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2013, Vol.26, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on Nuljae(訥齋) Park Sang(朴祥)’s Fu literature - Focusing on the descriptive methods for expression of themes

    Kim Jin Kyung | 2013, 26(1) | pp.7~37 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Nuljae Park Sang(1474-1530) was extolled as the founder of the poetical arena of Honam because of his high level of literary achievement. He left 12 Fu works in various forms and contents. Nuljae put his desperate emotion resulted from his frustrating life into his Fu works with various features. Hence, close examination of the Fu works of Nuljae may provide a solid base for sound and fair understanding of his purpose and literary world. In this regard, the present manuscript attempts to appreciate the literary value of Nuljae’s Fu works via investigation of descriptive methods utilized in expressing his themes. This research method is expected to identify how Nuljae’s desperate feelings are expressed in his literary works. In addition, it may establish the foundation to understand more specifically the literary value of Fu through individual Fu work pieces. In order to express his themes in Fu works, Nuljae used the following descriptive methods: lyricism, epic structures, argument and allegory. Usually he used these four methods together for an individual Fu work. His works with more literary value are found to have the excellent harmony of these four descriptive methods. Nuljae’s harmonious use of various descriptive methods made his Fu works enjoy higher quality than any other writers’ Fu works regardless of times. This is considered to be originated from the outstanding literary capability of Nuljae. works in the development process of Fu literature during the 1400s-1500s. The Fu works from the 1400s-1500s are very similar to those of Nuljae’s in terms of variety in forms and contents. The themes of Fu works in particular are more diverse than ever. They include accusations of and satire on contradictions of reality, affect such as exasperation and indignation due to the internal conflicts of the ruling class, condolence in everyday life, pursuit of 遊仙 and so on. This trend of Fu works in Nuljae’s life time is fully reflected in his Fu works. Therefore, specific analysis and examination of Nuljae’s Fu works should be considered as a good example of identifying empirically this writing trend of the 1400s-1500s.
  • 2.

    A Study on Yanggok Soseyang’s Yeonhaengsi - Focused on the Aspects of Recognition on ‘Hoedonggwan Mungeum’

    LEE SOUNG HYUNG | 2013, 26(1) | pp.39~72 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to consider Yanggok(陽谷) Soseyang’s(蘇世讓; 1486~1562) yeonhaengsi(燕行詩) regarding the aspects of recognition on ‘Hoedonggwan(會同館) Mungeum(門禁)’ in Peking and its significance as yeonghaeng literature. Yanggok’s yeonhaengsi is mostly 7-eon jeolgu and yulsi in general, and it seems to have been his efforts to cope diplomatically with the arbitrary exams conducted under king’s special command and the exchange of poems. Also, we can see that his works contrast the situations of ‘Mungeum’ and ‘excursion’ distinctively and describe it frankly. Looking into his works showing his sense of shame and critical mind towards Mungeum, first of all, we see that Yanggok simply recognized Mungeum as ‘Muieodalja (無異於㺚子; ones the same as barbarians)’, that is, ‘Naebok (內服; the status equivalent to that of the sovereign princely states)’. And it was the uncomfortable truth that they mistreated Chosun, a country of courtesy, identically with the barbarians wearing a pigtail. This was recognized to negate or weaken the status of Chosun that was regarded superior to that of surrounding nations. He was in agony as comparing his confined life in Hoedonggwan like a prisoner’s to chosu(楚囚; a person living as a captive in a foreign land) and showed critical mind bout Mungeum. Yet, he also indicated the aspects of resignation thinking of his wishes for return to his hometown feeling the limitations of positive exchange due to the practice of ‘Insinmuoegyo (人臣無外交)’. Next, examining his works expressing excitedness of ‘Hwangdoyuram (皇都遊覽)’ and ‘Oililchulgwan (五日一出館)’, we see that he used all the authentic precedents associated with each of the places in order to express sense of realism and diverse thoughts about the objects he actually saw in the excursion. He made efforts to enhance implication as well as symbolicity and also showed his confidence in the excursion. And it is considerably different from his world of works created in the Mungeum situation. His dualistic world of works may have been influenced by the specific place and situation, that is, Hoedonggwan and Mungeum. Mungeum was the system that strictly restricted not only Chosun yeonhaengsa’s outing but also exchange with people, too, so it is the biggest reason why we can hardly find their exchange with foreign figures or description of Peking in Yeonhaengrok written in Ming Dynasty.
  • 3.

    Emotion Appearing in Sino Poems(漢詩) of Bangye(磻溪) Yu Hyeong-won(柳馨遠) in the Period of Hermitage in Buan(扶安) Ubandong(愚磻洞)

    Lee Yi Kang | 2013, 26(1) | pp.73~96 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
     This article is the results of analysis of original Sino poems on Bangyeilgo(磻溪逸稿) published on December in 2006.  Bangye(磻溪) Yu Hyeong‐won(柳馨遠 1622-1673) was not a professional poet who tried to compose a good Sino poem. He was a Scholar Poet who composed poems showing his emotion spontaneously. However, in 1653 when he decided to retire to hermitage he had big psychological conflicts and he tried to express these conflicts in Sino poems.  In the works right before the hermitage, the primary emotion was ‘Sentiment (感傷)’that he felt because of the reality. In the works after the hermitage, however, two spirits such as ‘Anseongmyeong (安性命; To accept the fate calmly)’meaning following the reality and ‘Pyojangseongjang (豹藏成章; A leopard completes the pattern enduring hunger in a hideout) meaning resistance against the reality. Bangye realized his ego through Balbunjeoseo (發憤著書‐ Writings resulted from his painful efforts) balancing between acknowledgment of and resistance against the reality.  In the modern society full of people who cannot be placed in the right place with various reasons despite of remarkable capabilities, the life of Bangye can be a role model. It can be said that Bangye is the great teacher providing unlucky people with hope not only in academics but also in life.
  • 4.

    A Study on Chugang(秋江) Nam Hyo-on(南孝溫)’s poem, <Buyeo Hoego(夫餘懷古)>

    DongJae Lee | 2013, 26(1) | pp.97~124 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper, as a preliminary study for understanding Chugang Nam Hyo-on’s historical reminiscent poems in general, has taken a look at his created poem ‘Buyeo Hoego (a reminiscence of Buyeo).’ Chugana’s poem, ‘Buyeo Hoego’ is a sequential poem consisting of the first and second halves with 10 sub-poems for each half, which he created while doing sightseeing in Buyeo in the middle of his travel over the whole country with his son-in-law, Lee Chong in 1491. This poem can be said to be a reminiscent poem about the history of Baekje with 10 sub-poems as it does not have independent poetic themes for the sub-poems, which in turn are closely correlated with each other. Hungu literary men like Seo Geo-jeong only expressed simple feelings of condolence in their reminiscent poems about the history of Baekje written in the early Joseon period. Contrastively, Chugang’s poem ‘Buyeo Hoego’ was one that was created for seeking a way to solve the real problems in the times, in which he lived from the previous history of falling in Buyeo, a historic site of the fallen Baekje rather than singing the transience of human conditions. Chugang’s poem ‘Buyeo Hoego’ can be understood as follows. First, the poem is a poeticization of Chugang’s deep understanding of the history of Baekje as a whole. Though his understanding of the history of Baekje did not overcome the records in 『Samguksagi』 and 『Samgukyusa』, he tried to throughly follow them and leave lessons for the next generations with his objective description rather than with his emotional engagement. Second, Chuganga’s poem ‘Buyeo Hoego’ is an expression of his will to reflect upon the present beyond simply recording past events, and to show further how one should keep his right also in the future. That is to say, his identification of himself with such loyal subjects like Seong Chung is an attempt to establish a novel figure of literary man who should be able to resist the injustice in reality via his own fidelity and sacrifice. Third, Chugang’s poem ‘Buyeo Hoego’ is one that was created from a fairer and more objective perspective of the history of Baekje. That is to say, he did not ascribe the falling of Baekje completely to King Uija’s atrocious boozing and womanizing but recognized that the subjects at that time should share responsibilities as they were in charge of national politics. Furthermore, he thought of the Baekje-reconstruction movement as positive. That was a unique recognition among other reminiscent poems about Baekje created in the Goryeo and early Joseon periods. Consequently, Chugang’s ‘Buyeo Hoego’ is an allegoric poem that he created to find out a method or lesson to solve the problems in the times in which he lived, via his novel recognition of the history of Baekje.
  • 5.

    Poetry literature Research of ‘Ho So Ji’ - Initiative Tang Poetry Style

    조희창 | 2013, 26(1) | pp.125~167 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Poetry literature of early Joseon Dynasty caused conflicts between Sarim group and Sajang group, by creating unprecedented prosperity since King Sejong the Great. This once resulted in the weakening of literature. However, going through Seonjo Dynasty, it brought about the enlightenment of Chinese literature. Among the members of Hedonggangsuesi, ‘HoEum JungSaYong’(1491-1570), ‘SoJae NoSooSin’(1515-1590) and ‘Jiwon HwangJungWook’(1532-1607) were the ones who left significant marks in the history of Chinese poetry, encompassing both poems of Song dynasty and those of Tang dynasty. In general, they are called as ‘HoSoJi’, ‘GuanKakSamGirl’, or ‘HaeDongGangSueSi group’. Heogyun called these three people ‘HoSoJi’, praising them for creating and developing Tang-style poetries. Then he confirmed that HoEum passed down Tang style to SonGog, SoJae NoSooSin passed down Tang style to BeakGangHoon and ChoiKyungChang. Inferring to this fact, we know that Hoso Ji worked as a bridge that converted Song poetry into a Tang poetry. We also know that they are the transition figures who passed down Tang poetry to ‘Samdang’. So far, there is little research that has the solid view about the command of Tang poetry of these three people of ‘HoSoJi’ Many of the past researches were limited to the research of individual person of HoSoji. There were only a mentioning of HoEum JungSaYong and SoJae NoSooSin’s writing style in some of the research papers. Debaters are comparing Hoeum and Sojae, pointing out that Hoeum is good at seven-Un and Sojae at five-Un. However, research about HwangJungWook, who is 17 years younger than SoJae, is insignificant compared to Sojae and Hoeum. The research about Hwang Jungwook, if there is any, appears in Heogyun’s writing, SungSoSiHwa: “poetry of our country was well-founded in Sunjo period. SoJae got law of DuBo, and Hwang JungWook followed after him. ChoiKyunChang and BackGanghoon learned Tang poetry, and LeeDal lightened this stream of trend.” Through this writing, he is explaining that Hwang Jungwook inherited Tang style from SoJae. This study inter-compares the characteristics of Hosoji literature, which was only fractionally mentioned. In order to materialize the issues-so called ‘Hosoji’- that have been only remained as a theory or unsolved questions, this research extracts collections of works and precedent researches about Hosoji. It also finds out the materials and poetry words needed for research and put them into new perspectives.
  • 6.

    Daesan(對山) Gang jin(姜溍)’s life and poetry - Based on the poetry of Geomseogwan(檢書官) years

    kimyoungjook | 2013, 26(1) | pp.169~204 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Daesan(對山) Gang jin(姜溍; 1807-1858) is 19th century’s a former Geomseogwan(檢書官) and poet. His great-grandfather is outstanding artist Pyeoam(豹菴) Gang seihwang(姜世晃; 1713-1791). Gang jin was an heir to his great-grandfather’s artistry and remarkable literary attainments. Prominent men of the time speaks very highly of his work. About the poems, Gang jin easily ranks with the Three Geomseo(三檢書). Nevertheless, poet Gang-jin and his poetry has not been enough studied it has recently gotten a look. This paper will be do the groundwork for full-fledged study of Gang-jin’s poetry. For the right and well grounded approach to rearrange his life and career, I examined the several materials of 『naegack-ilryeok(內閣日曆)『 and 』silock(實錄)『, manuscript 』對山詩抄』 ect. In order that appreciate poetry, I divided his lifetime depending on experience. Travel experience to beijing and Geomseogwan(檢書官) years had a big impact on his life. Especially, through Geomseogwan(檢書官) years’s poetry, we can find some expressions that is about royal place life. On other way, he couldn’t throw off this feeling of inertia. This study is an interim report of this process. the ultimated goal is to investigate every aspect of his life and uncover his literature various ways on the basis of the study of his work and the outcome of the research.
  • 7.

    An Essay on the Sincerity of Chinese-letter Literature in Modern Times

    Jin-kyun Kim | 2013, 26(1) | pp.205~229 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The Chinese-letter classical literature in modern times developed outside of the central sphere of modern civilization after the modern enlightenment period. Those intellectuals who pursued the hitherto neglected Chinese-letter classical literature called themselves “flesh and bones (骨肉),” meaning “one’s whole body” or “one’s dear family members,” each other and promoted a strong sense of solidarity. At the heart of the modern Chinese-language literature were such figures as Jeong Il-bo (鄭寅普) and Byeon Young-man (卞榮晩) who shared a sense of solidarity and discovered the value of modern Chinese-letter literature. As they attempted to prevent the literary form from being extinguished, they found a new value in it: sincerity. From their perspective, sincerity is found in a sympathy with life in a community and deserves the credit of the most cherished value in the process of changing life in a community. Even through Chinese-letter literature was being neglected and extinct in society, literary figures could express their sincerity in the literary form. As intellectuals devoted to the Chinese character classics, they were fully determined to transform themselves and asked themselves to help promote the intellectual community devoted to Chinese-language classical literature, which was possible due to a strong sense of solidarity among themselves. Their approaches differentiated themselves from those of the enlightenment discourses in modern times that imposed duties on the public as they imposed duties on themselves instead. Unlike the modern enlightenment discourses that neglected knowledge on Chinese letter classics, they could get access to knowledge of traditional Chinese-text literature from a new perspective.
  • 8.

    Appeared to the notion of traditional chinese values of the story about predicting the future of 《Tai Ping Guang Ji》

    Park Mi-ae | 2013, 26(1) | pp.231~265 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
     The five hundred rolls of Tai Ping Guang Ji (Extensive records compiled in the Tai ping years) is China’s earliest collection of classical novel which was compiled by Li Fang and other eleven people from the order of the emperor Tai Zong in two years of Tai ping xing guo in the Song Dynasty (A.D.977) and completed in the follow in year (A.D.978). It includes nearly 7000 stories from the Pre-Qin and Han Dynasty to the Five Dynasties and the early Song Dynasty, also can be said to be avery large collection of narrative text in content and quantity. Therefore, academic circles usually take this book as “the source of the novel”. It provides valuable information for researchers of Chinese classical novels.  Tai Ping Guang Ji was introduced to the Korea in the Koryo period and was published into detailed section, annotation and so on various forms of abridgment and translation in the Joseon Times, promoting the generation and development of Korea’s classical novels. As a result, it has high historical value not only in China but also in Korea’s literary research history.  Through the in-depth analysis of various traditional concept contained in the “predict the future” narrative of Tai Ping Guang Ji, this paper discusses various Chinese ideology and concept, namely logic, value, belief and other psychological problems when Tai Ping Guang Ji was widely popular. Especially, from the three factors of “predict the future” narrative --- predict the content, predict the process, predict the way this three point of view, it studies people’s fatalism, secularism, the cycle of world outlook, the social life concept which contains morality, happiness and values, and the scientific concept which involves nature, geography, math, and medical science.  All in all, from the ideological background above, this research studies the ideological and cultural significance and value contained in the “predict the future” narrative in the traditional natural life culture carrier Tai Ping Guang Ji, also discussing the important meaning and reference of Tai Ping Guang Ji to us who live in a modern civilized society.
  • 9.

    Consideration of the Selection Basis of Standard Shapes of Chinese Characters in Chinese Characters-Using Area(Korea, China, Taiwan, hongkong, Japan.)

    김영옥 | 2013, 26(1) | pp.267~292 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
     This paper aims to examine the selection basis of standard shapes of Chinese Characters of each country in cultural areas of Chinese characters and to grasp the features.  Each country in cultural areas of Chinese characters has concretely proposed the selection basis of its standard shapes of Chinese characters from the early stage of the 21th century. There was a country like China whose selection basis of its standard shapes of Chinese characters was the same as the one used now, and there were countries such as Korea or Japan whose selection basis changed in a certain time.  Reviewing such a selection basis of standard shapes of Chinese characters, it could be confirmed that other nations than Korea based such a selection on common use, sources of characters, simplification, etc. Meanwhile, in Korea, it was found such a selection was based on the frequency, the shapes of Chinese characters used in Japan and characters shapes of 『Kangxizidian(康熙字典)』.  Through consideration of the selection basis of standard shapes of Chinese characters carried out in the paper, the selection basis of shapes of Chinese characters at present being used in our country could be confirmed. This result is expected to a reference in reviewing the basis for selecting standard shapes of ‘Basic Chinese characters for educating Chinese writing’ in the future.
  • 10.

    A study on description for ‘Parts of Classical Chinese Knowledge’ in the high school 'Chinese Ⅰ’ textbook by ‘Educational Curriculum Revision in 2007’

    SunyoungJung | 2013, 26(1) | pp.293~314 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
     This paper studied problems for the Preposition present in high school ‘Chinese Ⅰ’ textbook by the Educational Curriculum Revision in 2007.  In this results, its textbook carried out educational goal of Chinese on site schools through the activities of teaching and learning, so, enhancement on ability of reading and understanding must be proceeded to understand on structure of sentences. Also, the knowledge of Chinese mainly obtained through the textbook, therefore it’s important and the educational curriculum is more important.  So, in this paper, it proposed contents of review in descriptive problems present ‘The Classical Chinese Ⅰ’ and standards and regulations of Chinese, but it depends on method of teaching according to the characteristics of learners. Therefore, the teaching and learning on structure of sentences need to develop method on the teaching and learning.
  • 11.

    Examination on details of characters and virtues, and teaching methods in Chinese class - Focusing on 『Sino-Korean』 textbooks for middle school curriculum revised for 2009

    허연구 | 2013, 26(1) | pp.315~354 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
     Personality education is becoming the theme of education throughout the world. Korea has praised those with upright characters as saints and man of virtue from old days and presented them as a desirable human character. It is the Chinese classes that become the most popular materials for showing images and attitudes of saints, men of virtues.  Personality is a character of a man. Personality education refers to changing immature students intentionally into righteous and value-oriented person.  The ability to read and comprehend Chinese is the most important goal for Chinese classes but curriculum contains many materials and themes on personality and virtues. The sources of this study are mainly on books for developing self in old times. Chinese classes contain personality and virtues then any other subjects and can be regarded as subject appropriate for teaching personality education and realize internalization. However, the difference with recent concept of common good is that they focus on family oriented filial duty, friendship, personal self-examination which were key values in old times.  Personality education in Chinese classes can be conducted in various ways. Teachers can teach by explaining sources when teaching Chinese characters and teach contents related with personality. Teachers can also teach personality while reading verses or vocabularies containing sources while teaching Chinese vocabularies or phrases. Short phrases or verses related with personality and virtue can be good materials for comparing, organizing and internalizing personality through stories of ancestors and in-depth personality education can be conducted depending on the number of class hours.  The goal of Chinese classes is still about correct interpretation of Chinese sentences by learning Chinese characters but education on personality and virtue can change into classes ideal for developing personality depending on the will of a teacher since this class is frequently exposed to personality and virtue then other subjects.