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2015, Vol.30, No.1

  • 1.

    Matter of practical use of adding Korean endings to classical Chinese phrases in Korean Chinese Classic Translation and Marking - focused on ‘~handae(한대)’ and ‘~(i)aneul(이어늘)’

    Gyupil Lee | 2015, 30(1) | pp.7~38 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
     This study discusses the relevance of adding Korean endings to classical Chinese phrases in Translation and Marking.  To this end, this study arranged the nature and function, and then diagnosed tasks through the present condition of researches. In the process, this study found that preliminary investigation has not been built about the meaning and usage in adding Korean endings to classical Chinese phrases, and this writing felt keenly the necessity for associated researches.  To Verify importance of the study on the meaning and usage in adding Korean endings to classical Chinese phrases, this study looked in ‘~handae(한대)’ and ‘~(i)aneul(이어늘)’ mainly. Because these are used frequently and open to dispute.  The two are seemed to be very similar. But consequently, this study found that the two have their own coherent rules respectively, and these rules have very important informations to understand sentence structure, So, if we know and reflect exactly the meanings of these rules, the level of Korean Chinese Classic Translation and Marking will go up.  Accordingly, if we investigate and arrange others, for example ‘~hani(하니)’, ‘~hayeo(하여)’, ‘~hago(하고)’, and so on, we will be able to found that those have certain informations and are used under certain rules.  The possibility of enhancing level in Korean Chinese Classic Translation and Marking is detected, to but this manuscript pointed out the reality that there are not much scholars who add Korean endings to unfamiliar classical Chinese phrases exactly. Based on them, this study raised the necessity for systematic education in adding Korean endings to classical Chinese phrases. At this point, as precondition exact education, this study felt keenly the necessity for researches and arrangement.
  • 2.

    The Controversial Cases of Hyunt’o(懸吐) in Interpreting Chinese Classic Texts and Commentaries of Collected Commentaries on the Four Books

    Shin, Sang-Who | 2015, 30(1) | pp.39~63 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
     Hyunt’o(懸吐) is a way for rendering texts written in Classical Chinese into understandable Korean. Joseon literati insered the additional postpositions and endings in Hangeul between phrases and did not modify the original text in classical Chinese. Since Hyunt’o aims to reach target language while keeping source language as it is, Hyunt’o can be defined as a sort of translation. When we take note its interpretative function, we can notice that the types of T’o(吐) could be changed depending on how a person who made Hyunt’o interpreted original texts. Hence, we are able to explain how he interpreted original sentences by looking over how he made Hyunt’o.  This study aims to examine controversial cases of Hyunt’o among controversies surrounding interpretations of Chinese classic texts and commentaries. By those cases, classified into interpretation of original texts and commentaries, we can find out not only the correlation between Hyunt’o and the interpretation of sentences, but how controversies of Hyunt’o contributed to make elaborate and strict interpretation. Especially by looking over the controversial cases of commentaries, we can understand how Hyunt’o was widely used within the discourse on Neo-confucianism and deciding the type of T’o(吐) was depended on a person’s philosophical view.
  • 3.

    Research on the present state of application in Chinese philology(漢語文字學) reflected in teaching material - In terms of high school chinese character text book

    hanyounsuk | 2015, 30(1) | pp.65~99 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
     In high school chinese character text book, there are a lot of statements regarding Chinese philology[漢語文字學] and its practical use of teaching and learning methods. Below are the practical use of Chinese philology[漢語文字學] reflected in teaching material.  First, it is a teaching and learning method that is linking[系聯] the chinese characters that share the same phonetic part[聲符]. For instance, one can teach and learn the chinese meaning-sound connected letter lak(格), lak(洛), lak(network : 絡) together as they have each(各 : gak) as their phonetic part[聲符]. This makes it easier to learn chinese character’s shape[形] and sound[音].  Second, it is a teaching and learning method that is linking[系聯] the chinese characters that have many different meanings. This is common chinese character[漢字], chinese character language[漢字語] teaching and learning method that is often seen in chinese character text book. For example, the meaning of ‘stopper[塞 : sek]’ can be changed regarding its usage; old man’s horse[塞翁之馬. frontier : 塞(se)], fortress[要塞. fortress : 塞(se)], cutting off the root[拔本塞源. stop : 塞(sek)].  Third, one can teach and learn by analysing the structure of chinese character or combining its part[部件]. For instance, learner can analogize the meaning of ‘palm’ by analysing the structure of palm[掌 : jang] in to ‘hand[手 : soo. indicating the meaning] + yet[尙 : sang. indicating the sound]’. In other way, one can learn chinese character intestinal[腸 : jang], poplar[楊 : yang], smooth[暢 : chang], soup[湯 : tang] by presenting part[部件] shine[昜 : yang] and combining it with ‘moon[月], tree[木], open[申], water[水]’.  Fourth, it is a teaching and learning method that is linking[系聯] the chinese characters that have the same radical. For example, one can teach and learn kang(鋼), kuang(鑛), swue(鎖), chong(銃) together as they have the same radical. This has an advantage in learning chinese character’s meaning[義] and shape[形].  Fifth, it is a teaching and learning method that is linking[系聯] the chinese characters that have similar shape or meaning. For instance, one can teach and learn ‘ahm[(險), kum(檢)’ together as they have similar shape and ‘year[年 : nyun], year[歲 : se]’ together as they have same meaning. This has an advantage in learning chinese character’s shape[形] and meaning[義].  Presenting the meaning of chinese character can be inadequate in translating a sentence. The meaning of 薄(bak) in 薄集(bakjyb) is presented as ‘gather’, however ‘concentrated’ is the precise meaning. 都(do) is presented as ‘beautiful’ in ‘我國本聖人之都(agukbonsengynjido)’, however ‘country’ is the correct meaning. ‘襲(syeb)’ is presented as ‘descend’ in 世襲(sesyeb), however ‘inherit’ is the correct meaning.
  • 4.

    A study on the poetic world of Heobaekjeong Hong Gwui-dal - Focused on the poetry representing Heobaekmi

    박종순 | 2015, 30(1) | pp.101~127 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
     Hong, gwui-dal was a celebrated poet in early Joseon Dynasty. To investigate the esthetic pivot which composed his poem world, we can find that ‘Heobaek[虛白]’ got settled thereinto. Significance of ‘Heobaek’ was the source that enabled the creation of poem, which went through his poem world.  Basically he was prepared with the ability to compose typical poem and sentence equipped with formality as bureaucrat literary person at that time. However, on the other hand, he composed a work which pursued free and lonely life to enjoy alone in the nature. This duplicity had a significant meaning in his poetic literature.  The word ‘Heobaek’ came from 『Chuang-tzu』. The meaning of it was the expression of will to aim for the life which could reveal the nature of an object as it is in the emptied mind state just as ‘A bright light shines in an empty room’. When investigating the concept of ‘Heobaek’ in terms of esthetics, we can see that the image of ‘Heojeong[虛靜]’ and ‘Cheonjin[天眞]’ came from this. Also, as the analysis result of the work, we could determine that the poem world such as monologue within the modest mind, reminiscence in the stage of living in easy retirement, pursuit for being content with one’s lot, etc. was embodied in this esthetic background.
  • 5.

    A Study on 16th century Literary Men’s Poems Reminiscing about the Baekje Dynasty

    DongJae Lee | 2015, 30(1) | pp.129~161 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
     This study purposed to examine the current state, contents, and literary characteristics of poems reminiscing about the Baekje Dynasty written by literary men in the 16th century and ultimately to broaden our understanding of poems reminiscing the Baekje.  Poems reminiscing about the Baekje Dynasty refer to poems composed on the theme of remains, people, events, and history related to Baekje by those who visited the remains of the Baekje Dynasty including Buyeo, the last capital of Baekje.  There are 44 extant poems reminiscing about the Baekje Dynasty written by 14 literary men in the 16th century including So Se‐yang(蘇世讓). The contents of the poems are mostly about the vanity of history, and a few literary men such as Hwang Jun‐ryang wrote poems satirizing the realities in those days but the number is small. The reasons are as follows.  First, different from that in the 15th century, 16th‐century Joseon was already rooted deeply into the Neo‐Confucian value, the national founding ideology of Joseon, in various aspects of the state including politics, economy, and society. However, there were a series of political incidents including Gimyosahwa(己卯士禍: massacre of Confucian scholars in 1519) resulting from continuous political conflicts between aristocrats monopolizing power and wealth and those anxious for new politics. As a result, literary men’s interest in history was generally diminished far lower than that in the past.  Second, as Neo‐Confucianism was deepened and popularized in the 16th century, the Neo‐Confucian view of history soaked into literary men unknowingly. The king had to attend the learning session[經筵] everyday and discussed Confucian texts and history with the subjects. The main textbooks of the learning session were Liujing[六經: the Six Classics] and Jachitonggamgangmok(資治通鑑綱目) reorganized by Chu‐his. Jachitonggamgangmok is a book of Chinese history, not Korean, restructured from the Neo‐Confucian viewpoint based on existing Chinese history books. Therefore, literary men versed in Jachitonggamgangmok, namely, Chinese history but did not have keen interest in and deep knowledge of Korean history.  Third, because there were not works for organizing Korean history in those days, the knowledge of Baekje history could not go beyond the records in Samguksagi, and people’s perception of Baekje history was negative.  For these reasons, there were not many poets and poems revealing reminiscent emotions on Baekje history compared to those in the early period of the Joseon Dynasty, and most of written poems expressed the vanity of history irrelevant to the realities in those days. Only few literary men including Hwang Jun‐ryang exposed their sentiment of lamentation and admonition in their poems, which criticized King Euija and adored Seongchung from the viewpoint of ultimate governing ideology[至治主義].
  • 6.

    A study on poetry friendship of Hwan-Hak-Dang Cho Yeo-sim

    조희창 | 2015, 30(1) | pp.163~200 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
     Cho Yeo-sim(曺汝諶), who was the great Confucian scholar and poet, with the pen name called Hwan-Hak-Dang was born in the year of 1518, when is in the 13th year of King Jung-Jong(the year of Moon-In), and was died in 1594 at the age of 77, when is in the 27th year of King Sun-Jo(the year of Gab-O). His writing style was Sang-Jung or Sung-Jun and his pen name was titled for him self. He is atypical schol arlikea crane. Having made friends with them as a poetical friend and kept the classical scholar mind and lived righteously, while having lived in the same age as Song Sun, Lim Uk-ryung and others in the Honam world of poetry, he was not highlighted yet to the world. Do-Il Oh with the pen name of Soe Pa, who wrote ‘Haeng Jang’, commented “Nobody in the recent ages can be beyond his rhythm transparent and integral and color bright and shiny.” It is regrettable there is no information on the literature or valuable material although every poet in Hwan-Hak-Jung, which is a pavilion, admired his prominence and he was called a legend as a traditional scholar like a crane.  In the meantime, it turned out many of his literary work were burned down together with many other historic literatures of his ancestors. It is fortunate to be able to disclose his excellent reputation to the world since some frames of Hwan-Hak-Jung and scattered posthumous writings collected by his descendants were recreated as a posthumous work named ‘Hwan-Hak-Dang’ and some parts of his work were described in the materials from Lim Uk-ryung, So Se-yang, Ko Kyung-myung, Ki Dae-seung and Jung Chul, and also some other parts of his work remained in the Confucian called Chang Pyung.  Cho Yeo-sim made substantial communications with Song Sun[俛仰亭], Ko Kyung-myung[霽峰], Ki Dae-seung[高峯], Jung Chul[ Jung[松江] in the center of Hwan Hak Jung and made a special friendship with Cho Yeo-choong[KwanSu-Jung, elder cousin] and his younger cousin, So Se-yang [陽谷] loved his work with a special interest. He also made a special relationship with Lim Uk-ryung[石川] from ‘Sik-Young-Jung’ located nearby and digested his though and literature. That is why Cho Yeo-sim’s poetical style is similar to that of poet Suk Chun(Nyun Man), who granted as many as about 20 poetry to Cho. Some original poetry including ‘Won Woon’ poetry in his anthology named ‘Hwan Hak Dang’ posthumous work and some other additional poetry were used in this analysis work.  In addition, the impact of his accomplishments on the education through Sam Bong Seo Sa(Hak Goo Dang) he established and the functions as a provincial private institute and its people were also examined.  It is believed and expected that this study is the excellent chance to rethink of his world of literature works and the relationship among his social poets by reviewing Cho Yeo-sim, who remained as an outside poet in the Ho Nam province in the 16th Century
  • 7.

    A Study on the Poetry by King Hyojong

    Hyunjee Lee | 2015, 30(1) | pp.201~229 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
     100 works of King Hyojong’s poems are recorded in 『Yeolseong Eoje(列聖御製)』but any examination of the King Sejo’s literature hasn’t been performed. This study analyzed his recognition and view of poetry.  Hyojong’s poems is packed produce a “sense of mission” Joseon monarch as the sentiment of ‘effectiveness’. If he has a ‘heroism’ overlooking the world. Hyojong desire presupposes the recognition of the Civilized nation. Bukbeol not in his assignment, but this is not without personal mind for a royal realized as soon monarch’s Civilized nation. Hyojong did defy poetry as a medium of politics. King Hyojong is a poem to his most intimate inner brother. He has functions as a means to govern the mind.
  • 8.

    Artistic Characteristics of Yeongsuhap’s Poetry

    김여주 | 2015, 30(1) | pp.231~271 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
     Existing studies have approached Yeongsuhap(令壽閤)’s Chinese poetry in the light of women’s literature. That is, they have looked at how gentry women in the late Chosun period expressed their consciousness in Chinese poetry with cultural and literary varieties. On the contrary, this study attempts to infer the poet’s consciousness through their works and examine their literary significance in the context of their writing backgrounds as it is important to appreciate the literary values of their works by analyzing the intrinsic characteristics inherent in the works. In other works, this study has its significance in that it focuses on traits inherent in the works themselves and pure sentimental aspects they have by taking a microscopic point of view.  First of all, Nongseo(隴西) has pure and simple poems that portray surrounding landscapes and joys from daily life with cheongshin(淸新) senses, matching pure and simple nature and bringing out their chungdam(沖澹) traits.  In quantity, a majority of them express their motherhood while still a majority describe their longing for their hometown, Hanyang, with warm but disciplined voices. Yeongsuhap directly expresses these feelings, imparting jeanah(典雅) beauty through “aebulsang(哀而不傷)” senses.  Again, ”Euijak(擬作)“ the intercalrary poem work with her husband, depicts the consciousness of a well-versed classical scholar rather than womanly sentimentality, which can be explained as the influence of scholarly culture on the gentry woman’s upbringing. However, it can be assured that Yeongsuhap established her own wolrd of poetry with a warm eye as a mother who embraces the others while peering into reality with a sharp insight.
  • 9.

    Study on Maesan Hong Jik-pil’s reverence of Confucian beliefs and creation of poetry and prose

    Shin,Youngju | 2015, 30(1) | pp.273~306 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
     I have traced the past and literature of Maesan. He was not a devoted literary writer but left a lot of literary works with strong belief in the social value of literature. In particular, he raised his critical voice on the dire reality of dwindling Confucian ethic and corrupt public morals and sought to address these issues in several directions. First, he placed his priority on learning instead of going after worldly success in confusing world. In addition, he endeavoured to restore public morals by introducing impressive folktales through epitaphs, biographies and life stories, to represent people in agony with poverty and cold weather and to stand against politicians. Maesan’s attempts to change the world through literature can be evaluated an interesting case that reflects a certain aspect of the history of literature in 19th century.
  • 10.

    A Study on Oppose Efflorescence and Views of West in Hwaee-ron of Uiam Yu In-seok’s Poems

    Song gi seop | 2015, 30(1) | pp.307~334 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
     Japan objected to the opening to the Western powers influenced by the closed-door policy in Edo period, but entered into a treaty of peace and amity with the United States of America in 1854 and a treaty of amity and commerce with the same country 1858. Likewise, Joseon strongly resisted against the two invasion cases of Korea by a Western power: French campaign against Korea and United States expedition to Korea, but opened even to Japan under the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876, influenced by the Un-Yang-Ho Accident happened in 1875.  In this process of opening to Western countries, both Joseon and Japan showed the same position of opposing to the foreign countries, but after the opening, their position and awareness of opening and Western powers are clearly different. Joseon recognized the Western powers from the Hwayiron perspective: most of Confucian scholars formed a China-oriented culture and were negative on the opening to other countries. Accordingly, before the Un-Yang-Ho accident, there were two sects: military necessary sect and exchange sect and after the accident, there were extreme conservatives and reformatives. Among the two different forces, military necessity sect and extreme conservatives were much stronger. Unlike Joseon, Japan actively accepted western technologies and products in Meiji regime and resultingly could grow significantly in terms of economy. Based on the capital accumulated in this way, Japan could improve their military power.  The representative scholar who had a Hwayiron perspective in recognizing the Western powers was Hwaseo Lee Hang-Ro, who was followed by Uiam Yu In-Seok. In this respect, this study aims to identify Uiam Yu In-Seok’s concern with opening and recognition of the Western powers and his belief to overcome such a phenomenon based on his poetry in order to infer then-social atmosphere. Specifically, the details are as follows:  First, Uiam was too concerned with the phenomenon of opening. He refuted unfairness penetrated into our society by Western products, as shown in 「Geum-Wal-Yu-Sin-Su-Gu」and other 10 poems.  Second, his awareness of the West is well revealed. He had a thick negative view on almanac, religion, and science of the Western society as shown in 「Yang-Ryeok-I-Su」 and other 9 poems. And these same contents are well summed up in his 「Cosmic Question and Answer」, which was very helpful for understanding his awareness of the Western countries with his poems.  Like this, Uiam Yu In-Seok’s concern with the opening to the Western countries and Japan and awareness of Western societies are reflecting then-social atmosphere well.
  • 11.

    A General Study on Soraksan Yusangi in Joseon dynasty

    허남욱 | 2015, 30(1) | pp.335~364 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
     The written record of the scenery and impressions of nature as taking a tour of mountains is excursion account, namely Yusangi(遊山記).  Excursion accounts of Soraksan(雪嶽山) were written during the late 15th and early 19th centuries. They’d been created intensively since the last half of 17th century. This is intimately associated with setting up Kim Chang-heup(金昌翕)’s own residence in Soraksan. In that sense, it cannot be emphasized enough that how great importance he is on Soraksan Yusangi.  People visited Soraksan, mostly, in spring and fall. It can be hard to find any writings of winter’s climbing, and there are only two writings of summer’s.  The course of sightseeing excursion can be largely divided into before and after Kim Chang-heup and Kim Soo-jeung: Before, it should make a detour via Hangyeryong and Misiryeong; after, the course is exactly the same as the current touring trails. When one climbs via inner-sorak, unpack in Sungusa, the predecessor of Baekdamsa, and Simwonsa. Prior to the establishment of the Baekdamsa, private houses across the temple were the place to stay. And going further into the mountain should stay at Youngsiam, Oseam and Bongjeongam. The favorite place of outer-sorak visitors is Shinhungsa. On the way Ulsanbawi from Shinhungsa, some of them put up at Naewonam.  It’s possible to converge into several critical remarks about Soraksan. It’s described as retirement[隱], sacredness[聖], and also characterized by quaintness[奇] or mysticity[靈]. Maybe there are various other perspective as well. However, it won’t get much beyond the four traits.
  • 12.

    Characteristics and Historical Significance of Sallimgyeongje’s ‘Gugeup(first aid book)’

    park sangyoung | 2015, 30(1) | pp.365~382 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
     The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the ‘Gugeup’ section in Hong Man-Seon’s Sallimgyeongje. While Sallimgyeongje’s ‘Gugeup’ was a collection of existing emergency prescriptions, it also had various novel characteristics. First, due to the presence of various categories, it could be used by people lacking medical knowledge. Further, various emergency situations occurring in remote areas could be addressed using this book. However, the categories increased in complexity, thereby compromising the simplicity of the structure. Second, Sallimgyeongje’s ‘Gugeup’ used Dongeuibogam as well as various other empirical prescriptions from Korea as reference, in contrast to the existing emergency prescriptions, which mainly used Chinese medical literature as the reference material. This suggests that Korean medicine practiced in the 17th century was unique, both in theory as well as in practical applications, and outcomes were described in other texts from that period. Third, this text was significant as it was written by Confucian scholars, on behalf of people who did not practice medicine, and not by physicians. This not only indicates its simplicity i.e., a person without medical knowledge can understand it, but also provides circumstantial evidence of the popularity and naturalization of medicine.
  • 13.

    Meaning of richness and peace in Confucianism

    권정안 | 2015, 30(1) | pp.383~402 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
     Confucianism seeks for the truth that happiness can be obtained from everyday’s life. The most important factors that make people happy are richness and peace. Therefore, this paper is to study the impact of richness and peace on happiness from Confucianism’s point of view.  Firstly, the way to achieve richness was discussed. It could be achieved thru thrift of individuals and cooperation between citizens and officials. The power of labor and knowledge could be driven by this way. Secondly, the result that could be brought by richness was addressed. The results are enjoyable life, thoughtful mind, humane custom, culture development and peace enhancement. Thirdly, the factors that ruin peace are addressed. Individually, the main factors are seeking pleasure and ease but the underlying factor is human’s greed which fosters thieves, robbers and swindlers. But historically, those factors which have ruined the peace are twisted political power and rulers. Fourthly, the ways to resolve these challenges and to preserve richness were analyzed. Both humans and systematic sides were addressed and ethical leader, courtesy and policies based on human and truth were found to be the ways.  As a result, it is suggested that every human being needs to establish desirable human characters from their inner side that fight against selfish greed. Then seeks for solidarity with those people and deal with humankind crisis as a whole
  • 14.

    A Research on the Aesthetic Education in the in Classical Chinese Vocabulary

    Doohwan Shin | 2015, 30(1) | pp.403~431 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
     This paper is research on the aesthetic education in the in classical Chinese vocabulary. A statement from our classical Chinese textbook vocabulary utilized in our native tongue, life of ease, but considering its aesthetic value is being emphasized without neglecting piers.  Focusing on the benefits of classical Chinese systematically understanding the vocabulary and can educate so that you can enjoy aesthetically classical Chinese new studies sought.  A statement of current classical Chinese curriculum is the note that is timeless.  East Asian sinosphere is being utilized in classical Chinese with a mysterious and whimsical imagination and creativity in the vocabulary is overflowing with beautiful, marvelous zest of expletive vocabulary numerous enough to be able to count.  One of the effects of aesthetic education industrialization of the vocabulary of classical Chinese dead and purify the language life, language, produce life of harmonious and furthermore to make that complete creativity education personalities important can be an excuse.  The education of classical Chinese for the aesthetic education for classical Chinese and through the vocabulary of various types of Octopus words aesthetically with the ability to enjoy.  Also, a good life and the wisdom of classical Chinese vocabulary to understand human nature and sound values and desirable.  Traditional cultures understand and creatively develop the succession right sinosphere learn basic knowledge about the culture of Chinese character culture contributes to the enhancement of mutual understanding and exchanges within the attitude you want to have.  This paper is a summary of the theoretical system of the education of a search statement in the vocabulary, based on statements that the goal for teaching aesthetic vocabulary, content, methods, evaluation, considering that education initiative is divided into four items will be done. Next classical Chinese for aesthetic education vocabulary expanding notion of discourse.