Korean | English

pISSN : 1975-521X / eISSN : 2765-3943

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.57
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2017, Vol.35, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on Jo Hyeon-Myeong's "Tangpyung" Consciousness in His Poems

    이남면 | 2017, 35(1) | pp.7~35 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study set out to investigate the Tangpyung awareness and its propulsion background of Jo Hyeon-myeong(1691-1752), a politician and literary man during the reign of King Yeongjo, and the patterns of his "Tangpyung"-related awareness being embodied in his poems. Jo was one of the core figures that pushed the Tangpyung policy forward, going up the career ladder from Ijo Panseo to Yeonguijeong during the reign of King Yeongjo. His family joined the Soron at the time of Noron-Soron divergence, but they formed relations with families in the Noron line based on marriage and friendship. He had profound exchanges with literary men in the Kim Chang-hyeop and Kim Chang-heup group of the Noron line and maintained a position of "the same nature between human beings and things" argued by the Noron Nakron line. These aspects of his helped him formed ideological fellowship with Noron figures(especially the literary men of the Nakron line) and became a part of the backgrounds behind which he was able to perform as the right man for the "Tangpyung" policy to overcome confrontations and strike balance between Noron and Soron. In addition, he did not discriminate the nature of things against the human nature, engaged in unreserved communication with people from the middle class including Hong Se-tae and Jeong Nae-gyo, and took interest in Wang Yang-ming. These had something to do with his consciousness of overcoming confrontation and discrimination and promoting coexistence. His "Tangpyung"-related poems are divided into political and non-political aspects. In the political aspects, he kept the clear consciousness of "Tangpyung" in the early days of his political career, spoke about his position and difficulty of not being able to push Tangpyung forward after his appointment as Ijo Panseo fell, and refused to retire to push Tangpyung forward despite the criticisms in the process. In the non-political aspects, he had the consciousness of "fairness," "equality" and "coexistence" in various situations of dealing with people, things, and ideas. He proposed to give up the superiority-inferiority dispute and recognize each other in trivial quarrels with his friends and exhibited goodwill to the "equality" idea of Buddhism. Furthermore, he admired the coexistence of different types of chrysanthemum, insisted that there should be no superiority between literary and military men, and suggested in local suits that fair division would be right. His consciousness of "balance" and "coexistence" was extended to broad areas beyond the political arena and exposes an aspect of the Soron intellectuals in the former half of the 18th century who rejected discrimination, confrontation, and dispute and sought after harmony and coexistence.
  • 2.

    A Study on Aspects of Acceptance of Su Dongpo(蘇東坡) in Jo Gui-myoung(趙龜命)

    Lee, Tae Hee | 2017, 35(1) | pp.37~68 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This article was written to investigate the effect of Su Dongpo on Jo Guimyoung's prose theory and works. Joe Guimyoung, a prose writer who worked in the first half of the 18th century, made a distinct achievement in theory and creation. His prose theory and works have been confirmed to be greatly influenced by Su Dongpo, a great writer of Chinese Song dynasty many times in his and others' writings. Particularly in the mid‐nineteenth century, the prose anthology, Dongmunjipseong edited by Song Baekok specially noted that Jo Guimyoung was influenced by Su Dongpo and gained great achievements in prose creation. Jo Guimyoung also wrote praises for the living attitude and works of Su Dongpo. The core of Joe Guimyoung's prose creation theory is Juuiron, which comes from the influence of Su Dongpo’s literary theory. 'Ui' is a term that refers to the entire contents of the work such as ideology, argument, and emotion, and Juuiron is a theory that it is indispensable to make 'Ui' concrete and clear in the creation of works as a preliminary task. Jo Guimyoung rejected falsehoods in both life and literary activities, and this resulted in Juuiron in literary creation theory. Juuiron was raised as a measure to solve the problems of creation in the literary world of Joseon at the time. However, there was an important value in Jo Guimyoung's distinctive theory in the prose history of the late Joseon. In the meantime, some of Jo Guimyoung's prose works were created by noticing Su Dongpo's important works. These works were built with the intention of developing the themes of Su Dongpo's original works and creating a new style. And these attempts can be mentioned as an example of Jo Guimyoung himself and Su Dongpo's theory, that is, Juuiron's attempt to realize in creation.
  • 3.

    A Study on Envoy Travelogue of Youngho(永湖) Cho-Eom(趙曮) - Focused on analysis of dualistic literature world

    LEE SOUNG HYUNG | 2017, 35(1) | pp.69~118 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, dualistic literature world for envoy travelogue of Youngho(永湖) Cho-Eom(趙曮) (1719-1777) was analyzed and its detailed contents were considered. As cherished thought for envoy mission as a leader of envoy, first, re-recognition for diplomatic protocol and an effort of establishing national dignity were observed. Youngho(永湖) recorded even minor diplomatic protocol in detail based on a value of 'preventing an act of insult against oneself' and 'establishing national dignity', changed diplomatic protocol for banquet of Japan so that drinking prohibition order(禁酒令) of Choseon(朝鮮) would be observed and emphasized rationale for criticism and change of credential delivery ceremony(傳命儀式). As a next step, Youngho(永湖) considered diplomatic response to be proper by recollecting 'old incident of war breakout by mulberry leaf dispute(爭桑의 故事)' right after the case. Resultantly, right from occurrence of the case to execution of Tsuzuki Denjo[鈴木傳藏], the criminal, the case was resolved relatively quickly but it did not spread to diplomatic problem between Choseon(朝鮮) and Japan. Finally, when observing the contents of emphasizing role and importance of interpreter by Youngho(永湖), Youngho(永湖) reconfirmed role and importance of an interpreter in a diplomacy through resolution process of Choi, Cheon-Jong(崔天宗) murder case, expressed concern over decline of Japanese interpreter and Japanology and suggested an alternative for solving such problem. As a cherished thought for envoy travel experience as an intellectual traveller, recognition and criticism of Japan by Youngho(永湖) based on Choseon Zhonghua Ideology(朝鮮中華主義) were observed. It seems that Youngho(永湖) exposed critical perspective by regulating Japanese custom, religion and study as uncivilized custom or heresy based on a viewpoint of Choseon Zhonghua Ideology(朝鮮中華主義) but he also read unnatural recognition of Japan against Choseon(朝鮮). As a next step, in acceptance will and objective recognition for Japanese culture, Youngho(永湖) showed positive concern and introduction will for new Japanese culture that may be helpful to the people of Choseon(朝鮮) by sticking to public welfare oriented merciful policy and this effect was confirmed by acceptance will of sweet potato propagation, water mill(水車), 'Jookbuin shaped tool(竹夫人樣子)'. In addition, he also showed a viewpoint of an objective and positive observer for bustling, well-arranged Japanese cities. Finally, in contents of exposing lyrical aesthetic sense while travelling magnificent Japanese scenery, Youngho(永湖) depicted such sense in detail and aroused excitement of Jangyu(壯遊) through positive exchange with colleagues. In addition, Youngho(永湖) exposed nostalgia by comparing landscape excellence of Japan with that of Choseon(朝鮮) as well.
  • 4.

    Unsuk Cho In-Young's aspect of social intercourse and Mukgye Sanjang

    Kim Geun-tai | 2017, 35(1) | pp.119~151 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines people who Unsuk Cho In-young promoted social intercourse with, and Mukgye sanjang which was used as a place to build their companionship. Cho In-young was one of the leading figures during the era of politics by in-powers in the 19th century Joseon. He was an important person in political history, a scholar and literary man who was well versed in epigraphy as well as proficient in poetry and prose. He devoted himself to diverse disciplines escaping from the narrow-minded thinking that only Neo-Confucianism should be revered, through the social intercourse between Kim Jeong-hui, Seong Dae-jung and Seong's son. With Lee Ji-yeon and Jeong Won-yong who had the same political stance, he strived to prevent arbitrary powers of the Kim clan of Andong. In addition, beyond his status and age he made fellowship with middle class poets such as Cho Su-sam and Kang Jin, and served as their political and economic supporter. In his younger years, he went to Beijing as a member of delegations, established a relationship with Liu Xi-hai, an epigraphist of the Qing Dynasty, and then spread the Epigraph on the Stone of Joseon to Qing Dynasty. He was very active in social intercourse, forming a friendship with a Russian scholar, Bichurin, who worked in the Qing Dynasty. This can be regarded as one of the earliest examples of exchanges between Joseon scholar and Russian scholar in view of the records so far. The Mukgye sanjang, where Cho In-young promoted good relations and social intercourse with many people, was located in the north of Namsan Mountain. This sanjang not only was a villa belonged to the Jo clan of Pungyang, but also had significance as a typical cultural space of the capital, because a number of writers and officials visited there frequently to enjoy banquets and entertainment.
  • 5.

    Bohanjae Shin Suk-ju’s Art Thoughts and Calligraphy

    Lee Gi Bum | 2017, 35(1) | pp.153~192 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Bohanjae Shin Suk-ju is a figure who took the initiative in the culture of the Joseon Dynasty in the 15th century, He left behind remarkable achievements in many different spheres, and a lot of studies have examined him in the areas of politics, history, culture, diplomatic history and phonology. In the domain of art, studies that investigated approximately 80 painting poems written by him have produced good results to some extent as well. The purpose of this study was to examine Bohanjae's thought of literature and calligraphic works, as no studies have ever attempted to investigate his calligraphy though his books show he was a master calligrapher. He was one of the representative men of letters in the 15th century, and one of the people of merit who were called Gwanhakpa that made a contribution to the early Joseon Dynasty. He approved of the value and effects of literature and art, and embraced the two in reality. He regarded poetry, writing and painting as ways of mind training, and he mentioned that the principles and ultimate pursuit of poetry and painting were the same, which is called Shihwailryul. Shihwailryul required the harmony and unity of heaven, earth and nature through mind training. On the other hand, he was very proud of the tradition of superb calligraphy that was handed down from his great-grandfather Shin Deok-rin to his father Shin Jang. He hoped that his descendants would continue in this tradition. His works of lishu, which were part of Bihaedangsosangpalgyung- sichup(匪懈堂瀟湘八景詩帖) produced in 1442 as one of his posthumous works, seems to stick to his great-grandfather's Deokrin-che. The works of xingshu that were included in Ahn Gyeon's painting in 1447 followed Jo Mang-bu's Songseol-che in a quite elaborative way, and that is also the case for his works of xingshu that were 20 poems which were called Jeolgu-sis and included in Mongyudowondo-gwonchuk(夢遊桃源圖卷軸) that 22 writers worked on together including Prince Anpyeong. His works are more remarkable than those of the others. His works in Bongsajoseonchanghwasigwon(奉使朝鮮唱和詩卷) produced by Yei Gyeom who came to Korea as an envoy from the Ming Dynasty in 1450 were of dignified kaishu style. These works seem to reflect his personal individuality more distinctively than his previous works. Besides, his works of letters and drafts of poems seem to show his individuality more clearly than his previous works. The works that he wrote in latter years boast a careless yet profound and mysterious stroke of brushes. These works could be viewed as Bohaenjae's most unique and outstanding works, being introduced as his major works in a book "Geunmuk(槿墨)" that was published in early modern times.
  • 6.

    A Study of Kim Taekyoung's Social Intercourse Poetry

    이덕향 | 2017, 35(1) | pp.193~232 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This writing studies Changgang, Kim Taekyoung's poetry specially when he stayed in China writing and corresponding with his favorite friends and neighbors as well as writers and generous sponsors. As the last generation of Sino-Korean Poetry literature, Kim Taekyoung succeeded historic Sino-Korean Poetry and rounded off his writings brilliantly. His poetry are given attention to other writers because reflect his writings reflect the spirit of the age. His writings contained those years' social and political situations. Ironically Chinese literature was on the decline when he was stayed in China and published a collection of Sino-Korean Poetry. Kim Taekyoung's attitude was quite different from others in accepting country's ignominy of being conquered by Japan. He left homeland and stayed China until his death to avoid Japanese colonial rule. The point here is that he continuously issued many history books and collections of literary works. Most importantly he corresponded with Chinese writers and wrote the Chinese poets. It showed high level of his ability to create Sino-Korean poets. Such activities demonstrate that most Joseon scholars level was the same, and it means a lot. Kim Taekyoung's social intercourse poetry have very important meanings and values both quantity and quality. Corresponding poetry with sponsors and Chinese writers shows traditional composition, and it contained their true friendship, new culture and diaspora's fate that reflected his literature world. Changgang shared his feelings and agonies with various people such as Zhang Qian, Jang Charl, You Weol, Doh Ki, Jang Hyoseo, Bi Bumgu, Joo Jinki etc. by corresponding with poems. Social intercourse poetry with neighbors and his colleagues wrote Kim's warm heart and considerate understanding toward neighbors. Compared with the former, the latter revealed more authenticity and human truth so that readers can feel more literary sensitivity of Kim Taekyoung's poetry. Kim Taekyoung left Diaspora literature which had been no parallel case in Sino-Korean poetry history. Kim Taekyoung's Chinese poetry broaden Sino-Korean Poetry horizons in the era. His poetry can be evaluated to accomplish a decisive role in internationalization of Sino-Korean Poetry.
  • 7.

    A Study of Dasan’s Views on Classical Studies through analyzing ‘Mengja-yoeui(『孟子要義』)’

    kim Jo-young | 2017, 35(1) | pp.233~261 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper tries to deepen our understanding the viewpoint of Dasan Jeong Yak-yong in Classical studies, who has been known as Sirhak Scholars(實學者) in the late Joseon dynasty, through the lens of ‘Mangja-youi’(Key points of Mencius, 『孟子要義』). The analysis of this paper is conducted based on nine issues which have been raised in ‘Jachanmyojimyoung’(Self-Written Epitaph, 「自撰墓誌銘」). Dasan left more than five hundred journals, which were collectively published in 1938, with the name of ‘Yeoyoudangjunseo’(The collective works of Dasan, 『與猶堂全書』). In particular, ‘Mangja-youi’(『孟子要義』) is one of the most important journals in 『與猶堂全書』 in the sense that it is possible to infer Dasan’s viewpoint on Mencius via his own interpretation. (introduces several scholars’ comments on 153 selected statements from Mencius and particularly reveals Dasan’s viewpoint by annotating his own interpretation.) Additionally, ‘Jachanmyojimyoung’ (「自撰墓誌銘」), which is one of Dansan’s latest writings written in the period of completing his voluminous work, suggests nine important frameworks that could be critical in understanding Mencius. Therefore, this paper aims to understand (a) the conception of Dasan in Classic studies, and (b) the distinctive feature and implications of his standpoint to the present day through the study of ‘Mangja-youi’(『孟子要義』) from the framework introduced in ‘Jachanmyojimyoung’(「自撰墓誌銘」). The nine important analytical frameworks suggested in ‘Jachanmyojimyoung’(「自撰墓誌銘」) are the following: (1) the positive verification about feudal tenures of both a kingdom of ten thousand chariots and a kingdom of one thousand chariots suggested by Zhu Xi (2) the meaning of ‘He who does not like killing men’ (3) difference between Xia and Shang dynasty in regard to the Well-field system (4) the relation between the haoran zhi qi(vast, overflowing qi), morality and justice (5) the establishment of new theory about human nature insisting that it is more like ‘preference’ not identical with Principle (6) How to define 'Original Nature(本然之性)' and 'Physical nature(氣質之性) (7) the meaning of ‘All things are already complete in us' (8) Address an issue of Mencius being dependent on principle(理) rather than qi(氣) while explaining human nature (9) the relation between the matter of clarity or murkiness of one’s qi and issues of good and evil etc. Dasan’s answers for these nine topics illustrated in ‘Mangja-youi’(『孟子要義』) reveal that his approach in comprehending Mencius is more practical and rational rather than ideological. The evidences for this conclusion are that (a) he uses mathematical measure in order to criticize the “feudal tenure system of a kingdom of ten thousand chariots and a kingdom of thousand chariots” insisted by Zhu Xi, (b) he argues to adopt a comprehensive analytical approach to thoroughly understand Mencius by explaining the implication of the statement ‘He who does not like killing men’, (c) he insists the importance of keeping the objective and critical stance in understanding Mencius (and from the comparison with other Classics in order to verify the well-field system of Xia and Shang dynasty so that being objective rather than passive in regard to understanding Mecius), (d) he tries to be as precise as possible in defining the philosophical terminology such as 義(justice)·and 道(morality) in order to correctly understand the true intention of Mencius, (e) he suggests a new theory of human nature different from that of Zhu Xi and his followers, (f) he sheds light on the key idea of Confusion (Doctrine that of all-pervading unity) to correctly interpret the statement ‘All things are already complete in us' in Mencius, (g) he justifies Mencius being dependent on Principle while explaining human nature by introducing the concept ‘the order of host and guest’ so that proving his theory’s flawlessness (h) he points out Mencius making the mistake of hasty generalization when he explains on the relation between the matter of clarity or murkiness of one’s qi and issues of good and evil. Thus, it is possible to conclude that Dasan’s viewpoint in understanding the reality is rational, practical and highly empirical. We name this unique approach as ‘understanding Classics in a way of Sirhak(實學).’ Dasan’s viewpoint for Mencius is important not only in terms of expanding the horizon of current academic boundaries, but also deepening our understanding in his practicalism which is gaining its importance nowadays.
  • 8.

    Modern meaning of ‘Theory of a great Man’ for Morality Recovery

    정미선 | 2017, 35(1) | pp.263~289 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    What is reason that moral life, sense of values is necessary with human? Human by instinctive desires such as an appetite, sexual desire, desire for power cultivate if do not finish contempt and oneself human done duty with brute different . Right comprehension about human and self-consciousness of Good Human Nature about nature, expansion, practice may be method to cope problems by image of man department which is becoming an issue as is modern society, sense of values fall, materialism etc. Method of Serious Mind that preserve moral mind of Mèngzǐ passes with method of to seek for the lost mind actually. Go forward to foster and expands it not that stay that this preserves moral nature of human simply. Few wants for this, great spirit, a great man are very important. Learning of Confucian taking a serious view practice. Therefore, genuine moral cultivate should be that recover losing morality, and expand socially. We all of the constituents will have to make society which can seek happiness through moral practice action as well as can run moral life. Because can bring social stability and peace displaying human's moral capacity maximum. Morality recovery of Mèngzǐ and the practice need more in terms of is like this.
  • 9.

    A study on definition and category of the grammatical meaning for the interjections - Centered on textbook by The Educational Curriculum Revision in 2009

    SunyoungJung | 2017, 35(1) | pp.291~312 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study on establishing of concept for ‘ivided into emotions The interjections’ of ‘The Parts of Classical Chinese Knowledge’ in textbook by The Educational Curriculum Revision in 2009. If we define the viewpoint of the scholars, the interjections is a phonetic character with a sound, and the same gender can be expressed in a sound, and the same form can represent a different meaning, can be divided into emotions such as joy, sorrow, surprise, anger, lamentation, praise, and responses. However, unlike other vassals, it can be said to be an independent item among the vaguess that is written outside the sentence independently and does not have a syntatic relationship with the composition of the sentence.
  • 10.

    The history change of Chinese Classics & the Educational implication in the Korean language Subject - Focusing on Confucian ideas in 2nd, 2009 revision Classical Subject

    최창헌 | 2017, 35(1) | pp.313~343 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The study examines the changes and educational implications of the Korean language subject, which is considered to Confucian ideas. In the Korean language subject, traditional Confucian ideas experienced the ups and downs of severance and succession. Confucian ideas was not included from the 3rd Korean language curriculum to 2009 revised curriculum, for approximately 36 years. The reason for this is the establishment of the Chinese character in the 3rd curriculum, the orientation of Korean national culture, the change of Confucian values in East Asia, and the introduction of Western values in the process of industrialization in Korea. Then again, there will be a reason why Confucian ideas is included in the 2009 revised curriculum of the Korean, which has passed 36 years. It was the result of industrialization, which predisposes economic growth. Society has faced inhumane social problems. At this point, the restoration of humanity to tackle inhumane social issues seems to be a pressing task in institutional education. The change in educational values is also a reflection of the education of education and pragmatism. The Confucian ideas contained in the classic textbooks in 2009 differ from those contained in the second classical textbook. In the second textbook, the teachings of Confucianism are aimed at fostering moral self-discovery based on ‘filial piety’. In 2009, the focus was placed on interpreting or evaluating Confucian ideas based on ‘human nature’. In 2015, "Classics" were also selected as optional courses for 2015 revised courses to be applied to high schools. The 2015 revised curriculum applies to high schools beginning in 2018. In 2015, ‘classic reading’ was selected as an elective course. In our society, the heritage of tradition in our society is directly related to the modernization of Confucian ideas. From this point of view, the actual practice of Confucian ideas in ‘Now-Here’ presented by the 2009 revised classical textbook will be a clue to the modernization of Confucian ideas.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Classical Chinese Lessons to Implement the Free Semester Program

    노윤숙 | 2017, 35(1) | pp.345~378 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the management status of free semester program and classical Chinese class which have been fully implemented since 2016 and to investigate the direction of classical Chinese lessons. The free semester program was promoted as part of the change of middle school education which pursued its learner happiness and attempted the class innovation centered on the experience·convergence through the curriculum reconstruction. Accordingly, this study was to find out the management status of classical Chinese class in each school according to the operation of free semester program focusing on 2016. Most of schools implemented the free semester program at the second semester of first grade, and the class of free semester program was operated as subject class and free activity program. The classical Chinese class has low participation ratio of free-semester activity, but it is caused by the low operation time from the elective subject-based curriculum and as various programs are not developed yet in the initial stage of operating the free semester program. Under the situation of unit school in spite of participating in the free activity, it is operated as program related to the classical Chinese class or as activity which is irrelevant to the classical Chinese class. In such situations, this study was to establish the direction of classical Chinese lessons as convergence class through the education community. The classical Chinese class emphasized the 'culture' domain further in 2009 revised national curriculum, but this study was to suggest the convergence class and convergence class to link the local community by topic between subjects in order to realize the personality education and community education, etc. through the culture domain. The convergence class and experience learning was suggested as concrete teaching-learning method in 2015 revised national curriculum of classical Chinese class. Hereby, this study was to suggest the linkage method between the schools and communities focused on the role of education community. The convergence class is possible by the curriculum reconstruction because the free semester program is free of its evaluation. The classical Chinese class can be helpful in terms of middle school students' personality education, classical education and cultural education through the convergence class with other subjects. The classical Chinese class by the experiential learning in connection with the local community can forward to the community education by confirming the homogeneity in the region I live in. In addition, the class by using the local facilities can raise its homogeneity of the region I live in. By utilizing a variety of education community for such subject, school and region, etc., the convergence and experiential learning through the curriculum reconstruction can achieve its goal of classical Chinese class and enhance the awareness of local community. The classical Chinese education of free semester program has to flow from the enhancement of subject competency and community competency. However, it needs to solve the problems like reduction of teacher's work, economic support and formation of sympathy, etc. in order to be realistically operated. In addition, it needs to secure the subject time over regular part because it is in a situation that there is not much operation time as the classical Chinese class is elective subject. To conclude, this researcher is considered as it requires the data and research for the operation further as the present free semester program is in force and enlarging. In addition, it needs to proceeds with the teaching cases of classical Chinese class and experience-centered convergence, and specific research like its class guidance plan, etc.