jip Jung Seol, Yin Shim Do Shim Byeon[人心道心辨] and etc. He argued with Yi Hwang, Gi Dae-seung, Kim In-hu, Yi Hang several times. His philosophy included Na Jeong-am’s theory different from Ju Ja Hak[朱子學]. That’s why he took criticism from the civil servants who called his theory Zen Learning and herecy. He wrote 1023 out of 1449 works during his exile. Their theme was the affection and sorrow of the part, missing the family, comfort from the friendship, overcoming the despertion, passion for the scholarship, being loyal toward the king, loving people and diplomacy. He was good at 5-eun[五言] contrasted with Je Sa-eun proficient in 7-eun[七言]. So Jae influenced in the field of poem literature history and the realm of ideas. He embodied Du Bo as the member of Hae Dong Gang Seo Poetry Group in the style of Yi Dynasty and handed down the theory of the group to Choe Gyeong-chang, Baek Kwang-hun, Yi Dal.
  • 2.

    三唐派 Paek Okbong’s the world of Buddhism Poetry

    Kim,Mi-Seon | 2010, 20(1) | pp.49~74 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A poetical style in the late Goryeo and the early Joseon was formed the mainstream of the Song dynasty’s poetic style including Su Dongpo. From a year of King Seongjong, especially the Gangseo poetical style dominated momentarily even out of Song dynasty’s poetic style. Since now, a study of Paek Okbong’s has studied with a lot of interesting from people who are major in poetry literature. This report considered about the world of Buddhism poetry from a poet of 三唐派 Okbong Paek Kwang-hun’s(1537-1582)’s poetry world. Okbong is the main person who worked on positive lines in history of Korean poet’s Mokneungseongse, when turning point from 宋詩風 to 唐詩風, he aggressively accepted 唐詩風 at the time of psychological, political background. So, this is a main point of this report; previous study of Okbong’s poetry had deeply considered the sides of stage that strongly emulate of 唐詩風’s as a poet of 三唐派 and couldn’t classify even mixed up with 唐詩, but not considered the study of Buddhism poetry. Based on these backgrounds, I tried to approach to world of Okbong’s poetry newly which is not considered before through contemplate and divide his poetry as 交遊 with monks, 反觀 of Buddhism.
  • 3.

    Jang yu’s Sa-bu

    sungsu kim | 2010, 20(1) | pp.75~115 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Jang-Yu was an authority on Chinese literature and as well a distinguished Sa-Bu writer who ended the grand finale with the flourish in the literary history of Sa-Bu. However, his role as a Sa-Bu writer has been hardly mentioned until these days. This paper aims to evaluate his achievement as a Sa-Bu writer and to summarize criticisms on his literary works of Sa-Bu. However, this would become an overview of the topic because of lack of space. This paper deals with 10 pieces of his works, only related to the topic of spiritual training, blessing and incantation. The translation of his works are left out in order to save space. Instead, this paper focuses more on study of style of Sa-Bu and discusses the 3-level formation, the use of rhyme and the usage of letters and phrases in detail. Since the core criterion of genre classification is deeply related to formal elements, the research on these elements is very important process for understanding the concept of Sa-Bu. Thus, this study would help in defining the notion of Sa-Bu and also in understanding the content of the literary works of Jang-Yu.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Munhyung[文衡] in Jeongjo[正祖] Period

    An, Soon-Tae | 2010, 20(1) | pp.117~143 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to consider the changing status of Munhyung[文衡], a great officials who administer literary arts and scholarship, and to consider the distinct feature of their's in Jeongjo[正祖] period. Munhyung was of critical importance to the history of Cino-Korean literary before Youngjo[英祖] period. But the status of Munhyung was going down through the Jeongjo period, and it brought about the low importance to the history of Cino-Korean literary after that time. The main cause of that was the reorganization of official system which dominantly performed by Jeongjo. That is, as the core function of Hongmungwan[弘文館] devolved to Gyujanggak[奎章閣], Hongmungwan's power being weakened. As a result, the status of Munhyung, the supreme officials of Hongmungwan, was in name only. Hwang Gyongwon[黃景源], Seo Myongeung[徐命膺], Kim Jongsoo[金鍾秀], Oh Jaesoon[吳載純], Hong Yangho[洪良浩] who once took office as Munhyung in Jeongjo period, claimed to support of accordance of Dao[道] and Wen[文]. And they seriously considered Liujing[六經] in common. The point of their respect for Liujing is not because of the morality of that, but because of the perfect Qi[氣] of that. And they also considered Dao[道] not as absolute worthy, but as relative value. Relative thingking spreaded more and more in 18th century. Even though Munhyung was the most conservative person, we can catch the relative attitude from them.
  • 5.

    In Regard to the Acceptance Phase of Jiangxishipa of Seopa Ryu-Hee

    Kim, Geun-tai | 2010, 20(1) | pp.145~167 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Seopa Ryu-Hee who devoted his whole life to studying and composing as a typical scholar who was not in a position of political power and a writer lived between the late 18th-century and the early 19th-century. This piece of writing focused on the fact that he learned Jianxishipa in lushi, it examined the acceptance phase of Jiangxishipa in his lushi. The reason why he respected Jianxishipa, even though it was considered to be cliche by literary circles, he thought that it adopted the poetic sprit of Dufu most. Though the pursuit of creativity and individuality which was the topic of the world of poetry in the 18th-century Joseon Dynasty period had many positive aspects, it revealed the negative side in the way that it only pursued the strange trend away from the reflection on the society’s reality and it saw the poem as a play on words. In this situation, he reconsidered the original function of poem and intended to improve the problems of the then literary world.
  • 6.

    A Study for Character of Themes in Heejoilsa

    박종선 | 2010, 20(1) | pp.169~192 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Joseon Dynasty had a class system mainly with Yangban. Most of old archives involve the upper class’s culture and documents. However, Yangban was on the social and economic decline, whereas Chungin grew richer than the former class and began to make the Middle Class Literature in the late of Joseon Dynasty. Their first fruit was Haedongyuju published by Hong Se-Tae in 1712. And selections of poems such as Sodaepungyo(1737), Pungyosokseon(1797), and Pungyosamseon(1857) were published. Although Chungin was lower than Yangban, they published various biographies to show their excellent literary talent and presence. Among them, Hosanegi by Cho Hee-Ryong was the first collection in 1844. The book contains 39 biographies about 42 people. Ihyanggueonmunnok by Yoo Jae-Keon(1862) was followed. Heejoilsa(1866) was also published around the same time. The book was published by Lee Kyoung-Min who was a civilian official in the late of Joseon Dynasty. It is based on biographies and anecdotes about people who had various talents, while they were unmentioned in any official history and not well known in the world. It comprises of 2 volumes with 85 biographies. Even if Heejoilsa contains less than Ihyanggueonmunnok and there’s a huge overlap between the two books, the former includes new people such as Jung Yuk-Dong, Park Eui-Jung, Kim Woo-Seok, Lee Hyung-Ik, Ahn Yong-Bok, Lee Choi-Jun, Kim Hong-Won, and Kim Ga-Mo. Those new people were commonly active in international issues; they protected our country against foreign invasions. There was a certain correlation between them and the year(1866), when Heejoilsa was published. For these reasons, Joseon Dynasty strengthened a closed-door policy and the situation led the author to add biographies of Chungins who were involved in outside activities and protected our country against foreign invasion in Heejoilsa. Therefore, there was quite a little correlation between them. The involved people can be classified into filial duty and fraternity(10), loyalty(13), literature(30), paintings and writings(9), medical practice(3), skill(2), string instrument(1), fortune-teller(1), others(6), and women(10). The author didn’t mention people who had already a respect or won official commendation, but unrevealed people in order to conserve their excellence. The purpose of this study is to make a complete translation of Heejoilsa, examine the individuals’ excellence and true themselves, consider the times, and then describe their social activities beyond their limit of position within the rigid class system.
  • 7.

    A Study on Changes to Courtesy Consciousness in Zuo Zhuan

    복대형 | 2010, 20(1) | pp.193~222 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Judging from the recordings of Zuo Zhuan, the culture of the Spring and Autumn Period was under such absolute dominance of courtesy that it can be called the culture of courtesy and music in a word. However, the period also witnessed courtesy gradually losing its functions, as well. Zhou[周] Dynasty already lost its authority as a suzerain state, which in turn weakened the Zhou courtesy[周禮] that used to support the dynasty. Situations of “discourtesy[非禮]” to destroy courtesy were observed across the society. Under the contradictory situation, the contemporary intellectuals created a flow of more fundamental understanding of and insight into courtesy through the criticism and reflection upon the reality of discourtesy. Judging that such a flow became the ground for the formation of courtesy consciousness in later Confucianism, this study set out to investigate what were the realities of discourtesy they contemplated and what kind of changes happened to courtesy consciousness through the contemplation process. The flow of more fundamental understanding of and insight into courtesy moved toward exploration of courtesy’s archetype. Watching the prevalent situations of discourtesy, the intellectuals developed interest in the fundamental roles of courtesy and then started to explore the intrinsic aspects of courtesy. According to the recordings of Zuo Zhuan, the contemporary intellectuals tried to find its archetype from the religious perspective involving religious ceremonies for gods, from the life perspective of marriage between man and woman, and from the social perspective of maintaining harmony and order. Exploration into the archetype of courtesy naturally led to exploration into the nature of courtesy or the essential human spirit within courtesy. Zuo Zhuan pointed out “righteousness[義]” as the essential aspect of courtesy and “trust[信]” and “respect[敬]” as the basic attitudes to translate righteousness into courtesy. As diverse moral virtues were combined with the meanings of courtesy, which used to be regarded as form or ceremony, in Zuo Zhuan, courtesy was no longer courtesy as form and regulation imposed from outside and evolved into one of human’s autonomous and residential virtues to practice innate human morality. And it became the core of Confucian ideology that embraces humaneness[仁], righteousness[義], and courtesy[禮] and later the overall context of following Confucian ideology.
  • 8.

    A Study of the Thought of Loyalty and Filial Piety in Three Kingdom Period - With the focus on 「the Series of Biographies」 in the 『Samguk-Sagi』-

    Kim Byoung Joo | 2010, 20(1) | pp.223~244 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The thought of loyalty and filial piety has been the traditionalism in the oriental culture area with succession and mainternance. Especially, filial duty is one of the unique thought in only the orient and the loyalty originated in confucianism has unique property in contrast to the royalty in the west, which demands the absolute obedience. However, the loyalty in the latter oriental culture changed the same meaning as in the west. In this thought of loyalty and filial piety has passed into our life and continued to this day, however it shows the different meanings and methods according to the period of history. In particular, the Three Kingdom Period was the era when the thought of loyalty and filial piety was taken for the first time so it was the critical turning point going to the system of ancient centralized country. Use of Chinese character spread during this period as well with the change of introduction, acceptance, and development of a variety of imported ideas. As a base on this change, the Three Kingdom had systematized their own thoughts, educated all kinds of academic lectures and achieved the great advanced culture in general. Among them, especially, the thought of loyalty and filial piety were emphasized in terms of centralization of power and the loyalty was better than filial piety officially becoming the national thoughts by growing internal conflict within the Three Kingdom and also being external threatened from foreign powers. Even though the loyalty was superior to filial piety, they have been shown not as the mainly considered loyalty but as the one image between the loyalty and filial piety. So we can say that the loyalty and filial piety can not be separated each other but the loyalty could be filial piety and vise versa.
  • 9.

    Tracing the Origin of Jeong-arm’s Moral Political Ideology

    서인희 | 2010, 20(1) | pp.245~270 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Seong-Ri Hahk(性理學), Neo-Confucianism in the Chinese Song Dynasty introduced at the late Koryeo Dynasty has changed the function of onfucianism, which was considered to be a means of entering government service or achieving academic goals, into political ideology to suggest social philosophy. In particular, at the late period of Koryeo Dynasty, the revolutionary scholars of Seong-Ri Hahk tried to realize their dream of building new Yae-Jae Cultural Society(禮制文化史會), which, when it came to the period of King Saejong, came true certainly enough to remind the Age of Joo in China. However, Jeong-arm(靜菴) criticized that King Sae-jo’(世祖)s seizing the throne and King Yeon-san(連山)’s tyranny brought about crimes against humanity and anti-civilization, leading to the historic retrogression. He also thought that it was especially serious for people in the leadership to lose the vision toward cultivated society. His awareness of those worrying reality resulted in Moral Political Ideology, based on Moral Philosophy, a practical moral idea. Moral Philosophy(道學政治) established during the Song Dynasty means Ji-Chi(至治), an deal politics represented by Soo-Ji-Chi-In-Ji-Hahk(修己治人之學) and Nae-Seong-Wae-Wang-Ji-Doh(內聖外王之道) and is rooted from Doh-Tong(道統) Theory which continued through the Age of Yo and Syun and Mencius. Establishing Dae-Dong Society(大同社會) by a means of Ji-Chi is thought an ideal of Moral Philosophy and an active, practical way of fulfilling a dream. Moral Philosophy was Jeong-arm’s political belief to make a civilized society through Gi-Chi come true. But the success of Ji-Chi depended on a King having a virtue, so he emphasized Soong-Jeong-Hahk(崇正學), Jeong-in-sim(正人心), Beob-Seong-Hyon(法聖賢), and Heu-Ji-Chi(興至治) over and over to the current king, Joong-jong. These four phrases are not only the essence of his academic and political belief but also another way of expressing Soo-Ji-Chi-In-Ji-Hahk and Nae-Seong-Wae-Wang-Ji-Doh. As you can see, Jeong-arm’s Moral Philosophy is based on a belief that since the period of Yo-Soon(堯舜) and Mencius, people succeeded to the tradition of truth, Doh-Tong and learned truth. It’s also grounded on another belief that truth has to be pursued in a real life and people are supposed to take part in the history of truth. We can say that his awareness of the conflicting issues and his will to resolve them originated from these beliefs. He was involved in several social reforms and ended up being killed as a sacrifice of Gi-Myo Sa-Hwa(己卯士禍). Even though he politically failed, he led young followers to build a civilized society and will be remembered as the first political thought leader of Chosun Dynasty who realized Ji-Chi based on Moral Philosophy.
  • 10.

    The view of human on Korean⋅Chinese⋅Japanese Confucianism in 17-18C - Focused on Wang Fu-zhi, Jeong Yak-yong, Ito Jin-sai

    CHIN SUNG SU | 2010, 20(1) | pp.271~310 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The paper compared and investigated the feature of the human understanding which appears from development process of Korea, China and Japanese Confucianism in 17-18C. Tried to observe the change of Confucianism intellectual’s view of human and the meaning of history of ideas in modern thingking. To achieve this, this paper focused on the ‘Ming De(明德)’ and ‘Xing(性)’ among the Chinese Wang Fu-zhi(王夫之), Korean Jeong Yak-yong(丁若鏞), Japanese Ito Jin-sai(伊藤仁齋). In other words, this paper study on Wang Fu-zhi’s 『Da Xue(大學)』 in 「Du Si Shu Da Quan Shuo(讀四書大全說)」, Jeong Yak-yong’s 「Dae Hak Gong Yi(大學公議)」 in 『Yeo Yu Dang Jeon Seo(與猶堂全書)』, Ito Jin-sai’s 『Go Mo Ji Gi(語孟字義)』. There are three points appears from the Wang Fu-zhi, Jeong Yak-yong, Ito Jin-sai’s view of human in the meaning of modern thingking. First, the Confucianism intellectual in transition period had a critical mind about reality and tried to integrate Jing xue(經學) and Jing shi xue(經世學). Second, They showed the comprehensive scholastic trend that most of Confucianism intellectual in transition did. Third, Did not limit the object of study in only the Confucianism scripture, magnifies to li yue(禮樂), language, institution, history, literature etc., which opened the area of new Chinese classic in territory.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Chinese character of Korean and Japanese

    Park Se Jin | 2010, 20(1) | pp.311~342 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study consists of one chapter to look into the actual conditions and situations of Japan’s Chinese character education in order to compare Chinese character education of Korean-Japanese elementary schools. Even though Korea and Japan’s Chinese character education systems are different, examining how Chinese character education is performed by analyzing Chinese characters in Japanese primary school’s language textbooks seems to contribute to the development of Chinese character education of Korean elementary schools. Therefore, this study looked into the history and the creation of Korea and Japan’s Chinese characters, and divided Chinese characters in Japanese primary school’s language textbooks into types, meanings, and phonemes to examine the differences. In addition, it aimed divide the reasons why Chinese characters are different from Korea into linguistic factors, social factors, and cultural factors in order to examine them in detail. Currently, Chinese characters are frequently used among Korean and Japanese vocabularies. Chinese character education in Japanese primary school’s language textbooks is more systematic and more frequently used than Korea. Despite different education policies of the two countries, Chinese words and Chinese characters play an important in linguistic life of both countries. However, Korean primary school’s Chinese character education is still insufficient. Chinese words and Chinese characters can be an important tool. Although languages are different in Chinese character cultures, language unity can be formed through Chinese characters to lay the foundation for the development of and exchange among nations. Therefore, it is important to examine the actual conditions of Chinese character education in countries with Chinese character cultures. To this end, this study is conducted to look into actual situations of Japan’s Chinese character education by comparing Chinese words in Japanese primary school’s language textbooks.