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2011, Vol.23, No.1

  • 1.

    Review of the Han Character shape used in “The Annals of the Choson Dynasty(朝鮮王朝實錄)” - focus on “The Annals of the Kings Taejo (太祖, 1392∼1398), Taejong (太宗, 1401-1418)” in Jeongjoksan(鼎足山)history library verison

    조성덕 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.7~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This review is first progress for build Variants Han Character table used in “The Annals of the Choson Dynasty(朝鮮王朝實錄)”. “The Annals”, as you know, not is one time or one person write, is using long time and join many people make history book, so in this annals book series as when published holding various character shape. This time, I focus on find a various character shape in the “The Annals of the Kings Taejo (太祖) volume1, Taejong (太宗) volume1”, and make a result table except the various character shape in the “Comprehensive edition of Korean literary collections(『閒國文集叢刊』)”. The result is,1. kind of change stroke shape or adding, find ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ 3 shape. 2. kind of remove storke which repeat or fo make simple, find ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ 4shape. 3. kind of change some component shape to similar shape or change to new shape find ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ 7shape. above 3 kind of shape is can not find any review or Han Character dictionary which China, Japan, and Korea. “The Annals of the Kings Taejo(太祖) volume1, list of ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ character, we can find top of character ‘艹 change to ’, The Annals of the Taejong(太宗) volume1, list of ’’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ character, we can find under of character ‘貝 change to ’. Compare with Han Character dictionary published by China, mostly similar shape using old Inscription(碑文), Han Official script(隸書), but 15 character shape is not find and book and dictionary, is unique shape.
  • 2.

    The Writer’s Consciousness of Gijae Shin Gwang Han Expressed in 『Hwanghwajip(皇華集)』- Focusing on the Aspect in Exchanging Poems with Ming Envoy Jang Seung Heon

    Son Yoo Kyung | 2011, 23(1) | pp.37~68 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Gijae Shin Gwang Han (1484-1555) is a figure who played a key role in the literary circles of the day while being in the government service for around 30 years. As a method to identify the development of his literary world in his life and his consciousness presented in his poems, this study looked into poems he exchanged with a Ming envoy while carrying out the duty of greeting him. Those poems, of course, account for a very small part of his works. However, the record of greeting a Ming envoy was an important incident in his life and it is significant as it demonstrated the recognition of his poems by his contemporaries. This study was conducted based on poems contained in Hwanghwajip, which includes both Ming Envoy Jang Seung Heon’s poems and Shin Gwang Han’s responding poems, looking at the aspect of poem exchange between Shin Gwang Han and Jang Seung Heon and the poet’s consciousness reflected in the poems exchanged with Jang Seung Heon. Shin Gwang Han was involved in three times of envoy greetings directly or indirectly and this study focused on the envoy greeting carried out in 1545 (the 1st year of King Sejong’s reign). Though pieces of work in Hwanghwajip have the characteristics of specialized literature, the poems can serve as meaningful research materials for getting a glimpse of Shin Gwang Han’s inner world during the period he was in the government service because they display both his bureaucratic attitude to save his country’s face and poetic self-esteem to fully keep the pride as a poet. In addition, another outcomes of this study would be to verify the background of his literary works in more details and to reveal the viewpoints of two literary men who lived in the same era but different countries by analyzing poems written by Jang Seung Heon of Ming dynasty and Shin Gwang Han of Josun.
  • 3.

    A study on aesthetic consciousness of 「Grass and insect painting」 by Shin Saimdang

    Yu Jeong Eun | 2011, 23(1) | pp.69~96 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to study aesthetic consciousness of 「Grass and insect painting」by Shin Saimdang. Beauty is our harmonious feeling about some object and respectful, valuable things as a substantial phenomenon not abstract idea going beyond our daily life, which makes us be happy. Accordingly, feelings welled up in our life are all essences of the arts, and nature and things around us are beauty itself respectively. Shin Saimdang was born in Chosun dynasty, the rigid Confucian society some 500 years ago. She not only held up as a model of Confucian ideals for a good wife but also was a respected artist who was excellent in poetry, calligraphy, and paintings. Especially, 「Grass and insect painting」is works created from benevolence and virtue of Shin Saimdang. Objects of 「Grass and insect painting」are small things which can be easily seen in a daily life and she gave a tender and warm mind to them, which makes the painting vivid. This study dealt with then background, introduction of 「Grass and insect painting」, aesthetic consciousness of 「Grass and insect painting」such as natural beauty; simple beauty, and emptiness beauty; Confucian aesthetic consciousness; cultivation of aesthetic consciousness. Her paintings show Korean beauty that is simple and frank. In 「Grass and insect painting」, very small creatures and worthless, ugly ones appear - too small to see or not aesthetic objects. This reflects her ‘mind of benevolence’ - unusual love extended to small and insignificant creatures. ‘mind of benevolence’ is a main body of Four clues mind which embrace and considerate for all beings, and is a principle of love. Therefore, The author would like to say that source of beauty starts with ‘benevolence’. Thus these are alive in 「Grass and insect painting」- alarming life, simple beauty, and woman elaborateness - and shows high completeness as a work, which allowed the painting special artistic value. She painted her own unique works and developed Korean painting to independent painting style with Korean characteristics. As a result, her paintings have a large meaning that her paintings were free from China’s influences. Her works represent Korean aesthetic beauty in the fact that she harmoniously arranged simple and worthless materials and sublimated them to noble arts painting on a canvas noiselessly.
  • 4.

    Two aspects of the Inserted Poems in Lee, Kyeong-seok’s <Pungakrok(楓嶽錄)>

    채지수 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.97~127 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Baekheon Lee, Kyeong-seok was a writer who lived during the reigns of the Joseon period king Seonjo and Hyeonjong(1595-1671)(Seonjo 28-Hyeonjong 12). As a statesman who served the state during two wars, he compiled the “Samjeondobimun” and suffered banishment to Baekmasan Fort in China. For about ten days after his release from exile in China in the ninth month of 1651, he traveled to the Keumgang Mountains and wrote “Pungakrok”. The work includes prose and 52 verses inserted into the prose text devoted to expressing his sentiments on the journey. It is noteworthy that at the end is included a long prose-poem work of 150 rhymes and 5 syllables. This paper examines the nature of “Pungakrok” to see how the author used poetry in Chinese in his travel writing and the effects of the poetry as viewed in combination with the prose narrative. “Pungakrok” is contained in the Shigo (詩稿) section in vol. 10 of Lee, Kyeong-seok’s Collected Works entitled “Baekheon jip”. The work is centered on the author’s trip to the Keumgang Mountains with verses added to the prose. But in terms of content the prose sections of the work relate the author’s sentiments and experiences and may therefore be seen as an organically independent “travel record[遊記]”. So it is in the main a prose work with verses intermittently added. (詩揷入型 散主韻從). The prose narrative in the work is fairly concise and objective in nature, and shows many similarities with other similar prose narratives. But it also pauses in places within the prose and inserts a Chinese poetry to express his joys, sadnesses and empathy with respect to the special situations of the author’s experiences during his journey to the Keumgang Mountains. Chinese poetry is used as a device to impart to the reader whose emotions not easily conveyed through prose. In addition, the inserted Chinese poems in Pungakrok are often “romantic descriptions based in the authorial imagination”, and express what the author saw and experienced through fantastic poetry, as well as what fascinated him. These Chinese poems stand in sharp contrast to the objective prose narratives in the work. In other words, “Pungakrok” may be said to offer two distinctive functions: “objective information” and “fantastic environment and fascination” which mutually supplement each other. In conclusion, “Pungakrok” contains both poetry and prose in a single work, a Keumgang Mountain travel record in which both components are used to complement each other’s special characteristics.
  • 5.

    The sentence technique research which appears in a sad story of Nong-arm.

    오석환 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.129~152 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The sad story does not make a tear and not to be is a writing which grieves and a writing which makes respects the dead person young early from is, maybe there is a talent cannot be used grief to think, maybe there is a virtue does not live long without being able, said that grief thinks. The work which from here presents with the master piece of Nong-arm about his disciples and the second cousin sibling the writing as is, will be able to guess the fact that Nong-arm puts the heart and soul. He uses a many kinds sentence technique from here and between he does not know naturally to being sad he gets wet and to make hold he is doing letting oneself with the person. First connected a sentiment and a logic and to build a logic from(由情立理), or the method which builds a nest(寄情于理) an affection in logic used. Used an examination with method of demonstration and proved(借古證今) and or proves the fact to use a fiction the method which used(以虛證實). In order to distinguish the dignity which is mental until features of the inside puts in the same time when draws a surface shape and the technique and uses is sad naturally and to come in flocks is doing. The function which prose is general is to a utility. Specially, the sad story is the writing which informs in promotion of the person who is dying. Consequently, thing is the keynote the justly sad. The no matter how superior author to be beautiful there is a writing skill which is gorgeous, but being sad in contents, this lacks, letting is earnest with the person and the person who is living being sad and if there is not a possibility of doing to make feel, this the gruel is the writing.. But, outspoken and factually being sad, if expresses, this the writing is only will become shallowly. The sad story of Nong-arm when seeing from like this viewpoint, to being sad thoroughly, put the keynote. The sentence technique which is various leads, is about sad outspoken, or there is not expression which is factual. Also the person who is living and becomes own one is dying and feels sad together, is sad and a possibility of doing there not to make be subject is doing.
  • 6.

    Analysis on the Embodiment Aspects of Sim Ik Un’s Poems

    심의식 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.153~175 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the embodiment aspects of Chinese poems written by Jisan Sim Ik Un(芝山 沈翼雲 (1734-)), a literary man of late Joseon period. He was born in a prominent family and was talented enough to be appointed as Ijohwarang when he was quite young. He was a youth with such promising future. However, he lost his office with severe berate for disturbing ethics due to his wrong deeds regarding ancestral issues and became involved in the crime of punishment to end his life in the place of exile. His work collections are 『Baekiljip(百日集)』 of two volumes and two copies only collecting his poetry and prose written up to his age of 34 before his exile. The poetry contained in 『Baekilsijip(百日詩集)』 are just 300 or so, but they show his achievements and status as an author very well. He was destined to the misfortune of Sinpyeyuri(身廢流離) to raise questions about the existing social order and express metaphorically his inner pain and anguish with various objects around him. He could pursue his own unique poetic world by expressing his personal experience and inner world authentically. Also, realizing the composition of Chinese poetry should never be restricted by the norms, laws, or poetic nostalgia, he used materials around him to criticize the world he viewed allegorically. Sim Ik Un pursued a positive and active life rather than coping with the situation he was in passively. Considering and deliberating on the true value deeply, he established a fluent literary world full of clearance and absorption and a flood of sentences. Always trying to find true beauty from various aspects of life that could be easily seen around us, he advanced a step forward from the literary view of ‘Literature should contain the truth.’ and showed wonderful value could be provided in ordinary life.
  • 7.

    Study on Wu Wang(无妄) Hexagram of the shanghaibochujian-Zhouyi(上海博楚簡周易)

    원용준 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.177~207 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper restores the original text of Zhouyi(周易) in the pre-Qin period and investigates it’s meaning based on the cultural and philosophical background at the time through contemplating Wu Wang(无妄) of the Shanghaibochujian-Zhouyi(上海博楚簡周易) discovered in an antique market in Hong Kong in 1994. Wu Wang(无妄) of the Shanghaibochujian-Zhouyi(上海博楚簡周易) is composed of two bamboo slips, slip 20 and 21. The slip 20 is broken and missing about 13.7cm. It is estimated that the slip contained 16 characters: □, [又. 六晶, 亡忘之, 或繫之牛, 行]. There have been a variety of views on the meaning of “Wu Wang(无妄).” According to Zhaoli(昭力) of Yi Chuan(易傳) in Mawangdui Silk-Manuscripts(馬王堆帛書), standard edition of Xu Gua Chuan(序卦傳), Zhouyi Zhengyi(周易正義), and other textual materials, “Wu Wang(无妄)” of Zhouyi in pre-Qin means “sincere without lies.”Yaoci for Six in the second place(六二 爻辭) of Wu Wang(无妄) on the Shanghaibochujian-Zhouyi says “不耕而穫.” Standard edition of Zhouyi, on the other hand, says “不耕穫.” It has been confirmed that “不耕而穫” was written in the Zhouyi in the pre-Qin through quotations from Zhaoli and Yizhiyi(易之義) of Yi chuan in Mawangdui Silk-Manuscripts, and standard edition of Fangji(坊記) of Liji(禮記). This phrase is regarded as a war-related proverb used widely from the Warring States to early Former Han, on the process of generalization and abstraction emerged in the farming community. Therefore, the phrase can be specific evidence to prove that some line statements of Zhouyi were originated from sayings of ancient societies. Also, Confucian scholars in the Han dynasty attempted to change the sentence of the classic to an instructive lesson that seeking unearned income is ominous because the original one had a positive attitude toward unearned revenue. This means that original hexagram and line statements unrelated with Confucianism was reinterpreted, and sometimes modified, in the transformation process of Zhouyi as one of the Confucian classics.
  • 8.

    A recognize of Ohgyusorayiui’s Tao(道) appeared 『Noneojing(論語徵)』

    Ham Hyun-Chan | 2011, 23(1) | pp.209~240 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the recognition of ‘Tao(道)’ of Ogyū Sorai(荻生徂徠) that appeared in the 『論语征』. 『論语征』 is starts from criticism about the interpretation of the Analects of Confucius of Chu Hsi(朱熹). Ogyū Sorai was a Japanese Confucian philosopher. He has been described as the most influential such scholar during the Tokugawa period. Sorai rejected the moralism of Song Confucianism and instead looked to the ancient works. He argued that allowing emotions to be expressed was important and nurtured Chinese philosophy in Japan for this reason. Sorai attracted a large following with his teachings and created the Sorai school, which would become an influential force in further Confucian scholarship in Japan. Therefore, this dissertation reveals the characteristics of the recognition of ‘Tao’ of Ogyū Sorai, through the comparison of the recognition of ‘Tao(道)’ of Ogyū Sorai and Chu Hsi. Sorai thought that 『論語』 is a book that has recorded what can be teachings among the Confucius say. And he also thought that ‘Tao’ is the institutional mechanisms for social reign. Moreover, he saw the ancient Chinese sage-kings as concerned not only with morality but also with government itself. And in his mind, Confucianism is the study to rule the world and govern human beings. In addition to this, Sorai thought that the study is a tool for promoting the welfare of society.
  • 9.

    A study on the 『SanghanchangwhahunJi Collection』 - Focusing on construction and contents

    Kim Jin Kyung | 2011, 23(1) | pp.241~263 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    『SanghanchangwhahunJi Collection』 was a collection of conversations by writing which was published by a Japanese intellect who collected written conversations and poetry between Chosun Tongsinsa staff dispatched to Japan in 1719(Kihae year) and Japanese intellectuals. It was published in Kyoto in the year of 1720. This collection boasts the most voluminous work among the present material related to the diplomatic journey in Kihae year. It is an important text which we can learn detailed pictures of transaction via diplomatic journeys between Chosun and Japan. In this regard, the present study attempted to identify the publication process and explanatory notes on editing of 『SanghanchangwhahunJi Collection』 which has sparsely studied so far. In addition, the present study aims at introducing its value as materials related the diplomatic journey of Tongsinsa through the examination of its construction and the contents of conversation. The construction of 『SanghanchangwhahunJi Collection』 is composed in line with the places where the Tongsinsa staff had written conversations with Japanese intellectuals according to their itinerary. The written conversations and reciprocally presented poetry made in one place were bound together without noticing whether it was written in the time of entering Japan or returning to Chosun. Through the contents of written conversations, we can identify that the Japanese people at that time had very serious and various interests in Chosun such as neo-Confucianism of Chosun, medical knowledge of Chosun, and features of the Chosun literature. If future research can identify the differences between 『SanghanchangwhahunJi Collection』 and other diplomatic journey records in the form of diary by Chosun Tongsinsa staff, the value of 『SanghanchangwhahunJi Collection』 is sure to be magnified.
  • 10.

    Importance of Adverbials in the Appreciation of Classic Chinese Poems

    Lee Yi Kang | 2011, 23(1) | pp.265~286 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We need a premise for the analysis of the literary beauty of a classic Chinese poem. One can discuss the aesthetic structure of the poem only when he/she can cry and laugh as he/she feels almost the same emotions converged in the poem as the poet does. One of the keys to feeling almost the same feelings as the poet when appreciating a classic Chinese poem is the ability to read out nuances of adverbials expressed in the work. One can sufficiently sympathize with the poet’s feelings permeating in the poem if he/she can understand the effects of the adverbials in the work. This paper has analyzed the effects of the three adverbials, 唯 ‘only,’ 只 ‘simply,’ and 獨 ‘alone’ as the first step of the study because they frequently appear in classic Chinese poems. Used in front of the subject of the predicate, these adverbials make the effect of making the unity of a poem more prominent by excluding others. If one carefully relishes a classic Chinese poem paying attention to the effects of adverbials, he/she can find out internal evidence of the estimation of the time of its creation, or he/she can sympathize with the poet’s feelings while feeling rich after glow and implications. On the other hand, it proves from actual classic Chinese poems that some misunderstanding of the poems is brought out if one overlooks the adverbials. As the importance of adverbials is great in such a degree when on appreciates a classic Chinese poem, we can tell that the adverbials cannot be freely eliminated in translation. However, as we has examined some of the translations of 秋風唯苦吟, the first line of Choe Chi-won’s representative work, In the Rain at an Autumn Night, it has turned out that the adverb 唯 is eliminated from the beginning or is treated lightly as a trivial particle. Perhaps, due to this, the poet’s feelings are not so sufficiently appreciated when one reads a translation as when one reads the original.
  • 11.

    Review on the contents of Education for The Four Books in Classical Chinese Textbook of High School

    이돈석 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.287~312 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The course of Four Books in Classical Chinese subject education has different feature from the one in Classical Chinese classics in Korea. The reason of this difference is that the course of education is made by the textbook of High school. It finally means that the educational contents of The Four Books in High school should be selected by fitting the subject according with the purpose of education and then should be applied toward high efficiency of education. This thesis will find problem about such an education on The Four Books in High school and seek way for ideal education of The Four Books. And this will find difficulty for selecting subjects in current education for The Four Books and suggest new model for comprising test book contents. The Four Books is basic educational sector in Chinese classics as well as in Chinese education. There, however, is currentely not enough explanation about The Four Books in the course of Education. Thus, more systematic and effective contents of Chinese Education for The Four Books a swell as The Confucian classics should be suggested in the course of Education in High school.
  • 12.

    Research about sino Korean teachers’ knowledge of assessment - with in the boundaries of a focus on PCK assessment consulting-based supervision

    허연구 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.313~340 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Since 2007, the Gyeonggi-do education office has been conducting a consulting-based supervision that emphasizes on advice and consultation rather than direction-based supervision. It has been carried out through the division of lesson and assessment. Many schools have become interested in this method. It has had a good influence on the sino Korean teachers’ professionalism, especially considering that schools have only one or two sino Korean teachers on staff. According to sino-Korean assessment consultants, sino Korean teachers often failed to observe general guidelines of assessment and dealt with their assessment carelessly. This is good evidence to show that there is an absence of assessment professionalism in the evaluation of learners. When considering assessment consulting, sino Korean teachers should possess assessment knowledge in evaluating the sino-Korean subject. Assessment knowledge as a means of evaluating sino-Korean subject could be divided into subject content, assessment content and learner behaviors. Knowledge about the content of subjects includes course and subject content. There are subcomponents of knowledge with respect to assessment content such as specifications, questions, answer sheets, editing and question types. Knowledge about learner behaviors includes a percentage of correct answers, induced wrong answers, degree of learner response and knowledge of application of assessment results. Sino-korean teachers could not perform well in their assessment of sino-Korean subject. An assessment consulting has contributed to sino Korean teachers’ professionalism. If sino-Korean teachers applied for consulting for themselves and the consulting carried out continually, professionalism of sino-Korean teachers would be expected to improve.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Teaching Chinese Letters through the Analysis of Korean-textbooks on Improving Reading Comprehension

    이형주 | 2011, 23(1) | pp.341~368 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to teach Chinese letters of each unit through the analysis of Korean-textbooks, and to verify the effects on improving reading comprehension. First, the topic and the method of the study was planed through the data collection and consideration to the precedent studies and instruction Chinese letters and words were selected through the analysis of the middle school textbooks which are for second-grade to third-grade students. At consolidation stage of each lesson, learners were made to participate in the writing short-sentence activity using the presenting Chinese letters and words and they were allowed to use the Chinese-Korean and Korean dictionaries. The before and after change of the study was investigated through the Paired T-test for verifying the statistic meaningfulness of the distinction in average by pairing subordinate variables of total test for reading comprehension. The result showed the significant improvements in reading comprehension of the boy and girl students altogether. Especially the boy students who were much lower than the girl students before the study showed the reading comprehension attainments to the similar level to the girl students after the study. In conclusion, teaching Chinese letters and words had a positive effect on learners’ reading comprehension and it was necessary to design and apply the various teaching programs to enhance the students’ ability of Chinese letters and words.