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2017, Vol.34, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on Maesan Hong Jik‐pil’s Poetry

    DongJae Lee | 2017, 34(1) | pp.13~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Maesan Hong Jik‐pil was excellent in academics to be praised by his mentor, Park Yun‐won, for "We entrust our Do to you." He as a Nakron School scholar who abandoned the preparation of the civil service examination devoted himself to scholarship by living in scholar living in the forest, and produced numerous students. He wrote a vast number of poems reaching 3,555 poems at leisure from studies and cultivation of junior scholars, and his poems were evaluated as profound. This study focusing on the poems that Hong Jik‐pil wrote during his youth, explores first, the will of defeating the evil and defending the discipline, second, the pursuit of just as human beings, and third, his practicing living in retirement (自靖) through abandoning the government and living in the mountains, to help understand his literary world. First, this study examined the poems that revealed the will of 'the defeating the evil and defending the discipline.' Hong Jik‐pil believed that the end of Joseon was caused by the fact that heresy such as Catholic came into the gap while Confucianism was divided into Nakron and Horon, fighting each other with their alleged arguments. He said that the revival of Confucianism, together with the consolidation of divided schools, should enhance ancient sages, encourage the scholastic disciples to cultivate talents who will become paragons, correct the customs, and establish the discipline. Second, this study looked at the 'poems' pursued by just as human beings. In the first half of the 18th century when Hong Jik‐pil lived, with the exception of some Noron ruling classes, the people had almost no sense of Ming's grace that saved the dying. However, his fidelity of respecting Ming was in the background of family pride and academic background, so that he argued that the grace should not be forgotten even if Ming was ruined. His fidelity of respecting Ming has expanded to the will to defeat Qing, and the spirit of coping with national affairs, which praises a person who gave his life as the fidelity to one's principle among the historical figures of our country on the extension line of protecting justice. Third, this study explored the 'poems' of practicing a life in retirement through self‐discipline and living in the mountains. Hong Jik‐pil took the civil service examination as a compulsory solicitation of his father, but gave up his study of the civil service examination after he failed. After his resignation at Sejasema for eight days at the age of 39, he had been appointed to several public posts, but he did not enter on an official career for the rest of his life. He perceived that the reality of the present day was the end of politics caused by Sedo politics and the decline of Confucianism, and the fact that Catholic, which was introduced from the West, became more and more popular every day. Living in the forest for keeping one's body and chastity (守身安分), he showed his willingness to living in retirement (自靖) to cultivate his academy and to cultivate junior scholars. Future research is to analyze his poems of everyday life which were mainly written after the middle and later period of Hong Jik‐pil, and review his poetry as a whole in order to identify his position in the history of Sino‐Korean literature in the 19th century
  • 2.

    Maesan Hong Jik-pil(梅山 洪直弼)’s role as a 外史氏 and his record of various characters

    Shin,Youngju | 2017, 34(1) | pp.53~77 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Maesan Hong-jikpil(梅山 洪直弼) has created a large number of 傳狀 and 碑誌. This study was done to examine the appearance of these works after examining the aspects of these works. As a scholar living in an era, he correctly understood and responded to the world history of the present day, thereby striving to improve the reality properly. In the first half of the nineteenth century, when 梅山 lived, the situation of the time was not the same as any other age. So he thought it was a pressing and urgent task to prepare a remedy to heal a degenerate age. He thought at this time that informing 忠孝 and 貞烈 could be a way to heal the end times. Therefore, He actively introduced the people who practiced 忠孝 and 貞烈 to make the world known. Even if they are low-ranking people, He was always happy to write these 傳狀 and 碑誌. He informs the world of the unseen beautiful virtues and the good works concealed, tried to make this an example of the world. Because of this, he was able to leave large quantities of 傳狀 and 碑誌. In this study, reviewed these records made by 梅山 and tracked the intention of creation. In particular, in order to overcome the crisis of the country and establish the discipline of society rightly, It was noticed that he actively participated in the task of identifying and informing people who could be regarded as an example. Through this, I tried to contribute to understanding the literature and social phenomenon of Joseon in the first half of the nineteenth century.
  • 3.

    A Study of Maesan Hong Jik-pil’s theory of Heart-Mind - focusing on Simchebonsunseoul(心體本善說) and Myeongdukseoul(明德說)

    Shin, Sang-Who | 2017, 34(1) | pp.79~116 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Maesan Hong Jik-pil(梅山 洪直弼, 1776~1852) is a leading scholar of the Nangnon(洛論) academic community in the early nineteenth-century. He followed after the Nangnon school scholars, such as Kim Chang-hyeob(農巖 金昌協, 1651~1708), Kim Won-haeng(渼湖 金元行, 1702~1772) and Park Yun-won(近齋 朴胤源, 1734~1799), and had great influence on the times. Yet despite his clout and prestige in academic field, Hong Jik-pil’s Seongli-seol(性理說) has not been fully evaluated. It is because Hong Jik-pil tended to evade academic arguments. Also, there has been a lack of study on the early nineteenth-century’s Nangnon in the history of Joseon Confucianism. Therefore, it is required to fully appreciate his Seongli-seol in order to examine academic tendency of Nangnon in the early nineteenth-century and the History of Korean Confucianism from the eighteenth to nineteenth-centuries. This paper, as a groundwork on Hong Jik-pil’s Seongli-seol, analyzes his Heart-Mind theory(心說). The Nangnon school that Hong Jik-pil belonged venerated Lee Yi(栗谷 李珥, 1536-1584) and thus followed his core idea that ‘Every occurance has the same structure[氣發理乘一途]; Li(理) secures fundamental sameness of the substance and qi(氣) arises phenomenal differentiation.[理通氣局]’ Based on it, realization of the substance is depended on qi, responsible for specific action. In other words, the fulfillment of li is possible through pure and innate qi, according to the words of Zhu Xi(朱熹) Study. In Nagnon, innate qi is regarded as Heart-Mind(心), so Heart-Mind becomes the subject of fulfillment of the substance. As Hong Jik-pil accepted the idea, Heart-Mind theory became the core point of his Seongli-seol. According to Hong Jik-pil’s argument, Heart-Mind possesses the fundamental sameness, as much as Nature(性) has. Heart-Mind(心), as an individual being, is an independent entity, at the same time, is an universals that differs from differential disposition(氣質). The fundamental sameness and the universals of Heart-Mind are formalized as Simchebonsunseoul(心體本善說). The theory has been established by making a division between qi of disposition and qi of Heart-Mind. Moreover, in terms of Illuminating virtue(明德) from Great Learning(大學), he argued Myoungdukjuki(明德主氣) and Myoungdukmoobunsoo(明德無分數). It clarifies that ‘Illuminating virtue indicates Heart-Mind[明德主氣]; Heart-Mind possesses universality[明德無分數]’, also states fundamental sameness and universals of Heart-Mind. This paper attempts to analyse Hong Jik-pil’s Seongli-seol from the perspective of these two theories.
  • 4.

    Maesan(梅山) Hong Jik-pil(洪直弼)’s Theories on Rites: his understanding of lineage system appeared in his Rites in general(通禮) in Theories on Rites by master Maesan(梅山先生禮說)

    Young-june, Lee | 2017, 34(1) | pp.117~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article surveys Hong Jikpil’s understanding of lineage system through his 梅山先生禮說(Theories on Rites by master Maesan) compiled by Yi Jinok(李鎭玉), especially focused on the items of 宗法, 出後, 次養, 侍養, 攝祀 of its 通禮(Rites in general). In Joseon dynasty which adopted Neo-Confucianism as a national policy, it was lineage system which maintained public order rightly and it was same to Hong Jikpil. Hong strongly kept the principle of succession by the eldest legitimate son(嫡長子), however he also allowed succession by the second legitimate son in unavoidable circumstances accounting the old rituals. He maintained the principle of the strict distinction between legitimate and illegitimate lines of descent, but he, on the other hand, also admitted that a illegitimate son could hold a funeral of his father and legitimate sons which meant that he did not break moral laws of family relationships. He also regarded succession by a illegitimate son as appropriate rather than adopting a relative who had no blood relationship in respect that first, it was permitted by national law; second, it was based on Classic of Rites; and third, it was appropriate to human feelings. As to the title and rituals for the original family of adopted son(本生家), he kept the principle of rigid distinction between the original family and the family he adopted(所後家). But he asserted that one should share one’s natural feeling to one’s original parents that he called himself as an ‘unworthy’ nephew in the epitaph of his original parents which showed the distinction between the original parents who as a result had become an uncle and aunt, and the ordinary uncle and aunt. As to the second adopted son(次養子) and an adopted son regardless of succession(侍養子), he insisted that they are in principle illegal according to ancient ritual though they were widely accepted and conducted among people. He added however, 侍養子 could hold a memorial service for his adoptive parents. He believed that this would be appropriate to human feelings. It is presumable that Hong gave priority to the principle of JIng(經) while considering human feelings and the realistic situation when a judgement on theories on Rites was needed. He on the one hand strongly kept the ideal theories on Rites, and on the other hand suggested the way of 變通(accommodating to circumstances) which was the result of consideration of human feelings. It is assumable that this standpoint which compromises the ideal with the reality underlies his understanding of lineage system.
  • 5.

    A sugession For the Study of Korean-Korean chinese Comparative literature

    sungsu kim | 2017, 34(1) | pp.163~189 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The comparative literature of Korea and China was an important research methodology in Korean-Chinese and Korean literary and academic circles. However, the fact that Korean literature in Chinese lies between them should not be overlooked. Korean literature in Chinese has a separate existential value from Chinese literature and is mostly influenced by indigenized Korean texts in Chinese rather than directly influenced by Chinese literature. Therefore, on the basis of the belief that a comparative study between Korean literature in Chinese and Korean literature would be more valuable than the comparative literature of Korea and China, the methodology of Korean-Chinese comparative literature will be emphasized. The present study will clarify the necessity of Korean-Chinese comparative literature and, as a specific practical example, will illustrate the formation process of Sijo literature through Lee Hyeon-bo's Eobuga (songs of fishermen) and Danga (a short song). Lee Hyeon-bo's Eobuga and Danga cannot be valued highly in terms of quantity, but they are of very important significance in the history of Sijo literature. The unsophisticated language, unrefined style, and Chinese poetic words are still imperfect aspects of Sijo. Nevertheless, the features of early Sijo literature that can be seen in the nine chapters of Eobuga, five units of Eobudanga, and three volumes of lyrics have very important literary historical significance. To consider them an early form of Sijo literature is rather hasty; yet, it seems much more rational and empirical than vaguely assuming the genesis of Sijo to be the Goryeo dynasty. In the present study, the focus is on determining its validity through Eobuga by Nongam. Research on Sijo has been active so far, but there have been many misdirections and errors along the way. It is especially necessary to thoroughly review the concept, nature, genre stipulations, and origin of Sijo. Even though the space is limited, an attempt will be made to suggest a new direction to the study of Sijo literature by examining one aspect of the issues facing existing Sijo research through Nongam's work. It is expected to be a meaningful achievement of Korean-Chinese comparative literature.
  • 6.

    The Artistic Philosophy in Paintings and Calligraphic Works of Shin Sayimdang and Oksan Lee Woo

    Yu Jeong Eun | 2017, 34(1) | pp.191~230 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at understanding the spirits of vivid artistic philosophy of woman artist Shin Sayimdang in Chosun dynasty and her son Oksan Lee Woo (1542-1609) by evaluating their paintings and calligraphic works. Shin Sayimdang, as well-known to us, born as a woman in Chosun dynasty overflowing with Neo-Confucianism about 500 years ago, became a good wife and wise mother and grew as an artist who was proficient in poetry, paintings and calligraphic works, still praised for her talents and personality. On the contrary, although his past and achievement were not so much more known than his mother Shin Saimdang or his brother Yoolkok Lee Yi, Oksan Lee Woo was an artist who was famous for poetry, paintings and calligraphic works and Qin music, known as one of the Four Great Masters, since he inherited the artistic talents from his mother and showed a great artistic ability in the end of the 16th century. This study will explain how the ability of his mother was embodied in his works by evaluating their works of art on the common subjects and discuss the spirits of their artistic philosophy which has been handed down by their works. As for calligraphic works, evaluating her "Choseo Byeongpung (Cursive Characters on Folding Screen)" and his cursive characters on "Oksan Seobyeong (Oksan's Cursive Characters on Folding Screen)", we will discuss their influences, since later their works formed "Sayimdang Calligraphic School." As for paintings, focusing on their common subjects and material, we will discuss the symbolic meaning of their material. Their works are still praised for the high artistic value, since their artistic talents are combined with their benevolence and virtue. Every piece of artistic works contains not only the talents of the artist, but also the body and mind, thoughts and personality of his. Therefore, that piece can represent the artist. It can be concluded that the spirits of their artistic works are the ultimate of the Confucius esthetics based on reconciliation and love. It will be possible that, from their works, we can find their right personality completed by their benevolence and virtue as well as their minds of reconciliation and love, although their works lost color as the years went.
  • 7.

    Aspects of record on displaced people in the Ming dynasty in the late Joseon Dynasty - Focused on the works of 'Guuisa(九義士)'

    Sa Gyeong-hwa | 2017, 34(1) | pp.231~263 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    After Byeongja Horan(丙子胡亂) ended, Bonglimdaegun(鳳林大君), who was taken hostage to the Qing Dynasty, was staying in Shenyang(瀋陽). And he meets with the nine Ming Dynasty scholars who were brought here as prisoners of the Qing Dynasty. All of them had a mind of "BanCheongBogMyeong(反淸復明)" and then came to Korea with Bonglimdaegun(鳳林大君) to realize their goal. These are called "Guuisa(九義士)". The Guuisa(九義士) were prepared for the Bugbeol(北伐) in earnest when Bonglimdaegun(鳳林大君) came to the throne. However, Bugbeol fails because Hyojong(孝宗) dies in the throne after 10 years. And the presence of Guuisa also becomes blurred. The presence of the Guuisa was again revealed in conjunction with the strengthening of the Jonjulon(尊周論), and various records of these began to emerge during the Jeongjo(正祖) period. At first, "NoeLoeNagLagSeo(「磊磊落落書」)" compiled by Lee Duk-moo(李德懋); "HwangMyeongYuMinJeon(「皇明遺民傳」)" and "PalSungJeon(「八姓傳」)" compiled by Sung Hae-eung(成海應); "Jonjuhwipyeon(『尊周彙編』)" compiled in the country showed that Chosun inherited the Ming by recording the loyal servants and saints of Ming Dynasty. Next, Wang deog-gu(王德九), a descendant of Guuisa, wrote <HwangJoYuMinLog(『皇朝遺民錄』>. He recorded the activities of his ancestors in detail and revealed that the purpose of Guuisa's entry into Joseon was "BanCheongBogMyeong". And that the existence of Guuisa itself shows that Joseon inherited the Ming Dynasty. Finally, Kim Pyung-mook(金平黙) described <GuUiSaJeon(九義士傳)> from the standpoint of Wijeongcheogsa(衛正斥邪). He strengthened the Daemyeonguililon(對明義理論) and hoped that Guuisa's life would become a lesson in the chaotic Joseon society at the time. Through these records, we were able to look at the ideological backgrounds of 18th - 19th century intellectuals of Joseon and various artists' rituals. In addition, the fact that interest in Ming Dynasty people was born as a literary work contributed to diversification and enrichment of the character records in the late Joseon Dynasty.
  • 8.

    The practice of Yeonhang(燕行) experience record and its mechanism

    kimyoungjook | 2017, 34(1) | pp.265~304 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The discussion on the record of the performance and its change to be discussed in this paper focuses on the part of the Yeonhang(燕行) experience. However, the period was limited to data from the 18th and early 19th centuries. The reason for this is that the imitation of the text, the description of the text, and the extensibility are distinctively expressed in this period record. The imitation of the Yeonhang(燕行) text, the explanation and extension, was a kind of practice. But this practice can not necessarily be viewed as a negative view. Yeonhang texts until the mid-18th century imitate Kim Chang-up's <Yeonhang diary> and endeavor to demonstrate the way to Beijing. By the mid and late 18th century, it became impossible to distinguish what part was already quoted and what part was recorded by oneself. As the Yeonhang record data is accumulated and the search function is increased, the researchers have tried to identify their value. But the result was paradoxical. The individualized evaluation of the single text was largely similar to previous records. If so, can we say that all of them are ineffective and worthless? Rather, after Kim Chang-up's <Yeonhang diary>, it would be meaningful to look at the similarities and common causes of records that are common in the Yeonhang record. In this paper, I will examine the practices and the mechanism of writing around Yeonhang texts in the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • 9.

    The Cultural Identities of Gangwon Area in Joseon dynasty and its Current Meaning

    AHN SE HYUN | 2017, 34(1) | pp.305~334 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I tried to navigate the cultural identities of Gangwon Area in Joseon dynasty and that searched for its current meaning. In Sillok(實錄), geography and anthologies, Kangwon area was negatively recognized: A solitary society isolated by mountain villages, an economically backward area, an area where Confucianism has not been established. On the other hand, Kangwon area was seen as an unsophisticated source space, and was noted as space of Unworldliness and Healing through traveling Scenic spot. Now we should refrain from blindly pursuing the center and that need to pay attention to the cultural values of the region. Modern people can repair the mind and body of the city through a travel to Gangwon area. Therefore, we should actively develop cultural elements of Gangwon area.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Phonetic system of Collected Annotations on the Four Chinese Books of Daejeonbon – Focused on the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean

    이규필 | 2017, 34(1) | pp.335~368 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates the phonetic features (音注) of Daejeonbon(大全本), a variorum edition of the Four Chinese Books(四書音注), via examining how the study of its phonetic characteristics consists of a significant part of comprehension and explication of the Four Chinese Books, particularly for the purpose of teaching the text at Chinese language training institutes or in the college classroom. Learning the Four Chinese Books in the Joseon Dynasty was rendered entirely through the collected annotations of Daejeonbon. And the current education of the Chinese classics is still performed with the particular edition because many of the specialized training institutions and departments of chinese literature and language in the universities of South Korea are still in use of the annotated collections of the Four Chinese Books as the primary text to learn it. Granted that the arrangement for the phonetic study should be done for the entire Four Chinese Books, the main discussion of this article is converged around the Great Learning(大學) and the Doctrine of the Mean(中庸). Hence, this essay is primarily focused on the phonetic subject of the two classic texts in order to clarify my argument. The phonetics features of the edition can be divided into six parts: Tones(聲調), Ruzi(如字), Reading(讀), Sound(音), Fanqie(反·切), and combinations of the two or more. Based on the classification and the explication of those different types, this article deals with 'the problems in establishing the Neo-Confucius view of the Chinese classics,' 'the problems of Neo-Confucious scholars' interpretation of the classical texts', and 'the close reading and new interpretation of Zhu Xi's Annotation (章句集注)'. In addition, I examine such phonetic dimensions as 'the precise phonetic values and the pronunciation system of the Chinese in Joseon Dynasty', also investigating the 'literary device and musicality of the Chinese classics' together. Throughout the discussion, this study reasons the purpose of attaching the phonetic annotations to the variorum edition of the Four Chinese Books. In so doing, I come to conclude that the understanding and utilization of the phonetic features of the Confucius classics comprises a significant part of the research and education of the Four Chinese Books, especially in our time.
  • 11.

    A study of the same root letters with the meaning of ‘divide’

    Lee, Keoung-suk | 2017, 34(1) | pp.369~399 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We can consider the shape in which a letter is interpreted in two meanings. The meanings of expression are contradictory, but the meanings of reality are mutually connected. I acknowledge the fact that they exist universally in ancient Chinese. The example is too many to count. The opposite meaning is connected to each other. It should be recognized and utilized as a method of major interpretation. The original meaning of Chinese character ‘分’is ‘to share’ and ‘to be different.’ The extended meaning of Chinese character ‘分’ is ‘divided and clear and clear’, ‘distinguish another’, ‘divide’, ‘half’, ‘partial’, ‘equinox’, ‘Job’, ‘share’, ‘regular’, ‘metric type’, etc. The opposite meaning of Chinese characters ‘分’ is the meaning of ‘everyone’, ‘satisfying’, ‘willing’, ‘principle’, ‘principle’, ‘expect’, etc. The extended meaning of the same root letters of the Chinese character ‘分’ and the same sound part are roughly classified into four kinds. The opposite meaning is classified into two types. There are letters with opposite meanings and different meanings. There are two major categories. We also analyzed the same root letters that have a different sound from the Chinese character‘分’. Analysis of these letters can help interpret the literature. We can learn vocabulary more deeply and broadly, And we can extend the breadth of thought.