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2018, Vol.36, No.1

  • 1.

    Characteristic and Meaning of the Shipboard as a Space for Sino-Korean Poetry Creation

    Gu, Bon Hyeon | 2018, 36(1) | pp.1~28 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the creative space called “shipboard” on the works of Sino-Korean poetry. The creative space is one of the factors influencing the theme and the way of shaping the works. Therefore, the influence of the creative space should be examined considering the relationship with other factors such as motivation and situation of creation, literary customs and so on. For example, when a specific position of traveler, such as envoy or local officer, affects the motive of creation, the space on shipboard does not affect the subject and material of the work so much. If the theme is the emotion and recognition that comes from the act of riding the boat for leisure, the space of shipboard will have a certain influence on the work. As a space for creation, the shipboard has a certain influence on the work in terms of the first material and topic. This feature is remarkable when utilizing unique objects, events, and phenomena that can only be experienced on shipboard. Such is the case, with regard to open sea, inclement weather, and rough rapids. The shipboard is a separated creative space from the land, which is the home of everyday life, so it creates new emotions and awareness. The experience on board makes it possible to experience landscape from a new point of view, or to escape the hustle and bustle of everyday life, while also reflecting on the past. By examining the aspect of this feature that affects the process of embodying the literary work, we can understand the differences between the shipboard and other creative spaces.
  • 2.

    A study on 『Dugangseungyucheob(斗江勝遊帖)』, Album of Poems for sightseeing Dureung(斗陵) in the 19th century

    Jiyoung Kim | 2018, 36(1) | pp.29~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research introduced and investigated 『Dugangseungyucheob』, written by Hong Seokmo, Park Jongyu, O Taewoon, and Hong Seonmo, the literary persons of the 19th century, after traveling Dureung, and studied the content. This poem collection book includes 15 title 55 pcs of sightseeing poets written after traveling to Dureung in 1845 and 2 pcs of Lee Geonpil’s 「Dugangseungyudo」, which described the landscape of Dureung sightseeing. The four persons who traveled together were in the same political party, Soron(少論), and had social intercourse earlier on. Dureung was a place where Park Jongyu resided, and their senior literary persons as Jeong Yakyong· Seo Yugu, whom the literary persons of that period admired(敬慕), settled down, so the place was naturally selected as a travel site. There, literary painter as well as calligrapher Lee Geonpil left a painting of sightseeing to Saradam(鈔鑼潭) and Songjeong(松亭) and attached to their sightseeing poems, his simple stroke includes the real scenery(實景) of Dureung, following the trend of Namjongmuninhwa(南宗文人畵) of the 19th century. Sightseeing poems described several famous sights of Dureung during that time. For example, the poems included Songjeong, owned by Park Jongyu family after Jeong Yagyong family, Youndaejeong(練帶亭) in front of Saradam, Seokrim(石林), where the manor of Deoksu Lee family(德水李氏) was located, and Baegwoonru(白雲樓) site, where Sin Ikseong‘s Donghoi(東淮) villa was located. The four persons sang their retirement life in beautiful Dureung, on the other hand, revealed sorriness about their unfulfilled dream of government service. In respect of this point, it is remarkable that Dureung was a popular suburb area for the literary persons of that period, who dreamed of both retirement life and government service, where they could easily reach the capital city by boat.
  • 3.

    A Study on the various aspects of his depicted in the records of the Joseon Dynasty

    Shin,Youngju | 2018, 36(1) | pp.61~87 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated how Mifu's calligraphy, painting and peculiar behavior and hobbies were accepted in Korea. Mifu has been known to Korea since the Goryeo Dynasty. But It was relatively slow to accept his painting rather than to accept his calligraphy. This does not mean that his painting was not accepted. It can be seen from the picture of the early Joseon Dynasty that his painting was already accepted. However, the intellectuals did not actively mention his painting, where artistry is maximized rather than practicality. For this reason, I think that the records in the literature would be fewer. His calligraphy was also emphasized on artistry, and the evaluation was divided into various kinds in Chosun society. However, by the late Joseon Dynasty, gradually his negative perceptions about calligraphy and painting disappeared. In the meantime, people's interest in him has focused on the unique way of "書畫船" that enjoys paintings rather than calligraphy and painting. It was also focused on the act of loving rock, called “拜石”. This study reveals that he is depicted in Korean literature as a man who unique actions and likes art.
  • 4.

    THE MEETING OF JOSEON MISSIONS[HONG SEOK-MO IN 1827] TO IMPERIAL CHINA AND SCHOLARS IN QING DYNASTY AND BEIJING LIULICHANG CULTURE STREET

    KimDongGeon | 2018, 36(1) | pp.89~122 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Hong Seok-mo succeeded his father, Hong Hee-joon who traveled to a mission with Hong Yang-ho. He had many Chinese scholars compared with other Pungsan Hong’s families. Many Chinese scholars in Qing Dynasty were officers in the cabinet and they had many commons with Hong; of the same age and left their hometowns. Therefore, they could get close in a short time. It was a big event among Yangjing scholars that Hong Seok-mo, the grandson of Hong Yang-ho brought his father as a delegate like the previous mission, so they were positive to meet Hong. We could understand how they built up a friendship and how they felt to analyze their poems. There is no documents containing their specific dialogues, but poems showed their friendship well. Many times they wrote a poem to compose a verse in response with a theme of respect for the other. Sometimes they wrote funny poems using receiver’s land number, which indicates that they were open-minded. The poem recited before leaving China expressed how much they were sad to leave and missed each other earnestly. The place they met was around Liulichang Culture Street, the outside of Xuanwumen in Beijing. There is a house of Ki Soo-you, the grandson of Ji Yun and many Hong Seok-mo’s acquaintances lived there. There were some people who enjoyed getting along with Joseon people and Liulichang Culture Street was a good place for Joseon diplomats and Chinese scholars to meet.
  • 5.

    The publication of Fengyayi Xuanshi (風雅翼選詩) in the early Joseon period and its historical meaning

    Noh, Johann | 2018, 36(1) | pp.123~158 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to provide the bibliographic information of Fengyayi Xuanshi published with Gabin type in early Joseon period and to describe the features of its grosses. King Sejong published various books with newly cast types and made local governments to republish them to improve national cultural level. He ordered to publish Xuanshi Yanyi (選詩演義) with Gyeongja type in 1422 and 1434, Fenlei Buzhu Litaibo Shi (分類補註李太白詩) in 1435 and Tang Liuxiansheng Ji (唐柳先生集) in 1440, both of them with Gabin type, and Tangshi Guchui (唐詩鼓吹) and Xuguchui (續鼓吹) with Gabin type, to develop poetics. It was after the series of publication of Chinese literature books that he ordered to publish Fengyayi Xuanshi (風雅翼選詩) edited by Liu Lü (劉履) with Gabin type. Fengyayi Xuanshi is composed of three parts: Xuanshi Buxhu (選詩補註) which is the selection of poems from Wenxuan (文選) and other poems omitted in Wenxuan, Xuanshi Buyi (選詩補遺) which is a collection of literary works chosen from literatures in ancient China as well as works of the masters, and Xuanshi Xubian 選詩續編 which is a collection of poetry in Tang and Song period with Ganxing shi (感興詩) by Zhu Xi (朱熹) attached. Liu made it clear that it was a task to follow up the intention of master Zhu, and that he also followed the way of commentary suggested in Shi Jizhuan (詩集傳) and Chuci jizhu (楚辭集注). The commentary of Xuanshi Buzhu is, in its form, similar to that of Shi Jizhuan which is made up of quannaizhu (圈內註, commentary inside the circle) that explains the meaning of words and its sound etc. and quanwaizhu (圈外註, commentary outside the circle) that explains the meaning of the poems. However, Liu tries to explain the poet's mind behind the words following the flow of sentiment expressed in a poem which is unlike Shi Jizhuan that clarifies the subject of the poems with every sentence explained. As to the theory of Xing (興), Liu follows the theory suggested in Shiji zhuan on the whole.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Activities of Kim Jong-jik in Publishing-Around the Period of the local governor-

    Koo, Seul-Ah | 2018, 36(1) | pp.159~196 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article examined the publication patterns of 8 books published by Kim Jong-jik during his reign at the time of provincial office, which is considered to have left the most important achievement in his political career. First, Kim Jong-jik observed that the books involved in the publication were related to learning sentences and preparing for examinations(科擧) in part, and analyzed them in line with academic and surgical historic trends in the Yeongnam region of Joseon. Kim Jong-jik wanted to promote local talent and help reform the culture of the hometown, focusing on the subject and academic studies. He asked local talents to move on to central government through examinations(科擧) to promote the civilization of Joseon. Accordingly, various versions of the book were intended to enable more accurate reading of the Bible. Kim Jong-jik judged that sentences can be refined through accurate reading that can accurately understand the meaning of the scriptures. He also hoped that the books he published and distributed would be used as such teaching materials. Beyond encouraging local talents to enter the center, this data can be used to infer the methods of learning from the early Joseon Dynasty. Through this research, I hope that Kim Jong-jik, an educator, can be rediscovered and that the research vacuum in Joseon Dynasty can be filled with a certain amount.
  • 7.

    A study on the Garden and literature of Seogmun(石門), Jeong-yongbang(鄭榮邦).

    Doohwan Shin | 2018, 36(1) | pp.197~241 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A study on the Garden and literature of Seogmun(石門), Jeong-yongbang(鄭榮邦). This paper is A study on the Garden and literature of Sugmun(石門), Jeong-yongbang(鄭榮邦) in The Choseon(朝鮮) Dynasty period. Seogmun, Jeong-yongbang(1577~1650) lived during the great period of Joseon's history, including the Japanese Invasion of Joseon during the Joseon Dynasty, King Gwanghaegun's family name, Injo Banjeong, Jeong Myeo-horan, and Byeongjahoran. He was a new man who wanted to escape the chaotic world and embrace the scenery of the landscape and pursue the spirit of Neo – Confucianism. His world included the ideal world of Neo-Confucianism, affection for learning, and the spirit of self-examination and culture. His vision of extrapolating strange shapes on the natural stone of Seoseok-ji(瑞石池) is filled with aesthetic sensibility, and his imagination and creativity are abundant in the consciousness of the Seoseok(瑞石), which created the character. In the garden of Seokmun Jeong Yeong-bang, the mysterious Neo-Confucianism melts like a sediment and looks for a bright light His poetry is about 470 volumes and his writings are 18, and his poems are so beautiful that he can recite them, especially the style of Chosa, which is peculiar to the region. The ethnographic view of the book provides a new imagination for our literature. The poem had a clearer tone. His poetry reached the stage of the Tang Dynasty and did not work for the underlings of rhythm or spirit. His poems were infused with the spirit of Songnara poetry, but he never fell into a fact-bound rage. His wordless speech is beautiful. He was impressed by the outstanding natural beauty of Seokseokji, and his garden and literature were filled with the beauty of Neo-Confucianism. keyword: <Seogmun, Jeong-yongbang>, <Seoseok-ji(瑞石池)>, <Sung Confucianism>, <Garden>, <literature>.
  • 8.

    A Study of Sacheon Simje(沙川 沈𪗆)’s Poetic World

    kim-myo-jung | 2018, 36(1) | pp.243~274 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This writing is the first research of Sacheon Simje(沙川 沈𪗆); not only reviewing his life and overal anthology but also clarifying whole appearance of his poems. The approach on the poetic world of Sacheon is prerequisite for investigating the real situations of the groups of Sobuk(小北) and Sobukpalmunjang(小北八文章) of the 17th century and finding literary achievements. The first approach is to investigate the aspect of aspiration for the unsecular world caught in the process of having self-awareness. Through it, some of the conscious world of Sacheon were found. It was identified that he attempted to escape from secular anxieties by entering unsecular space as the sacred boundary and nature, in a bid to resolve inner conflicts. The second approach is to explore poetic achievements of works, based on poems composed and dedicated that special sentiment the author has is expressed and at the same time the grief of farewell is sublimated aesthetically. Sacheon's poems composed and dedicated tend to assume a strong meaning of interchanges since the objects of his poems are limited to the Sobuk literary group or their relatives and in-laws relatives and his poems imply sincerity. In that sense, they are of significance. The third approach is to review the pattern of poetic imagery of particular aspects of women, by examining poems expressing lamentation of the dead that represent the tendency of creation of the Sobukpalmunjang group. There is also the approach on taoistic views of life and death that Sacheon expressed, selecting the sacred world as a subject or background. This is a specific viewpoint without exception.
  • 9.

    Some aspects of the travel poetries written by Shin Kwangha

    Eunju Yi | 2018, 36(1) | pp.275~298 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines several aspects of Shin Kwangha's travel. He had traveled all over the world for many years, and he was famous for his trip, and his poems were also studied mainly from the perspective of travel. However, in the meantime, Shin Kwangha's attention has been mainly focused on the "Bugyurok" and "Baekdurok" in the context of the creation of epic poetry, which criticizes the life of the people. However, there are many poems that show various interests and personality, such as "Sagunrok". The point of this essay is that Shin Kwangha has various levels of travel and Shin Kwangha is influenced by his older brother Shin Kwangsu. The poems in "Bugyurok" and "Baekdurok" mainly show the depraved life of the people of Hamkyung Province and their devastation, but they are more specific than other poems. Shin Kwangha has been dealing with concrete issues beyond the typical showing of the grave of the people, the suffering of the people, and the grace of the king so much that he tried to present a solution to the bureaucrats after attending this area. "Seoyurok" seems to be a general poem that traveled to Pyongyang, but it is trying to discover the traces of Shin Kwangsu, who left the world. Sometimes I feel relieved in the place where Shing Kwangsu's poetry remains, sometimes making poetry with Shin Kwang-soo's poem in mind, and occasionally making poem that reminds us of Shing Kwangsu's Pyongyang masterpiece. In the case of "Sagunrok", the use of natural products was prominent. In order to emphasize the rugged natural scenery, Shin Kwangha focused the poetic expression on maximizing this point.
  • 10.

    Characteristics of Korean and Chinese Poems on Ginseng(人蔘詩)

    Bosung Kim | 2018, 36(1) | pp.299~329 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Ginseng(人蔘) has been cultivated in Korea and was actively traded in Northeast Asia early on. Furthermore, it is a product that spread its reputation and value to Southeast Asia and Western regions. From ancient times to the present, ginseng has been recognized as the representative medicinal crop of Korea. In the old literature, it has been recorded that East Asian people tried to save Panacea ginseng from other countries. In China and Japan, ginseng has long been known as an expensive and valuable medicine. As the demand for ginseng soars in East Asia, Koreans producing ginseng had to suffer some side effects. For example, people suffered from labor pain to send out ginseng to China and meet their demand. In addition, the officials of the Joseon government struggled to prevent fake ginseng from being made by Japanese ginseng merchants. Ginseng has always been a major interest for Korea, China, and Japan, and it has become one of the major cultural products of East Asia. Ginseng has been recognized as an excellent medicine for treating patients with serious diseases and has emerged as a high-margin trading product. So it caused many unexpected problems. For example, they are wrongly taking, over-taking, or demanding too much ginseng, threatening the livelihood of the people. Such problems are documented in the Korean and Chinese Ginseng poems. In addition, the lively information about ginseng that individuals have gained from their experiences can be found in Ginseng poems. Therefore, analyzing the historical records of ginseng (history book) and individual records (ginseng poems) together is an important, necessary process to fully understand the history of the East Asian ginseng culture.
  • 11.

    A Study on the virtue in the “Analects” of Confucius

    An, Soon-Tae | 2018, 36(1) | pp.331~355 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate two main virtues of the leader presented in the "Analects", namely, "Doing nothing but ruled well[無爲之治]" and "Selecting persons[擧直錯枉]", and to clarify that the core contents are structurally closely intertwined each other. The method of politics that can be consistently identified in the "Analects" is virtuous. Dechy is an individual's internal discipline as well as the way a leader conducts politics on the outside. In Confucius' s view, internal fostering and external politics can not be separated. In this paper, however, we focus mainly on the virtue of leadership as an external political act. The premise for doing well is that the leader must endeavor to constantly self-cultivate and straighten up. At the same time, it is necessary to carry out the "Doing nothing but ruled well" and "Selecting persons" properly. The point of 'Doing nothing but ruled well' is that the people lead by virtue and let the people follow with their heart. At this time, virtue and ruling as an example refer to correcting oneself without being arbitrarily ruled by decree and punishment. But if you have only the virtue and the honor, will you be well governed? In order to have virtue and example and to realize 'Doing nothing but ruled well' properly, it is necessary to listen carefully to talented people. The gist of the "Selecting persons" is about how to know a good man, and let him to have a high position. It is to put a straight one on the curved one. The interpretation of this chapter has been largely divided into two parts. It is the interpretation that "the straight up is taken up, and the bent is exiled out" and "the straight up is placed on the bent." However, Confucius' s answer to the question of the Fanchi[樊遲] can be seen as the validity of the latter interpretation. To put the straight up on the curved side is based on the fact that it will be in the top position with the straight line, so that the people will be diligent and at the same time straighten the curved person without throwing it away. It is an acquaintance that it is the acquaintance which hides straight thing and the curved thing and it is the mistress to embrace it without abandoning it. I think that the message of the “Analects” of Confucius related to the virtues of the leader is enough to be embroidered as the virtue of the leader in many organizations today. From small organizations to largely national ones, rather than leading the organization by discipline and coercion, it is necessary to strive to cultivate the leadership of the leader, but to put it straight, and not to say that the bend is the main virtue of Confucius's leader to be.
  • 12.

    A Study on Dat-ong society in Liji

    Jeung-An Kwon | Dae-Hyoung Bok | 2018, 36(1) | pp.357~385 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Confucianism has always pursued a dream of ideal society in which the whole humanity lives peacefully and humanely. The 'Da-tong[大同]' shows a vision of this kind of Confucian ideal society. 'Da-tong' means that the whole is unified without any distinction between you and me, beyond the small difference that exists between each other. The detailed social aspects that 'Da-tong' society shows and the ideological contents revealed through it can be summarized as follows. First, it is based on the 'public view[公的 天下觀]'. The core contents of public view are revealed by power transfer driven by '禪讓' based on '選賢與能', suggesting the social aspects of humanity pursuing the values and common interests of the whole humanity. Second, it is a society that practices universal humanity. This shows the Confucian humanity and morality-centered values that are expanded into '仁民' with the 'love of parents[親親]' being a starting point. Third, it is a society in which people's stable lives and welfare are implemented. It represents the ideal of '各得其所' of Confucianism where all the people live humanly and happily on the basis of their stable society without alienation or discrimination. Fourth, social restoration of trust and peace have been realized. 'Da-tong' society is a society in which its members actively demonstrate 'virtues' and trust and harmony are embodied. It is a society where groups and groups as well as individuals and individuals coexist peacefully with trust. This is the ideal of '平天下' that Confucianism is aiming at. To sum up, ‘Da-tong’ society is a society in which all its members practice love for mankind transcending their kinship and live a humane and worthwhile life on the basis of stable life without alienation or discrimination. It is a unified world in which people care for the social underprivileged based on 'universal humanity' and 'virtues', trust each other and carry out warm love beyond the distinction between 'you and me'. 'Da-tong' society has been influenced by various ideologies, but basically shows the views of ideal society based on Confucian thought. 【Key words】 Ideal society[理想社會], Da-tong[大同], public view[公的 天下觀], universal humanity[人類愛], trust[信賴], peace[平和]
  • 13.

    Locality of the Hyeokgyo in the Late Joseon Dynasty-Focusing on the Seokjeonje of Gangneunghyeokgyo-

    AHN SE HYUN | 2018, 36(1) | pp.387~415 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I looked into the characteristics of the Hyanggyo in Gangwon Province in the late Joseon Dynasty, focusing on the case of the Gangneung Hyanggyo Seokjeonje. In 1791(Jeongjo 15), Governor of Gangwon Province ordered the reduction of dried seafood used in the Seokjeonje by more than 70 percent based on KukchoOryeoi. In this regard, the students of Confucianism in Gangneung were collectively opposed that. The rationale is as follows: The quantity of the food for ancestral rites is not listed in KukchoOryeoi; The food for ancestral determines in consideration of the characteristics of the area; The dried seafood does not harm the people of Gangneung. However, officials dispatched from the center forced their existing positions, which eventually led to a clash between officials and local students. As a result, the Gangneung adverb was fired and the students who led the crisis were sent to exile. This incident shows the cultural conflicts between the center and the region, and is also very suggestive in this day of policy conflict between the central government and local governments.
  • 14.

    A Case Study on the Applied Havruta Method in the Chinese Class

    Eom Mi Ri | Kim chi hyoun | 2018, 36(1) | pp.417~441 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to develop a learner-centered Chinese class as the University Liberal Arts Subjects, focusing on Havruta Method, a dialogue and discussion among the Jewish people's traditional learning methods, life culture, and Learning. Learner-centered Chinese class was applied by applying 5 times of Havruta method during the second semester of 2017. We revised the existing lecture plan, focusing on Havruta Method and applied it to a semester class based on it. 33 data were used for the final analysis. Collected data was statistically analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 for Windows statistical package. The results of the study are as follows. First, the logical thinking of learners was also improved. Second, average of learning satisfaction was 4.33, and average of learning flow was 3.55. Third, learner’s perception on the Havruta Method was divided three kinds of things: good, difficult, and improvement. The way in which Havruta method is applied and utilized in the Chinese class in actual university can be changed according to teaching and learning situation. The results of thin study can be used as a practical basic data when applying the Havruta method to university class.