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pISSN : 1975-521X / eISSN : 2765-3943

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2016, Vol.32, No.1

  • 1.

    Appearance of Women in Hoseo Region recorded in 『Baksochonhwa』

    jae sook Lee | 2016, 32(1) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    『Baksochonhwa』 is a writing, in which Lee, Dong-yoon recorded the incidents he saw and heard with interest while living in the whole area of Chungcheong-do. This paper, by taking note of the fact that 『Baksochonhwa』 includes the cultural history of Hoseo region & prominent figures’ deeds of the day exuberantly, aims to capture the new information about the women in this region as well. First, this paper looked into the anecdote of the women who resolved the household meeting disaster which led to total eradication of the whole family with Sinimsahwa as the background. The anecdote makes it possible to know the appearance and deeds of Sadaebu women in detail, who managed a household for retaining life of their family, and coped with a crisis undauntedly at that time when a great many figures affiliated with Noron including Noron’s 4 high-ranking officials, such as Kim, Chang-jipㆍLee, Ie-myungㆍ Lee, Keon-myung, and Jo, Taechae, etc. met disaster. Second, there are many records about the same village women, who put filial behavior and fidelity into practice, in 『Baksochonhwa』. Lee, Dong-yoon very minutely recorded a woman’s image with emphasis on fidelity, loyalty and filial behavior among the stories which he heard from local village people, or anecdotes coming down to his family. It’s learned that Lee, Dong-yoon attempted to make his recording of anecdotes of good deeds an example for a lesson of the world in later generations. Third, Lee, Dong-yoon is diversely introducing anecdotes about a wise concubine, or a woman, whose academic capability and writing skills, were excellent. Referring to the literary talent & refinement, rhetorical embellishment and elegance of a high-born woman and an unknown woman of the same hometown, Lee, Dong-yoon seems to have acknowledged a woman’s independent talent as positive. 『Baksochonhwa』 can be judged as a writing of adequate cultural value in that this writing introduces more exuberant stories about regional women under circumstance where records about the woman in Hoseo region are not diverse.
  • 2.

    Sin-Buyongdang’s Literary Style and Self-consciousness Reflected in Sanhyogag-Buyong’s Poetry Anthology

    Kim, sookyoung | 2016, 32(1) | pp.33~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay aims to analyze Buyongdang’s personal literary style in Sanhyogagbuyong’s Poetry Anthology collected in Sungmunyeonbangjib and to explore Buyongdang’s self-consciousness from the anthology. We tried to gain deeper insight into the meaning, within Buyongdang’s own literary style and spiritual world, from limited existing works and superficial forms that follow traditional forms and expressions. Under the premise that Sanhyogag-Buyong’s Poetry Anthology reflects Buyongdang’s typical literary style and consciousness, this essay drew three conclusions as follows. Firstly, we focused on Buyongdang’s ‘old style.’ Sin-Seoksang’s comment that Buyongdang’s poetry is reminiscent of the Song of Ansebangjung, should be considered mainly based on tone or ‘atmosphere’, not form or theme. In poetry form, we analyzed its so called ‘pure and simple’ characteristic more concretely. Secondly, we scrutinized Buyongdang’s approach towards poetic objects. We explicated that Buyongdang depicts poetic objects from a camera-like-narrative in third person point of view, as a way to express her emotions. And the aspect that she mainly focuses on is ‘bright and clear’ in her depictions of poetic objects, can be described as her way to seek spiritual freedom in literary space. Besides, there are unexperienced-imaginative spaces reconstructed by engaging imaginary expressions. Thirdly, we found that Buyongdang’s contemplation on ‘destiny’ and ‘nature’ is a reflection on the Confucian view, engaging the attitude as a noble man, but not on an agnostic view, based on the analysis that there coexists both the notion of ‘Natural Heaven’ and one of ‘Presiding Heaven.’
  • 3.

    GangJeongildang's Life Phase and Poem world

    Kim,Mi-Seon | 2016, 32(1) | pp.73~102 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was considered GangJeongildang(姜靜一堂)'s life and poem world through Jeongildangyugo(靜一堂遺稿) who was as a person of woman literary in Hoseo area Yi dynasty. As data can be known her Jeongildang's life and poem literature world , that is to say, Jeongildangyugo(靜一堂遺稿) which had left and did not diminish. I can vividly meet Jeongildang's figure from Haengjang(「行狀」)which corresponds to contents of 6 chapters and 1-folious(6張 1葉) quantity by Gang, Wonhoe(姜元會). In this study, I intend to interest in a short aspect of during proceeding study. In the Jeongildangyugo(靜一堂遺稿) survey I searched bibliography data and a wrong word (誤字)of the text. Based on this, it can be seen that practice(實踐) of womanly virtues(婦德) content conduct of life(安分ui 處世) in Jeongildang's life aspects characters. I consider to divide into two general classification of Jeongildang's poem literary world such as Mogo(慕古)'s learning and Sosu(素守)'s consciousness. In the poem literary works by Jeongildang it can not be searched emotion of women's quarters(閨房ui 情緖) but there were left shortly and simply no ornament the inner mind studied Mogos exert herself which only intended to learn and follow the sages teaching. The remarkable characters which based on scriptures thoroughly. So I could rightly guess Jeongildang's study profundity. Ut supra(As mentioned above) consideration, GangJeongildang was worthy of a desirable virtuous lady symbol(女中君子ui 表象) in domestic and society and education (家庭·社會·敎育)not only the Choson Period but also modern meaning.
  • 4.

    The Characteristic of Nam Jeongilheon(南貞一軒)'s Poetic world

    김여주 | 2016, 32(1) | pp.103~135 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Nam Jeongilheon(南貞一軒) was the wife of Seong Daeho(成大鎬) who was a 10th generation descendent of Woogye Seong Hwon(牛溪 成渾) from the late period of Chosun. She was the typical female poet of Sadaebuga(士大夫家) who lived in Seoul in her younger years and spent later years of her life in Hoseo(湖西). After 18th century when the class in charge of literature expanded and the change in the way of life caused by Seoul's development as a city and improved productivity led to the proliferation of aesthetic taste of Sa Dae Bu(士大夫) or the middle-class bracket. These state of the time paradoxically became the basis for female authors' creative activity and they endeavored in the activity with various poetic world and philosophical thinking according to their own social status and characters. This diversity were possible because of the large influence of various changes in the late Chosun's literary circle and the silent support and recognition of the female authors from men. This article studied the aspect of this diversity by looking at the life and works of Nam Jeongilheon(南貞一軒) who was the female author from the late 19th century before the modern era. 『Jeongilheon Poetry Collection(貞一軒詩集)』 was put together by her son Taeyeong(台永) who worried that his mothers's intention to burn all her poems would lead to the loss of the entire work. Her early works had the structure of verse poem and five cadence poem where she depicted a simplicity of everyday life in a forthright and simple manner using the short and compact structure. Life's simplicity was portrayed through subject matters such as everyday occurrence between family members and her surroundings. The way in which she used the calm and composed expression in depicting the sad situation made the sadness not shown conspicuously. Her works from later period, as she became more confident, was based on the consciousness of Sadaebu(士大夫) as a lady. The poems showed the aspect of her as a poet where she put meaning to the things themselves when looking at things and expressed the logics attached in a new way without failing to catch the joys of the objects. Lastly in Akbusi(樂府詩) where the structure was free-from, she was expressing her own unique views freely about diverse subject matters and feelings that were somewhat restricted to women by utilizing various subject matters such as seasonal customs of the time. It could be seen that from the work of Jeongilheon(貞一軒), the female poets of the transitional period of late Chosun, was not much different from the male intellectuals [Sadaebu(士大夫)]. This could be considered as a limitation of female poet of Sadaebuga(士大夫家) but also be concluded that the female authors of late Chosun naturally grew to be independent poets as their various creative activities were accumulated and they gained support from male authors and families. Nam Jeongilheon(南貞一軒)'s status in literary history could be properly established when her unique poetic world was viewed in the manner which acknowledged it as the growing aspect of women's literature in transitional period to modern era.
  • 5.

    A Study on Doeun Lee Soong-in’s Buddhist Poems

    Kim Keong-mi | 2016, 32(1) | pp.137~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As the state religion of Goryeo, Buddhism played a dominant role in all aspects of its society. Even after the founding of Joseon, it is a well-known fact that the Anti-Buddhist Policy (抑佛政策) was enforced over an extended period due to the persistence of Buddhist influence. Soong-in Lee, a late-Goryeo writer, also known by his pen name, Do-eun, was a sadaebu (士大夫; literally, scholar-official) who had studied Confucianism; nevertheless, he was restricted by the social atmosphere of the time. From a young age, Lee was disciplined by his mother who engaged in Buddhist chanting every morning, studied in a Buddhist temple, and established friendships with Buddhist monks; he had naturally come to embrace Buddhism throughout his life. Such experiences had a certain influence on Lee’s literature. This is evident in the inclusion of numerous Buddhist poems in Doeunjip (陶隱集; literally, Collection of Literature Works by Do-eun). Lee had strived to preserve Goryeo. At the age of 46, he was killed in a plot by Do-jeon Jeong, who was his political opponent as well as a friend. Having had lived in a time of political turmoil and been murdered at a relatively young age, Lee’s literary works are limited. In Doeunjip, there are 337 topics and 446 poems, 70 of which are Buddhist poems. While this is not a large number, studying the Buddhist poems composed by Soong-in Lee—who was renowned for his poetry—merits considerable significance as it allows one to observe the entirety of Lee’s poetry and ideas. Furthermore, this study can be anticipated to contribute to the understanding of the thoughts and literary trends of scholars of the time, who were known as the “shinjin sadaebu” (新進士大夫; literally, rising scholar-officials). Lee’s Buddhist poems included in Doeunjip can be classified into friendship poems with Buddhist monks, poems included in Buddhist monks’ poetic works, and those that meditate on the scenery at Buddhist temples. In this study, traces of Buddhism embedded in Lee’s views and poems were examined by analyzing those poems that “yearn for unworldliness,” which were composed as a means to resolve the tension from repeated exile and reinstatement, and those that “reveal religious doctrine or narrate a virtuous Buddhist world,” which were composed by being purely immersed in Buddhism. As it is commonly known, Seon (禪; Korean variant of Chan Buddhism) was at the core of Buddhism in the late-Goryeo dynasty. Consequently, Seon-oriented preferences are also apparent in Lee’s Buddhist poems. Although some of his works are critical of Buddhism, such criticisms are confined to the axiomatic aspect of Buddhism; throughout most of his works, he appears favorable towards Buddhism and he is shown to affirmatively accept Buddhist teachings. It was on these grounds that Lee sought to overcome his conflicts and situations in reality, by pursuing unworldliness and likening the clear mind of a Buddhist monk to his own.
  • 6.

    A Study on Perception of the World Appeared in Sam Dang poets(三唐詩人)' poems - Focused on the Movement of the Poetic Self in 'Way'

    Gumsuk kim | 2016, 32(1) | pp.163~196 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to identify the difference between the perception of Sam Dang poets(三唐詩人)' world. For this, it's to analyze the movement of the poetic self in 'Way‘. The movement of the poetic self in Choi Gyeong-chang(崔慶昌)'s poems is shown with 'Leaving' toward to a destination and 'Losing one's way' frustrated in the political reality. The poetic self that wants to be recognized in the real world and to hold higher government positions has also suffered a defeat in the process of seeking a realistic orientation. In the case of Baek Gwang-hun(白光勳), 'Staying' the movement does not reveal well and fear appear. In the reality of the poetic self, we see the collision between the reality he has to take up a public office and the reality he wants to return to his homeland. For lee Dal(李達), the movement of the poetic self appear as aimless 'Wandering' and self-sufficiency for life as a poet. 'Homeless' seen frequently in his poems leads to the pursuit of his own space, home. The poetic self feels the distance to the real space but accepts wandering as a poet. Based on the movement of the poetic self, the reality and perception of the world of three poets can be compared. In Choi Gyeong-chang's poems, the reality of the poetic self and the real world coincide. The orientation which the poetic self seeks in it is heading into the real world. In Baek Gwang-hun's poems, the reality of the poetic self is divided into political reality and homeland. The direction toward the orientation of the poetic self cannot be investigated. In Lee Dal's poems, the poetic self recognizes the distance to the real world. The poetic self is heading into the world which poetic self dreams rather than the reality. Comparing the three poets' perception of the world, the awareness on the reality, the world which the poetic self dreams and the direction of pursuit can be seen different.
  • 7.

    A Study of Poem on Nujeong in Baekgok Deukshin Kim

    Song gi seop | 2016, 32(1) | pp.197~224 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Baekgok is a person who has left an indelible mark on the literature history of late Joseon dynasty. Although he was born rich as a member of eminent family, he was the slower intellects because of smallpox aftereffect that he has suffered from when young. However, inspite of dissuasion, he has tried to be known for his poems and he has left approximately 1500 poems with endless effort. This writing has its aim to study poems and life of Baekgok Deukshin Kim, space application type appeared at a Nujeong poem, and harmony between movement and tranquility. He has utilized space of Nujeong at Nujeong poem through nature and image that Baekgok has felt at Nujeong, and harmony between movement and tranquility contained in the poem. An utilization is displayed with four types. First, it is to display poetic concept. The appearance to put endless effort to compose poems, and to deliberate because he could not find line. Second, he has used space as a tool to relieve anxiety coming from affairs of men. He has relieved anxiety and nostalgia with a drink by identifying his anxiety with the risk of castle. Third, it is to enjoy scenery of pavilion. He has described the scenery pastorally and realistically, and it has allowed to realize 'poem describing scenery realistically'. Forth, it is used as a space for farewell and meeting. The appearance to unburden oneself on emotion and pity from farewell with companions. When Baekgok composing a poem, he has attempted to display subtlety of poem by harmonizing tranquil poetic diction and dynamic poetic diction when it comes to an arrangement of poetic diction. Thus, he has place a premium on arrangement of dynamic and tranquil poetic diction over the decision to use dynamic and tranquil expression. Because of that, an arrangement of movement and tranquility appeared in his peom is harmonious and fantastic. Therefore, the genuine and pure nature, aesthetic image and superb harmony between movement and tranquility contained in his poem are results of consideration.
  • 8.

    The consideration about sorrowful literature of HyoJeon Sim, No-Sung for dead

    Saehae, Han | 2016, 32(1) | pp.225~253 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    There is a little difficult in analyzing the wife of Sim No-Sung, viewed in the literature for Sim No-Sung's dead wife, to the point of 'comfort to dead man' or 'comfort to self' the general literatures for dead man work out with. Therefore this report review the Sim No-Sung's literatures for his dead wife with the question why Sim No-Sung could have been sorry about his wife's death by analyzing the features of the describing patterns in the Sim No-Sung's literatures for dead wife. His sorrowful literature for dead wife had been met with himself, his late wife even as much reflects the position of the level mainly their sorrow. These complex way to say finally Sim No-Sung's to writing and to treat extreme suffering of the connections that were built in to him. Sim No-Sung's dead wife is understood in terms of friendship. His wife was so quite wise and friendly that she could have understood her husband's political tiredness. So, Sim No-Sung's sorrowful mind of losing his wife could not have been replaced with anything. Mental pain is leading to physical pain. As a result, he had selected the writing as only way of reconstructing his wife for overcoming those pains.
  • 9.

    A study on Cho-sa(楚辭) mentioned in The Korea

    Doohwan Shin | 2016, 32(1) | pp.255~300 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study on Cho-sa(楚辭) mentioned in The Korea. The Latter of Korea was read fluently and recite a Cho-sa(楚辭) in the original since childhood. The Latter of the Joseon is learn many things by imitation of Cho-sa(楚辭) and composed different form's poems by imitation of Cho-sa(楚辭). The Latter of the Joseon poem is full of tragic beauty by imitation of Cho-sa(楚辭). Their poem is a distinctive romantic atmosphere by imitation of mentioned in Cho-sa(楚辭)' folklore, beautiful flowers and plants. They are much alike in character. they are get driven out from the party of a councilor to the king . The incident colored his entire life. They are smart, capable and supremely confident in the poem world of Cho-sa(楚辭). Aesthetic consciousness of The Latter the Joseon Dynasty poem is the aesthetic consciousness in the 'Cho-sa(楚辭) since the creation of 屈原(Ch'ü Y üan). Their Chinese poetry is very beautiful. His poem have a fitting comparison and a symbol a deep meaning sacred verbal image. The latter of banishment in the Joseon Dynasty period is composed different form's poems by imitation of Cho-sa(楚辭). Cho-sa(楚辭) is largely gichin in Korean Poetry.
  • 10.

    A suggestion For Translation Chinese poetry

    sungsu kim | 2016, 32(1) | pp.301~326 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    There are many arguments about the nature or ways for translation of the Chinese poetry. But it seems dominant the idea that the Chinese poetry should be the Chinese poetry. If you only think it over vaguely, it sounds obvious. But it is not that simple, because the Chinese poetry is something we should succeed from culture to culture nowadays undoubtedly. The Chinese poetry that readers don't read are not literature alive. If we don’t translate the Chinese poetry, it is obvious that it will be cut off immediately. The Chinese poetry that readers don't read is not worth existence even if it is translated. It is close to an anachronism insisting on the uniqueness of the Chinese poetry when people don’t have literacy for Chinese characters like nowadays. For the survival of the Chinese poetry, we should make ‘our Chinese poetry able to be accommodated to readers nowadays’. To do so, it is important more than anything else to translate the Chinese poetry into our poetry the readers nowadays can sympathize with. The word for word translation of the Chinese poetry is not our poetry. It is close to stereotype to think that the translation of the Chinese poetry is the same as the original. It is way to save the Chinese poetry to escape such a stereotype. In this article, I set up principles needed to that idea about the translation of the Chinese poetry and proposed the specific practice plan. Because it shows the some differences between the existing views about the translation of the Chinese poetry and some arguments are not familiar, discussions will be tough a little. However, I hope the desirable methodology about the translation of the Chinese poetry is succeeded. For this, I organized the nature and significance of the translation of the Chinese poetry, the characteristics of Chinese poetry and the methodology of the translation. I presented the five requirements for the translation of the Chinese poetry and proposed newly five letters for translation. Based on them I practiced the translation of specific work.
  • 11.

    A Study on Economic Perspectives of Confucianism by Analyzing the Four books

    kim Jo-young | 2016, 32(1) | pp.327~347 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on investigating modern value of economic perspectives in traditional confucianism by analyzing the relating statements on the Four books(Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, Analects, Mencius) into three concepts - production, consumption, distribution - considered to be the basic economic activities of modern capitalism industry society. First of all, from the point of view of "production", which is more close to producing profits, the most remarkable value the Four books suggest is "righteousness " differentiating with a general commercial activity prioritizing the quantity of profit regardless of morality. Second, from the perspective of "consumption", the concepts of "thrifty" and "timeliness" are the most important implied principles. Third, in case of "distribution", "fairness" for the purpose of coexistence is the most important value in order to make stable environment in which everyone of the society could strive for the recovery of innate good-human nature without any difficulties on living. In conclusion, the economic view of traditional Confucianism that emphasizes the accompanied growth by making righteous profits, timely consuming for the right purpose while living in frugality, fair distribution of wealth still gives implications to modern capitalism industry society having troubles with polarization, domineeringness of a few huge capital, gradual loss of humanity causing lots of anti-human crimes.
  • 12.

    Research on the Chinese Meaning-Sound Connected Letter Showing ‘en(㫃)’ as Sound

    hanyounsuk | 2016, 32(1) | pp.349~376 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    en(㫃) was written ‘’ in gabgormun(甲骨文) as it displays feature of flags flapping . From gabgormun(甲骨文) to haeseo(楷書), en(㫃) have been changed in the order of ‘ - - - - - 㫃’. gan(倝) which is divided into two parts - 旦(definition) and 㫃(sound) means ‘shine’. For more beautiful shape of the letters, they moved ‘丨’ which is middle of a down a little (), and wrote ‘(旦)’ that represents ‘definition’ in a blank. That is (倝). gan(倝) of han(韓. 𩏑), han(翰), al(斡), han(雗), han(鶾) represents sound. Of these letters, han(𩏑. 韓) was written as gan(倝) at kyummun(金文) stage. Next it was written as han(𩏑 . ) at sojen(小篆) stage, and finally written as han(韓. ) at kyumye(今隸) stage. han(韓. 𩏑) which is consist of two parts - wuy(韋. definition) and gan(倝. sound) is the chinese meaning-sound connected letters(形聲字) It means ‘bucket,’ ‘a stick that hang a bucket’ and ‘an added tree to prevent a well from collapsing.’
  • 13.

    A study of the direction how to develop the digital textbooks of Chinese characters by analyzing the educational CD ROMs

    Son Yoo Kyung | 2016, 32(1) | pp.377~422 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The researcher thought that there was a great need to thoroughly examine the educational CD ROM before introducing digital textbooks. The way in which the multi-media function was carried out in 2009 revised CD ROM was minutely examined and the direction in which to develop in future was discussed. This paper looked at three themes of eight middle school CD ROMs – traditional festival[customs], historical figures[history], and edifying figures[story] -, by thoroughly examining these, several common characteristics could be found. Firstly, the multi-media function was used restrictively. The composition was concentrated in ‘introduction’ and ‘advanced section’ and the expression mode consisted of six forms. Observing these led this study to suggest that multi-media function should also be utilized more widely in ‘assessment’ as well as in ‘introduction’ and ‘advanced section’ and for presentation method, it was suggested to insert ‘audio’ function and to develop ‘question presentation’. Secondly, it was discovered that the contents were meager. This study actively looked for commercial contents and introduced some of them to emphasize the fact that the educational contents should have the degree of completion and fun that are not short of the commercial contents. In addition, this study also suggested to consider utilizing the AR(Augmented Reality). Lastly, it could be observed that the multi-media function, animation in particular was used uniformly in all chapters. This study is meaningful first attempt to examine the multi-media contents in Chinese character education which has more relevance in middle and high school classes where radical changes are expected due to full implementation of smart education policy.