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pISSN : 1975-521X / eISSN : 2765-3943

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2018, Vol.37, No.1

  • 1.

    The Influence of Kwon Geun on the academic research and culture of King Sejong's reign

    Kang, Moon-shik | 2018, 37(1) | pp.1~32 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The scientific research and cultural development of the King Sejong's reign was primarily made through the efforts of King Sejong and the scholars of that time. On the other hand, however, it was possible because of the academic achievements of senior scholars. Among the senior scholars, Kwon Geun had the most influence on the academic research and cultural development of the King Sejong's reign. Kwon Geun's studies influenced the academic world of the King Sejong’s era in three main ways. The first is the transfer of learning that has led to the educational activities of the study of the Andong Kwon’s family and the national school. The leading figures who inherited Kwon Geun's studies through the family studies and the national school were Kwon Je, Kwon Ram, Choi Hang, Seo Gyeong-jeong, and Byun Kye-ryang. They had something in common that they worked in Jiphyeonjeon during the King Sejong’s era. This clearly shows that Kwon Geun's students played a central role in the government's studies of the Sejong’s era, which is represented by Jiphyeonjeon. The second is the effect of the establishment of educational and ritual systems. Kwon Geun worked as a government official in the field of education and created various institutions for government education and national ritual. These contents have been legalized and become a important reference for the establishment of ritual systems in the era of King Taejong and Sejong. This means that Kwon Geun's studies influenced the government academic world in the early Joseon Dynasty through law and system as well as transfer through teacher-student relations. The third is the influence of academic writings. Among his writings, Iphakdoseol and Ogyeongcheon-gyeon-rok the book about Confucian classics were published several times and distributed to scholars. And Gyeongseo-gugyeol, the method of reading Confucian classics became an important guide to the study of Confucian classics in the early Joseon Dynasty. In addition, Hyohaengrok had an important impact on the compilation of Samganghaengshildo in terms of content and format.
  • 2.

    A Study on Literature Related Publications in the reign of King Sejong(世宗)

    KIM EUNJEONG | 2018, 37(1) | pp.33~64 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The background of publishing numerous books at Sejong(世宗) is the maintenance of publishing hardware. In King Sejong, the metal type was refined, and the typesetting and printing techniques were also developed. In addition, Sejong was also interested in securing paper that is useful for printing. Sejong was able to secure books through diversification of materials and use of compounding sites. Many of Sejong's books have been published because of their technical backing. Meanwhile, Sejong emphasized the importance of scholarship for practical reign. Since Sejong regarded literature as the final art, literature related books are rarely published. In 1435 (Sejong 17), however, Sejong herself likes poetry. So literature related books will increase compared to before. The most noteworthy among the books related to literature in Sejong: It is the book of Moon-sun( 文選 ). Sejong succeeded in the legitimacy of scholarship by securing and publishing editions related to the Moon-sun, which can not be passed down for various reasons or are difficult to obtain, which is confirmed in other books. The characteristic of literature related books published in Sejong is that it is unique in Korea. One of the most advanced is the Moon-sun( 文選 ). This book is based on the book of the province of Hsinchu(秀州) which can not be confirmed in China. It is the earliest period here, but it is possible to confirm both the Lee Sun(李善)’s annotation book and Six minister’s annotation which is difficult to obtain or can not be handed down for various reasons. In addition, while publishing a large number of books related to Du Fu(杜甫) poetry that become he model of the poetry, Chanju-Bunryu-Dooshi( 纂註分類杜詩 ) is completed in the end of King Sejong. It is meaningful that Chanju-Bunryu-Dooshi is a new book compiled independently by the scholars of Joseon collecting and analyzing annotations. I do not think that King Sejong imported and reprinted the Chinese version, but compiled a new version of the annotation. This unique book compilation has become a basic direction for publishing important textbooks since the middle of Sejong. When publishing a collection of literature, he published a series of Chinese poems in his collection of poems, with a systematic framework, with detailed comments added to help learners. On the other hand, Anpyung Daegun(安平大君) who was also the general secretary of the Chanju-Bunryu-Dooshi compilation, edited the poetry with his own eyes and actively compiled and published several kinds of poems. This is the result of the personal tastes and literary capacities of the Anpyung Daegun, and the atmosphere of compiling the original notes in the concertation.
  • 3.

    The Correlation of the Publications Produced in the Reign of King Sejong

    Kim, Seung-u | 2018, 37(1) | pp.65~101 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Yongbieocheonga, which was produced to Justify the establishment of Joseon dynasty, did not have any relation with Samganghaengsildo or Myeonghwanggyegam in the beginning when only its lyrics existed. However, King Sejong promptly instructed Choe Hang to give a commentary on each verse of the lyrics. Through this reorganization, in the place where the pictures occupied in Samganghaengsildo and Myeonghwanggyegam, lyrics were substituted in Yongbieocheonga. Seokbosangjeol(釋譜詳節), compiled to commemorate Queen Soheon(昭憲王后), is a document related to the internal problem of the royal family as well as Myeonghwanggyegam, so Prince Suyang also played an active role in its composition. In context, Myeonghwanggyegam and Seokbosangjeol are also similar to each other in that they deal with a single character: Emperor Xuanzong of Tang and Shakyamuni. Yongbieocheonga served as an opportunity for the above-mentioned compilations to be increased or new ones to be produced. Based on the contents of Myeonghwanggyegam, King Sejong composed 168-verse lyrics, using the form of the lyrics in Chinese characters of Yongbieocheonga. Similarly, based on the contents of Seokbosangjeol, he also composed 583-verse lyrics named Wolincheongangjigok, using the form of the lyrics in Korean vernacular of Yongbieocheonga. These lyrics, which had existed separately until the reign of King Sejong, were integrated into the original texts in the reign of King Sejo. Such reorganizations resulted in a pattern of reproducing the style of Yongbieocheonga, leading to the result that the formats of Yongbieocheonga, Myeonghwanggyegam and Wolinseokbo are basically the same. King Sejo intended to reveal the meaning of his father King Sejong’s continuity to himself by combining his work with that of his father’s. Besides, King Sejo made extra efforts to translate all the combined works into Korean vernacular as well. He was confident that satisfactory documents could be made in Korean vernacular as in the case of Seokbosangjeol and Wolincheongangjigok. It is also understood that he actively used Korean vernacular to praise King Sejong’s intention to newly create the Hunminjeongeum(訓民正音).
  • 4.

    A study on the Companionship Among Jip-hyun-jeon[集賢殿] Scholars During the Sejong[世宗] Era

    Son Yoo Kyung | 2018, 37(1) | pp.103~142 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The 15th century was the era during which the Chosen[朝鮮] dynasty developed its cultural capacity through creating Hangul, compiling various books and organizing court music. At the center of these diverse achievements lied King Sejong[世宗] (1397-1450) and Jip-hyun-jeon[集賢殿], the royal academic institute, by whom the super structure of early Chosen such as politics, systems and culture were framed. As Munjong[文宗], the successor of Sejong, died from illness in the 2nd year of reign with young crown prince Danjong[端宗] enthroned, however, Jip-hyun-jeon became the center place of power struggle. This made the precedent studies only highlight the division and differences among Jip-hyun-jeon scholars based on their relationship with Sejo[世祖] reign, resulting in the lack of attention to the early form of exchanges among them. The purpose of this study is to look at the companionship of the following 6 Jip-hyun-jeon scholars, all of who participated in Saga-dok-seo[賜暇讀書] (a leave program allowed to young scholars to foster talents and encourage academic study) which took place at Samgak[三角] mountain’s Jinkwan[津寬] temple upon the order of King Sejong in 1942; Park Paeng-nyun(朴彭年; 1417~1456), Lee Gae(李塏; 1417~1456), Sung Sam-moon(成三問; 1418~1456), Ha Weeji(河緯地; 1412~1456), Shin Sook-joo (申叔舟; 1417~1475), Lee Suk-hyung(李石亨; 1415~1477). For an in-depth analysis, the era and figures were limited to the elite group of early Chosen, through whom the political philosophy and ideology of Sejong can be revealed best. From the poems the scholars read to each other staying at Jinkwan and Jangeui(藏義)temples, we can detect their urgency for not being able to take a chance to participate in the real politics while they expressed their gratitude to the King’s grace for the leave. However, as opposed to their worry, after finishing Saga-dok-seo, they ended up monopolizing various national book compilation projects with their outstanding talents, and continued the companionship among them. Considering that, the existing four Yeon-gu(聯句) poems (Yeon-gu poem: a type of poem a number of writers compose together by dividing the stanzas) are noteworthy in that they intensively show the aspiration and writer consciousness of these young 6 scholars as bureaucrat writers. It is not an easy task to discuss their fellowship exchange based on scarce material. Nevertheless, considering that the interaction circumstance of these 6 scholars were relatively clear despite the limited data, we found it necessary to organize it. However, due to the limited space and capability, we couldn’t discuss their public exchanges in depth such as the poet reading with the Chinese envoys and couldn’t describe the poem meetings with the prince Anpyung-daegoon(安平大君) or their relationship with Monk Ilam. We believe the companionship aspect of these 6 scholars will come into view with more dimensions if a further study on these takes place.
  • 5.

    Memories and Political Succession of 'Academic policy(文治)' in the Jungjong(中宗) Dynasty - Focused on the Recognition of the Sejong(世宗) and Seongjong(成宗) Dynasty's Scholarship -

    Chung Yonggun | 2018, 37(1) | pp.143~176 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis researched that the memories of ‘Academic policy(文治)’ of Sejong(世宗) and Seongjong(成宗) Dynasty were firmly established in the consciousness of the bureaucrats in Jungjong(中宗) dynasty, and it became the main power for the promotion of academic and cultural policies of the time. As the group who experienced the former time’s cultural prime represented by Sejong and Seongjong, the bureaucrats in Jungjong dynasty(中宗代 官僚 文人) set the first goal to realize past politics in their own age. Looking at their literature materials, it can be seen that the reign of Sejong and Seongjong has been consistently mentioned as a splendid historical event, and its succession has been used as a political slogan. And it was not only a mere rhetoric, but also actively reflected in actual works, and played a key role in leading academic policies such as maintenance and publishing of books, human resource development. The political legacy of Sejong and Seongjong which had been the prime of the early Joseon Dynasty, was still maintaining its status as a name of ‘academic policy’ in Jungjong dynasty. Analyzing the values and actual policy of the bureaucrats in Jungjong dynasty in terms of ‘academic policy’ is meaningful in that it enables us to grasp the scholarship in a continuous context with the previous period. In addition, it will help to understand one side of the age spirit that has been running in their own way by giving stereoscopic vision to the activities of those who have been get a fairly flat interpretation under the name of ‘School of literature(詞章派)’.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Female Literature Activity of the 19th Century through Gigak hanpil(綺閣閒筆)

    Kim,Yeo Ju | 2018, 37(1) | pp.177~220 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to look at the activities of the female writers in the mid 19th century through an analysis of Gigak hanpil , a Chinese poetry work by a female writer Gigak (綺閣). The caste system of Chosen was not fair to women and the activities of female writers were limited, making it extremely difficult for their works to be published or orally passed down. Nevertheless, outstanding female writers in the history of Korean Chinese literature exited in every era, which is why we can’t slow down the study, and the discovery of Gigak hanpil is highly valuable from this perspective. In the Hangul-transcribed version of Gigak hanpil are listed 247 poems of Gigak. Each poem in Gigak hanpil is definitely a Chinese poem composed in Chinese characters, but transcribed in Hangul only without the original text in Chinese characters written. It means that the title, the explanation on the title, body and interpretation are all in Hangul only. For example, a poem meaning “Returning to Nosung” was transcribed as “환노성”, not as “還魯城”. Gigak hanpil whose form wrote Chinese poems only in the Hangul-phonetic way stands out against Chinese poetry collections of other female writers and calls for our attention. This was a part of another way of enjoying the literature , observed among female writers after the 18th century, a study on which can be said to have a significant meaning in understanding the female literature activity at that time. The Gigak hanpil we used as a study text in this paper is a material owned by “The Academy of Korean studies Jangseogak”, which intactly followed the restored works into Chinese characters by precedented researchers. A significance of this study can be argued to lie in that it tried to re-construct Gigak’s life and poetic characteristic by focusing on her individual poems as well as to look at the common yet various literature activities of the noble women in the 19th century by further extending the scope of the study. As we continued this research using a minute analysis tool, we could study Gigak’s activity which attempted to share Chinese poems through a Hangul-transcription method in the time when the activities of 19th century’s female poets varied although when they were born and died are mostly not clear. We could also observe her natural everyday life of composing poetry in her friendly meetings with close male poets including her brother. We categorized the characteristic of her poetry world by subject material, beginning with the works considered to simply write about subjects before her eyes, then dividing our analysis between object poetry(詠物詩) which wittily turned the internal nature of objects into poems and scenery poetry(景物詩) which projected her cheerful mind through an external description of the nature. What was also observed was her care to share and appreciate with other female poets by mainly composing in the form of Chilun jeolgu (七言絶句) a quatrain with seven Chinese characters in each line). From her works using lines written by old poets as titles, we could tell her attempt to master the form of poetry composition as well as the fact that Gigak’s efforts to learn old poets’ sentiment and actively express her diverse feelings were resulted from her creative will as a poet. Gigak attempted to effectively reveal the poetic sense by turning a variety of subjects into a poem while showing her pride as a female poet through mastering and sharing various feelings. This connects with the display of her poetic talent as an individual poet and her desire to express feelings, allowing us to break away from the previous view to regard her works as simple poetry studies and re-evaluate them. Based on a close study on her 247 Chinese poems, it came to light more vividly that the characteristic of Gigak’s poetry was boiled down to her attention to the trivial “daily life” and the pride for the poetry “composition” itself. Besides, the fact that she edited Chinese poems in the Hangul-phonetic method showed she cared to share with female audience, which is aligned with the daily enjoyment and the initiative in creative activities of female poets in the 19th century. We expect this to serve as an important reference in understanding the female poets of that time.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Aspect of Shaping of Taishan Quoted in the Chinese Poetry of Korea

    DongJae Lee | 2018, 37(1) | pp.221~249 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Taishan is a mountain in Shandong province, China, where the Emperors of the Chinese dynasties held ritual ceremonies to confirm the legitimacy of reign, and it was recognized as the most sacred mountain since Confucius had climbed this mountain. It is Shijing that Taishan appeared as a material of literature, The poem, Mangak(望岳) that Tu Fu, a poet wrote when he went onto Taishan, had a lot of effects not only on the Chinese literati but also on the Korean literati. Taishan most frequently appears in the common idioms and proverbs that we use everyday, and is a poetic diction that often appears in the Chinese poetry written by the literati. Among the Korean literati, <UnchulTaishan(雲出泰山)> is the first poem to be written by Lee Saek(李穡), at the end of Goryeo, followed by Lee Min‐seong(李民宬), Seonwu Hyeop(鮮于浹), Oh Suk(吳 ), Lee Hyeon‐seok(李玄錫) and Seo Jong‐ tae(徐宗泰), who wrote this poem. In the Chinese poetry in Korea, Taishan was mainly quoted in monody and used as a poetic diction which is likened to be a decedent, who was high in personality, learning style, and virtue etc. It was called “Taishan Gitoe(泰山其 )” in 「Tangong(檀弓)」 of Liji , and was compared as a comparison of a scholar and a public figure after being compared with the death of Confucius. Also, it was transmuted in its meaning and used as a poetic diction to compare the meaning of something with great significance. This is due to Simaqian(司馬遷)’s letter to Linan(任安) saying that the completion of Shiji compared to Taishan is more precious and worthwhile than death, and in the Chinese poetry in Korea, the poetry is often used as a poetic diction which likens the act of ‘Salshinseongin(sacrifice oneself to preserve one’s integrity, 殺身成仁)‘. Furthermore, Taishan likened the higher grounds that cannot be tolerated, and it was mainly used in the poetry that encouraged progeny or junior scholars to set a bigger goal of scholarship in the poetry for the purpose of instruction. In the future, it will be a challenge for us to review how our ancestors shaped Taishan by excavating excursion notes which were written while traveling Taishan in person, including the Chinese poetry, in which Taishan was selected as a direct material.
  • 8.

    A study on Acceptance Patterns of Tao Yuan-ming's Four Words Poems by the Literati in the Joseon Dynasty

    Lee Hoon | 2018, 37(1) | pp.251~299 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study named the works by the literati in the Joseon Dynasty as 'He Tao Si Yan Shi(和陶四言詩)' which were written to a given set of rhymes of Tao Yuan-ming(陶淵明)'s four words poems(四言詩), and explored the level of internal development and the significance of literary history while examining the acceptance patterns of Tao Yuan-ming's poetry. In this study, several writers were selected as the literati of 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' in the Joseon Dynasty: Kim Si-seup(金時習), Shin Hum(申欽), Yu Gye(兪棨), Kim Su-hang(金壽恒), Kim Chang-hyeop(金昌協), Jo Yu-su(趙裕壽), Jo Jong-jin(趙琮鎭), Lee Man-su(李晩秀), etc. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. Tao Yuan-ming's four words poems, in terms of form and rhetoric, consciously inherited the style of『Shi Jing(詩經)』, which had an inclination to restoration or tended towards classicism, that is to say the worship of ancient. In comparison 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' showed literary intentions to pursue the archaism, but on the other hand, there's a deviation in the perception of archaism due to the difference in individual literary inclinations. Hence 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' displayed varied aspects in the title and form, some writers accepted Tao Yuan-ming's format while others made some variations on it with their own personalities. The year in which poems were created generally coincided with the time when the writers suffered after middle age; this proves that Tao Yuan-ming's poems were effective in expressing one's personal feelings and intentions. It is also noteworthy that the creation period of 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' was concentrated in the 17th century. There seem to be observable differences in the rhyming words(韻字) between 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' of the Joseon Dynasty and Tao Yuan-ming's four words poems. Jo Jong-jin and Lee Man-su mainly changed their last rhyming words into different words which were in the same rhyme group(韻目) of the original poems, in order to realize the internalization of thematic consciousness. Kim Chang-hyeop wrote poems in accordance with the thematic consciousness of Tao Yuan-ming's four words poems, but he did not create poems in the way of bouts-rimes(和韻詩). The most distinctive feature of 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' in the Joseon Dynasty is the rhetorical aspect. Kim Si-seup embraced every rhetorical expression technique of Tao Yuan-ming. In the 17th century, however, Shin-Hum, Yu-Gye, Kim Su-hang and Kim Chang-hyeop had different ways of accepting and making variations of it. Jo Yu-su, in the 18th century, accepted it at a very low level, but in the first half of the 19th century Jo Jong-jin and Lee Man-su absorbed it again at a high level. Considering that Kim Chang-hyeop did not use any title of Tao Yuan-ming's poems and even avoided the way of bouts-rimes, his works can be estimated to be located at a inflection point in the transformation process of 'He Tao Si Yan Shi'. Kim Chang-hyeop criticized the restoration in poetry of the 17th century, which made it possible for individualism to become a main literary trend of the 18th century. That's the reason why Jo Yu-su's acceptance level of Tao Yuan-ming's four words poems in the 18th century was so low in terms of rhetoric. Furthermore, in the first half of the 19th century, the government official-literary men who were influenced by Munchebanjeong(文體反正) of King Jeongjo(正祖) claimed to support restoration or classicism. That's why the level of acceptance of Tao Yuan-ming's four words poems in the works of Jo Jong-jin and Lee Man-su was increased again. As such, 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' experienced a process of transformation that was internalized by reconstructing the poetic qualities of Tao Yuan-ming's four words poems according to the periodical writing style and individual literary intention. Therefore the composition methods of 'He Tao Si Yan Shi' in the Joseon Dynasty can be classified into three types depending on the rhyme and acceptance patterns of themes: 'He Yun He Yi(和韻和意)', 'He Yi Bu He Yun(和意不和韻)' and a mixture of 'He Yun He Yi(和韻和意)' and 'He Yun Bu He Yi(和韻不和意)'. The type of 'He Yun He Yi' is to internalize by reusing the rhyming words of original poems and accepting the poetic themes. The works of Kim Si-seup, Shin Hum, Yu Gye, Kim Su-hang, Jo Yu-su and Jo Jong-jin can be included in it. And then, the type of 'He Yi Bu He Yun' is to internalize by not using any rhyming words of original poems but accepting the poetic themes. The works of Kim Chang-hyeop is considered to be of this type. Finally, the type of a mixture of 'He Yun He Yi(和韻和意)' and 'He Yun Bu He Yi(和韻不和意)' is a form of coexistence with internalization by reusing the rhyming words and poetic themes of original poems as well as expression of one's own themes. Lee Man-su's works correspond to this kind of type. In particular, Lee Man-su was the only one who followed the whole rhymes used by Tao Yuan-ming's four words poems and expressed his own themes while internalizing the form and meter of Tao Yuan-ming's poems. Considering these facts, Lee Man-su's ‘He Tao Si Yan Shi’ can be regarded as the highest peak in the degree of internal development of 'He Tao Si Yan Shi'.
  • 9.

    Research on the origin of a word ‘땅(thang)’

    hanyounsuk | 2018, 37(1) | pp.301~339 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There are two arguments that the origin of 'Tae(따 지)' can not be known and 'dal(달).’ I agree with the argument that the 'dal(달)’ is the root. The evidence was found in the Di(地) in Archaic Chinese. rThe reading in the Archaic Chinese was the 'dal(달).’ This 'dal(地)’ has turned into a tha(따 땅) and a ji(지) This is because of the following reasons. the first, If you refer to the ‘diwə̅t(달) of jengnu mulbu(定紐 物部)’ in Archaic Chinese, you would have read it as ‘dal(달)' at some point in the appeal. The second, pronunciations of ‘dal(地)'make a change tha(따), which reflects the Chinese word of loss of the sound of the entrance. Third, ‘Ji(地)' of ‘ tha ji(따 지(地))' is a reflection pronunciation in medieval times ‘jengnu jibu(定紐 至部) di(地)’ of ‘di(地)'
  • 10.

    A Study on Chinese Characters Related to the ‘Birth’ Theme

    Woo, Onsik | 2018, 37(1) | pp.341~379 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay is an analysis of the resources of Chinese characters related to the ‘birth’ theme. Birth is a phenomenon in which a fetus fully emerges from its mother and forms an independent organism. Human birth is a vital art of reserving the species, inheriting the family business and connecting the family. In our country, marriage was regarded as a means of giving birth to children, so women who married thought giving birth to children was the biggest duty and desire. This was what the whole family wanted, not just the person directly involved. In articular, in the Joseon Dynasty, where it was an important filial duty to get a heir to a family, it was believed that only the birth of a son would serve the duty of future generations. In a traditional society, where were very busy with small and large rites, people within the family tried to take care of mothers before and after pregnancy and to promote the health of mothers and children when they gave birth to babies. Also, when a child was born, they kept 'Gumjul' at the gate to prevent the vendors and the Mourners from coming in and out of the house from entering the wrong lace. Since the birth of the first human race, the modern human race has evolved to become highly spiritual. As humans naturally formed a society while living in groups for survival, they developed an original language to communicate with each other. Chinese characters related to birth may also have been for the need for communication and records. This study's purpose is the customs and ideas of ancient birth by analyzing the origin of Chinese characters that have been handed down for thousands of years.
  • 11.

    A study of the origin of Chinese characters in hunting

    kanghyesook | 2018, 37(1) | pp.381~422 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the origin of Chinese characters, which means hunting. Long ago, hunting was a way to survive for mankind. Since then, with farming, humans settled in one place and began to raise animals that were hunted, the percentage of hunting has become lower. As man advances, with the development of culture, we became to enjoy hunting for various reasons, such as training of mind and body, military training, entertainment, and memorial services, instead of simply getting out of the way to obtain food. Humans used weapons such as bows and spears to hunt down animals, used dogs and hawks, or made traps, and set traps to hunt animals in various ways. Various hunting methods have been handed down from ancient times to present without major changes, and the traces remain in the Chinese characters related to hunting. Therefore, analyzing the origin of Chinese characters can help us understand ancient hunting methods and meanings. Humans developed language to communicate with each other, and letters were generated through the stages of symbols. Because the letters were created by necessity, the background of the creation of the letters shows the social picture of the time. Since Chinese characters have been used for thousands of years, analyzing the meanings of Chinese characters reveals many aspects of ancient culture, society, politics, and customs. In this paper, we will learn about the meaning, tools, and methods of hunting, seasonal hunting by analyzing the resources of Chinese characters that represent hunting among the cultures shown in Chinese characters.
  • 12.

    Comparative study on the concepts of 仁, 義, 禮, 智 of Zhu Xi, Dasan, and Dai Zhen

    kim Jo-young | 2018, 37(1) | pp.423~449 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study is conducted to broaden the understanding of the concept of 仁, 義, 禮,智(the ideas of benevolence, justice, courtesy, and wisdom) which are the key ideas in confucianism by comparing three different perspectives on The Mencius from Zhu Xi(朱熹), Jung Yak-Yong(茶山), Dai Zhen(戴震). In order to achieve the goal, this paper analyzes the writings of the three figures about The Mencius - 孟子集註 of Zhu Xi, 孟子要義 of Jung Yak-Yong, 孟子字義疏證 of Dai Zhen- by focusing on the examples that the words - 仁, 義, 禮, 智- were used in and the definition they had given to the words in their writings. Zhu Xi who is considered to be the founder of neo-confucianism-major philosophy of eastern Asia in the medieval times- defines 仁, 義, 禮, 智 as human nature which is exactly the same with li(理)- the metaphysical concept referring to the order or the principle of the nature. According to Zhu Xi, 仁, 義, 禮, 智 represents the fundamental kindness of human nature so that these become the root of so called Four principles(四端))- the conscience that are divided into four in response to 仁, 義, 禮, 智. Otherwise Jung Yak-Yong defines 仁, 義, 禮, 智 as not human nature but moral ideas that one should accomplish. Therefore following Four principles(四端) becomes the roots to achieve those ethical values. Even though Jung Yak-Yong still believed in the innate virtue of human being, Jung Yak-Yong ’s suggestion was exceptional in those days which Zhu Xi’s opinion was the majority in regard to the denial of apriority of 仁,義, 禮, 智. He broke the mold by redefining human-nature being ‘Preference’. Dai Zhen’s view on 仁, 義, 禮, 智 is similar to Jung Yak-Yong in regard to those concepts being extrinsic so that one should accomplish by learning and practicing, but the difference is that Dai Zhen never refers Four principles(四端) as internal motivation to achieve moral values rather he emphasizes education and discipline supposedly standing Xun zi’s side considering human nature being fundamentally evil. Furthermore he suggests a new angle on 仁, 義, 禮, 智 by redefining each value being interdependent. Although the words 仁, 義, 禮, 智 have been familiar to people having been living in Confucian culture, the actual concepts of those have always been controversial because of the viviparous limitation of metaphysical ideas. Thus Comparing three different perspectives on those concepts broadens the understanding and also could helps people find virtues to pursue.
  • 13.

    Plans for Curricular Reorganization with an Emphasis on the Study of Traditional Culture - With a Focus on Goals, Subject Capabilities, Content Systems, and Achievement Criteria -

    Shin Kwangwoo | 2018, 37(1) | pp.451~482 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Today the world is full of so much communication and exchange that it is called the global community. Unlike in the past, there is a growing climate of understanding different cultures and respecting their values these days. The import and export of excellent culture serves as a catalyst to make a nation a cultural power. At the center of it is the traditional culture of one's own country. It is recognized as a cultural industry of high value added such as tourism and commodities. The Chinese characters subject contains so many elements and content related to the traditional culture of Korea that it can be considered as the traditional culture itself. Since it covers a range of aspects in the traditional culture including literature, philosophy and history, just completing the national-level curriculum in a sequential manner will ensure the study of the traditional culture. This study set out to reorganize the Chinese characters curriculum under the goal of searching for ways to provide lessons putting greater emphasis on the elements of the traditional culture based on the characteristics of the subject. The study explained the concept of curricular reorganization and the need for and characteristics of study to emphasize the traditional culture, adopted and transformed the "cultural intelligence" concept usually used in international business to establish a theory needed in the study of traditional culture, and partially revised the goals, subject capabilities, content systems, and achievement criteria of the curriculum. The curriculum was reorganized with an emphasis on the study of traditional culture with the relative percentage of vocabulary and reading lowered a little bit and the process of leading to the knowledge, understanding, sympathy and utilization of traditional culture added. This is not to deny the national-level curriculum or criticize language study but to propose a way of applying a method of practicing diversification and autonomy in teaching and learning to the field of schools.