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pISSN : 1975-521X / eISSN : 2765-3943

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2014, Vol.29, No.1

  • 1.

    West Andong(安東) East Hamyang(咸陽) and Chunryung Three Geniuses[天嶺三傑]

    Kim Yun Su | 2014, 29(1) | pp.7~39 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Chunryung Three Geniuses[天嶺三傑] refers to three saints, Gujolam(九拙菴) Yanghee(梁喜)(1515~1581), Okye(玉溪) Nojin(盧禛)(1518~1578), and Chungryun(靑蓮) Leehuback(李後白)(1520~1578). They were old friends and taught by Dangock(唐谷) Jungheebo(鄭希輔) together. Okye and Chungryun were born in Jigok-myeon in Hamyang and Gujolam was born in Sudong-myeon in Hamyang. Gujolam and Okye were buried in Jigok-myeon in Hamyang and Chungryun was buried in a family burial ground in Pa-ju. They entered government service as passing Samasi(司馬試) and the civil service examination. They were Neo-Confucianism scholars and devoted to their parents. Okye received Jungrye(旌閭) as a devoted son and even granted a posthumous epithet of Munhyogong(文孝公). Ancestral shrines were set up at Dangju(糖州) lecture hall in Hamyang and Changju(滄州) lecture hall in Namwon to cherish Okye and another ancestral shrine was set up at Seobong(瑞峯) lecture hall in Gangjin to cherish Chungryun. It is considered to be moved to Hamyang. The other shrine for cherishing Gujolam is at Guchun(龜川) lecture hall in Hamyang as one of the six noble man. Okye and Chungryun were poets and wrote traditional three-verse Korean poems. They were people of great integrity and became a minister, top official. Chungryun granted a posthumous epithet of Munchunggong(文淸公) because of his high integrity. However, Gujolam hasn’t received a posthumous epithet. Also, Okye and Chungryun authored a book of literature collection but Gujolam didn’t write much and his writing has been left in a part of Youngseongsego(龍城世槁). A collection book of Gujolam should be published. His final status was a vice minister but he obtained a minister position after his death. So Chunryung Three Geniuses became a same position after all. Chunryung Three Geniuses, Gujolam Yanghee, Okye Nojin, and Chungryun Leehuback, who had both learning and virtue, being the right man as a minister, influnced local culture and politics. They are the pride of Hamyang and the model of a scholar as being virtuous, erudite, proficient in literature.
  • 2.

    A Study on Gujoram(九拙庵) Yang-hee(梁喜)

    JUNG,KYUNG HOON | 2014, 29(1) | pp.41~67 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Gujoram(九拙庵) Yang-hee(梁喜) is still not known in academic circles. Yanghui is very famous in Gyeongsang Province officials and intellectuals. But until now, research is very little about him. Therefore this study is the discovery and analysis of new data, because very worth it. His anthology is not being passed. Just his work is contained in 『Yongseongsego(龍城世稿)』. This book is his book collecting the literature of the family house. His anthology is not now. Therefore, this book you can understand his precious data. If you look at his life, 40 years living on the poor but honest officials. His poor but honest bureaucratic life is largely because of his grandfather. He is a good bureaucracy and literature is a very talented writer. His poems are at the time was enough to memorize a lot of people. His poetry was obtained out of his life works. In particular, his pen name Gujoram(九拙庵) is a very important literary material. His poetry express the pain and reality of the peoples. And in his literature was good job of expressing management’s life of integrity.
  • 3.

    A Study on the poetic themes and styles appeared in Okgye No-Jin’s poetry

    Kim Geun-tai | 2014, 29(1) | pp.69~91 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to consider the poetic themes and styles in the poems of Okgye No-Jin. Practically it’s difficult to say Okgye has a definite status in the history of Sino-Korean Poetry, because he’s not a professional poet. However the poems from one neo-confucianist’s profound knowledge and noble personality are easy and plain, and show us his high spiritual world beyond mundanity. In this article, these poetic themes and styles are defined as Pyong-Dam(平澹): calm, lucid and pure. Okgye had accumulated a deep academic knowledge while communicating with scholars of the day. Since his gentle and quiet character, he had been skeptical about the corrupt, rapidly changing political world which was too ambiguous to look ahead. For that reason he was eager to quit the government office, return home and lead a quiet life by practicing of his study. But it was never achieved. During just a short time staying home after withdraw from his office, it’s possible to do sightseeing several places around Jirisan and writing poems about nature and the people lived in. Therefore it might say the remaining poems in his anthology recite honestly his feelings about hometown or landscape, and such poems are mainstream. Okgye No-Jin’s poems seem to be plain because of no special skill, poetic devices, difficult allusion or polishing any poetic diction. In addition, the emotion and feelings of the author so rarely revealed, that could be considered his poems are even insipid rather than plain. But the more reader read those poems, the more taste deep flavor contained in them unfolding in a very natural way, consequentially they worked very well to last infinite emotional resonance. Other poems written while excursing implicit the spirit of neo-confucianist: to cultivate one’s mind and the vast flowing spirit[浩然之氣], and internalize his virtuous mental world.
  • 4.

    A Study on Acceptance of Tang(唐) Poetical Style by Cheonglyeon(靑蓮) Lee Hu-Baek(李後白) - Focusing on the analysis of poetic diction and materials

    LEE SOUNG HYUNG | 2014, 29(1) | pp.93~123 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study was designed to examine acceptance of Tang(唐) poetical style, focusing on the analysis of poetic diction and materials that were used in Jeolgu(絶句) of Cheonglyeon(靑蓮) Lee Hu-Baek(李後白, 1520~1578). On external characteristics of Cheonglyeon(靑蓮) Tang(唐) poetical style, he had an interest in an aesthetic sense of contraposition and showed a strong feature in it. Therefore, contraposition was used in 17 Su(首) of Jeolgu(絶句), and poetic diction suitable for lyrics and scenery were frequently used. In particular, poetic diction proper for ‘clear[淸]’ style of work composition was frequently used. Cheonglyeon(靑蓮) perceived the scenery of the season such as Japanese apricot flower as a representation of home. In a scenery poem, he realized a ‘clear and unique[淸奇]’ style of literary world by making a contrast between clear and fresh poetic diction and the impression of colors. Moreover, ‘Gyuwon(閨怨)’, or legends and names of location of Joseon were boldly made into works. Tang(唐) poetical style of Cheonglyeon(靑蓮) was greatly realized in Jeolgu(絶句), and lyrical mood and view of Tang(唐) poetical style was realized as well. However, contrastposition was overly used and his poems remained as a simulation of Tang(唐) poems. Nevertheless, status of Cheonglyeon(靑蓮) needs to be shed new light on as a pioneer in learning Tang(唐) along with Saam(思庵) Park Soon(朴淳).
  • 5.

    A Study on Poetry Literature of Cheongmae Ino Zen-master[靑梅 印悟禪師]

    Kim,Mi-Seon | 2014, 29(1) | pp.125~149 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This article is The Study on Poetry Literature of Cheongmae Ino Zen-master[靑梅 印悟禪師] among the Chinese literature heritage in the southeastern part of Korea. Cheongmae Zen-master is an important meaning of Buddhist Zen poetry realm in the chinese literature contents in the study range geographical southeastern part of Korea. Damyang’s Jirisan Yeongoksa (鷰谷寺)⋅Yeongwonsa(靈源寺) and so on, temples which he practiced and gained realization as he went and came often the Odoryeong(悟道嶺). That Zen poem is Sipigaksi(「十二覺詩」) is recited[吟誦] by people of all sorts and conditions who go and come often the Odoryeong in Jirisan right now. This means to clear the poem covers the important a vein of the southeastern part of Korea of Chinese literature heritage. In special, the characteristics quality of Cheongmae Chinese literature, in Zen Buddhism, explains the point one by one about 148 types catechetic questions for meditation in volume 1 The Cheongmae Collection[『靑梅集』] in order to instruct his disciples with presented catechetic questions for meditation[公案] and Gochik(古則) by ancient Zen-master and left the Songgo poems. As the above there was very meaningful consideration by approach through Cheongmae Zen -master who left based on the southeastern part of Korea Zen poetry[禪詩] realm which unites Zen and poetry of the realization of truth and wisdom in the results whether has no loss or gaining and training or realization anymore. I expect to interest in Cheongmae Zen-master[靑梅禪師] and the southeastern part of Korea area Chinese literature and leave the post consideration.
  • 6.

    Study of 『Sanjungilki (山中日記)』 of WuDam(愚潭) Jeong, Si-Han (丁時翰) - Focused on Touristry Records of Hamyang, Gyeongsangnam-do Province -

    Son Yoo Kyung | 2014, 29(1) | pp.151~180 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    WuDam (愚潭) Jeong, Si-Han(丁時翰) is a scholar of late Joseon dynasty and his family was yangban (aristocrat class) family living in Seoul for generations. Existing researches about WuDam Jeong, Si-Han have focused on his philosophical contemplation and his literary aspects have not been approached enough. This research was started from interest on 『Sanjungilki (山中日記)』, a travel literature of Jeong, and we believe the literature can diversify studies regarding Jeong, Si-Han. According to 『the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty』, Jeong was described as “likes mountain and water hence traveled around all different regions [喜山水遍遊八方]” and 『Sanjungilki』 is a book with intact daily records of four-time mountain traveling at his late age. Therefore, detailed analysis of this book could contribute for knowing Jeong, Si-Han’s normal life not just as a scholar but also as a writer. This paper has looked into the meaning of ‘the place one has left’, not ‘the place one is living’ for WuDam Jeong, Si-Han. In other words, the meaning of mountain traveling for Jeong, Si-Han, who lived in Gangwon-do province for his entire life, has been investigated. For this, among the four mountain traveling described in 『Sanjungilki』, the first traveling was selected for detailed analysis. The travel, proceeded on his age of 62, was with the longest time spent among his four trips and he stayed in Hamyang region of Gyeongsangnam-do Province for six months. Therefore this paper extracted records from Hamyang region only from 『Sanjungilki』 and analyzed in depth to find the meaning of Hamyang for Jeong, Si-Han. Moreover, the rationales of Jeong’s San-Su-Byeok (山水癖: propensity of craving for mountain and water) were contemplated through this paper.
  • 7.

    Chungeum’s historical awareness

    Song Hee Kyung | 2014, 29(1) | pp.181~217 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Chungeum, Kim sanghyun(1570∼1652 A.D) belonged to Seoin faction in the political world, leading political situation as a leader of the faction, Chungseo against Gongseo after enthroning the King, In-jo. In addition, he took lead the academic world as the head of Neo-Confucianism with an inclination toward Giho School in those days. East Asia where Chungeum lived between late 16th century and mid- 17th century was caught in turbulent times when international order was reorganized. Born in time of the king Seonjo’s rule, he was a character representative of an era leaving his noticeable footprints in social and political aspects with firm conviction and step, getting involved in the following big incidents: political party strife formed from the early years of Chosun dynasty, Japanese Invasion of Korea, enthronement of the king, Injo, Yi Gwal’s rebellion, the Chinese Invasion of Chosun, the Manchu war, and so on. Meanwhile, he insisted the rejection of peace to the end, tearing the surrender documents against Choi, Myung-Gil who maintained coinage in the vortex of two wars, Japanese Invasion of Korea and the Manchu war, during time of rules of kings, Kwanghye and Injo. Due to strong awareness of the rejection of peace, he might be evaluated with disregard in academic achievement, but the king Jeong-jo ever rated high about his studies and sentences along with his integrity early in the book, Hongjaejeonseo. In addition to this, a massive amount of collection of works, forty volumes and sixteen books proving both political standing and outstanding idea fully, Chungeum stood firm in the fields of both politics and study as a doer who tried to fulfill academic idea with clear conviction. Although he repeated resigning and remaining in office since going into government service, he was engaged in government service all his life. And he experienced honor and disgrace on his country on being in jeopardy. His belief emerges from a set of actions he showed every time his nation was in a great crisis. Sometimes he was criticized because he looked for honor by himself, but his real intention was acknowledged through his deeds since he was sent to the capital of Qing dynasty, Simyang, under escort. The writer examined Chungeum’s historical awareness on the basis of the poetical composition among his literary works he left. His historical awareness system was not irrelevant to his world of literary. Ethics as practical confucianism was characterized by loyalty and integrity, leading confucian tradition at that time. Chungeum realized reality on the basis of this confucian way of thinking. He made true appearance of an intellectual who tried to practice the path of justice rather than self-interest, behaving himself sincerely to his academic belief throughout his life.
  • 8.

    The death imagery and aesthetic characteristics in Kim Sat-got’s ‘Mansi(挽詩)’

    HA JUNG SEUNG | 2014, 29(1) | pp.219~245 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Kim Sat-got, a poet in the late Joseon period, is one of the best-known poets in the history of sino-korean poetry. He lived a unique life. Kim’s family were implicated in Hong Gyeong-nae’s rebellion. That is why he gave up entering public life. He leaded a life of a wanderer travelling around the country. In this manuscript, I looked at the category of Mansi(挽詩) in Kim Sat-got’s poets. He observed many deaths wandering about everywhere, always faced his own death as a rootless vagabond. Death is a important factor in his Poetic literature. Mansi(挽詩) included in a collection of his works, 『Kimlip Sijib』 is excellent in literary value. It covers all aspects of death such as death of wife[Takmangsi(悼亡詩)], son[Gokjasi(哭子詩)], friend[(Dobungsi(悼朋詩)], common people and so on. His Mansi is small in quantity, but deals with a wide range of themes about death. Kim Sat-got started a life of a vagabond leaving mundane world, but turned his warm-hearted eyes upon world. His love for grass roots is especially reflected in his poets. There is a distinct difference between his ‘Mansi and scholar-gentry class’. He sang about the love for the poor and powerless people. One of his major achievements in creation of sino-korean poetry is expanding subjects and themes of Mansi.
  • 9.

    Study on Guam Han Baek kyum’s Bangryung Simeuisul - incontrast to Joseon Dynasty’s Simeuisul

    Chi Keum Wan | 2014, 29(1) | pp.247~276 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The main purp.ose of this study is to examine Simeuisul in middle Joseon period, highlighting Kuam’s own way of analyzing scriptures through Bangryung Simeuisul, and to inquire into the affects and special features of Bangryung Simeuisul. Among 『Yegi』,  Simeuisul was one of the most important subject to study for many generation of confuscianists. Simeui transmitted from Samguk era, and was worn as a mourning gown or worn in sacrificial rituals, but after orthodox neo-confucianism was introduced in the late Koryo dynasty, it was worn as a formal dress for men of noble family according to Zhuxi’s 『Garye』Simeui contains meanings such as ‘rectifying human nature by straight and even shapes’, and ‘Yin-Yang’, the source of changes in all creations. The contents about Simeui in 『Yegi』, 「Okjo」 was so simple that Junghyun and Gongyoungdal added notes to help understanding the meaning of the words, however the notes made it more confusing. Consequently there were a lot of different interpretations of Simeui between the scholars in the next generation, and the point of issue was ‘sokimgubyun’ and ‘imbangdang’ ‘gokgub’. Guam said the Simeui system was written clearly in 『Yegi』, that it is not hard to understand, but it was distorted by different annotators that the script lost its original meaning. Furthermore, Guam questioned 『Garye』 as it doesn’t say the same as Zhuxi’s ‘man nylon euisul’, and made a profound investigation based on the original script of 『Euirye』, 『Shigyung』, 『Eiah』, He also valued the meaning of the letters, and analyzed 『Yegi』 precisely to make a new system of simeui, the Bangryung Simeuisul. This started a study of simeui that is  not only comfortable to wear but also corresponding to the old manners at the same time, and it amplified an interest and discussion about simeui from that time till future generations. Another meaningful thing is that it brought change to hap.p.en in real life by providing a concept of practical dressing to the post silhak scholars.
  • 10.

    A Phase of Shim DaeYoon(沈大允)’s Interpretation of the Analects[論語] - Focusing on Profit[利], Loyalty[忠] and Consideration[恕]

    Roh Kyung Hee | 2014, 29(1) | pp.277~309 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Baekun(白雲) Shim DaeYoon(沈大允) was born in a noble household, and his household was a member of Disciple’s Faction[少論]. However, his household had studied Yangming learning[陽明學] from generation to generation, and in his great-grandfather’s generation, his household was faced with a disaster that wiped out a whole family. For this reason, his family was barely keeping their life as a noble household, and he should had to be a merchant to maintain his family’s livelihood. Although he was under these unfavorable conditions, he wrote enormous books about Confucianism and marked a representative Confucian in 19th century. He excluded Han dynasty learning[漢學], occupied with the meaning of word and phrase, and Chŏng Chu learning[程朱學], tends to be theoretical and abstract. These academical tendencies was resulted from Yangming learning and merchandising activities. Moreover, he emphasized an empirical and practical attitude that the interpretations of Confucian classics must be based on body texts[經文] and people’s reality. He thought that pursuing profit[利] is in innate nature, Ch’onmyŏngchisong (天命之性), and that if a human extremely pursues profit, this might be possible to destroy mankind. Therefore, he wanted to make an ideal world where people have loyalty[忠] and consideration[恕] so that they share their own profit with others, so-called Yŏyindongli(與人同利). He called this moral state Chigong chi do(至公之道), the most utilitarian profit, in his book. He also tried to solve the domestic and foreign problems in the 19th century through interpreting the Analects[論語].
  • 11.

    An approach to annotations of 『Hyubjoo-MyunghyunShibChoSi(夾注名賢十抄詩)』 focusing on References and Authentic Precedents

    KIM EUNJEONG | 2014, 29(1) | pp.311~349 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    『ShibChosi(十抄詩)』 contains 300 poems in seven word style of Chinese verse by 30 mid and late Dang(唐) dynasty poets including 4 Shilla(新羅) people. Otherwise 『Hyubjoo-MyunghyunShibChoSi(夾注名賢十抄詩)』 which was edited by Jasan in later Goryeo(高麗) dynasty contained an explanatory notes and annotations on 『ShibChoSi』. This tow books represented publications distribution in East Asia of 10th century, so attract attention in Korea, China, and Japan. Especially these shows the historic starting point of the Chinese poems in Korea by accepting the genre of Chinese poems. This paper aimes to analysis references and authentic precedents of annotations in 『Hyubjoo-MyunghyunShibChoSi』. Cited references of annotations can be classified according to kind of contents. There are volumes of philosophy, history books, dictionaries, geography books, and literature book including 『Moonsun(文選)』 in annotations. By researching these references, we know frequency occurrence poetic dictions and authentic precedents in 『ShibChoSi』. Especially, we know that Jasan(子山) who annotated not only annotated Chinese poems, but also commented meaning of poem.
  • 12.

    Research on the Chinese Meaning-Sound Connected Letter Showing ‘Dan(耑)’ as Sound

    hanyounsuk | 2014, 29(1) | pp.351~380 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The basic meaning[bonui] of dan(耑) is the beginning[sicho]. gabgormun(甲骨文) was written in . It was representing the scene of sprouting of a plant. The upper part represented the stem of a sprout[] and water[] and the lower part ‘’ represented the meaning ‘beginning’ by drawing ground ‘一’ and root ‘’. The changes of letter shape from gabgormun to haeseo have been ‘ - - - - - ⓐ, ⓑ, ⓒ, ⓓ - 耑’. Geummun ‘’ omitted water[] which was drawn in gabgormun . Dan(耑) was written as ‘’ when it was used as gugeon(構件) of dan(段). It was for the beauty of a shape of a character by changing the shape. The shapes of characters from geummun(金文) to haeseo(楷書) in ‘’ were ‘() - - - , - ’. Also when it comes to examining that ‘’ is the changed form of dan ‘耑’ in phonology, their sanggoeums are a close sound[近音] of cheopwun(疊韻), bangnyu(旁紐)(dan(端), jeongnyu(定紐)) so it is proved that these two letters are the same letters.
  • 13.

    A study on the Development of Teaching-learning Methods for <‘Logic and Essay Writing’ in the field of Chinese Classics education> - Through a Teaching Case of Teacher Training Course in University

    Kim Jin Kyung | 2014, 29(1) | pp.381~405 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aims at developing teaching-learning methods for ‘Logic and Essay Writing’ in the field of Chinese classics education focusing on a case of Chinese classics lesson which is opened as a teacher training class in university. The case class that the author selected is ‘Logic and Essay Writing’ in Chinese Classics Course. Its educational purpose is to develop students’ reading comprehension skills and logical reasoning through the process of analyzing Chinese Classics literature loaded with strong logical features. Futhermore, students are expected to develop and enhance their critical thinking and logical articulation. In addition, the present study intends to assist student teachers who will be teaching Chines Classics in secondary school in enhancing not only their own logical thinking power and essay writing skills but also their teaching skills of essay writing. Therefore, the author conducted the course according to the following components. The first is text reading with critical and analytical thinking. The students are required to understand the contents, analyze the logical structure, and present the summary of given texts, They are asked to select their own essay topic. This practice is to enhance their critical thinking and logical reasoning as well as reading comprehension skills. The second is integrated logical writing. Students learn how to select their own essay topic which relates short sentence from Chinese Classics literature with various contents relevant to those writings. This practice is to develop the students’ language ability to express logically their integrated and critical thinking. The third is construction of learning materials by students themselves. As a prospective teacher, students should have opportunities to reflect on teaching material that can be useful in education setting. This practice is to provide students teachers with leaning environment to develop abilities of teaching and evaluating essay writing. The present education system emphasizes integrated course education in order to cultivate talented individuals with future oriented creativity. Integrated writing can be regarded as a part of integrated course education. In addition, we cannot ignore this integrated trend in Chinese Classics courses. It seems necessary to put considerable efforts to develope specific teaching methods for Chinese Classics courses with the consideration of Chinese Classics relevant classes in universities. Therefore, it is hoped that the above-mentioned case can pave the way for development of teaching-learning methods for ‘Logic and Essay Writing’ in Chinese Classics education.