This paper is a study on the peer polity interaction of Old Chosŏn, Yan, and Qi from the late 4th century to the early 3rd century BCE. In the introductory chapter, I represent the summary of previous studies on the topic and review the problems of those. In the previous studies only the relation between Old Chosŏn and Yan has been focused, but the agency of Qi that was the military rival of Yan and the commercial partner of Old Chosŏn has been ignored. The second chapter is on the interactional state formation process of Old Chosŏn, Yan, and Qi around 323 BCE. In this chapter I suggest that the interactional birth of king(Wang) in these states implies archaic ‘state’ formation. The third chapter provides a historical approach to the interactional attack of Qi and Old Chosŏn toward Yan from 314 to 312 BCE. According to the Yantieiun and the Bowuzhi, there was Old Chosŏn’s invasion to Yan’s eastern region around 314 BCE when Qi plundered Yan’s ten castles. In the final chapter, I assert that from 284 to 280 BCE the expansion of Yan brought about interactional decline of Qi and Old Chosŏn. As it is, Old Chosŏn’s Manbŏnhan that was Yan’s final attack point around 280 BCE was a important spot linking Old Chosŏn and Qi through maritime route between Liaodong peninsula and Shandong peninsula.
The study for the eunuches and their political and social effects during the korea Dynasty(高麗王朝) has been rarely researched until now. The eunuches and their power were never recognized in this class society. It is the prejudice that the status and role of them had been fixed and simple.
First, the eunuch existed in the Orient and the Occident. In our written history document, they had existed since the period of Unified Silla(統一新羅). They had been a minority and taken over miscellaneous services(雜役) at the Court of Goryo Dynasty(高麗王朝). After King Injong(仁宗) and Euejong(毅宗) a special eunuch who assisted the King in his work very closely, called a Naeshi(內侍) appeared. Eunuch Jungham(鄭諴) who won King Euejong(毅宗)' favor was appointed to the Naejeonseungban(內殿崇班). But it was after the period of Won(元)'s control era that the eunuch could raise a higher position. Bongukhwaja(本國火者), who was a Korean eunuch and went to the Won Empire(元帝國), raised a higher position and had a potential influence on the appointment or the summons of Goryo King. As in his task, he had carried out the Kings‘ miscellaneous business and taken charge of the Kings’ private moneys. So, after five years of King Kongmin(恭愍王), Naesibu(內侍府), a post of undertaking the eunuch affairs, was established. After the establishment of Naesibu, the eunuch was appointed to a vassal or took over confidential affairs.
After Kyeyujungran and Sejo's seizure of power, government school-party, which became the ruling party after the establishment of Chosun Dynasty, was divided inner their party. Sa-yuksin's trial to abolish the King Sejo, caused majority separated into two groups, Hungu(勳舊) and Sarim(士林) party. Through the eyes of Confucian justice and moral justification, Suyangdaegun should have not become the king. However, he chose the benefit of becoming the King rather than getting the reputation to be Jugong(周公) So it was not at all strange that the distribution of rewards like installation was held after Sejo's inauguration. It was Sejo's political purpose that he nominated Chiphyonjon(集賢殿) scholars like Sungsammun as Jungnan(靖難) and Joaik-kongsin(佐翼功臣) to cover his weak point of justice.
Those who led the Sayuksin's trial to abolish the King Sejo were major politicians and scholars of early Chosun dynasty. They were not only the main scholars of Chiphyonjon which was established by Sejong, but also the politicians to contribute in establishing new national systems. They tried to actualize their ideals in their situation. They tried to keep the confucian justice and ideology. So they could not accept Sejo who killed his nephew and seized the power. Therefore, it is meaningful that the academic and political view of Sa-yuksin were similar to those of the spirit of the national foundation.
The spirit of Sa-yuksin influenced the idea and political administration of sarim-party that occurred after the King Sungjong. We can recognize that the political view and ideas of Sa-yuksin were to actualize the confucianism and so was the Sarim-party. We can also illuminate the influence of their idea and political view through who was the descendant in the daughter's line of Sungsammun.
This is a study on the life of woman Woo lived in Eusung Hyun(義城縣) of Kyungsang Do at 17th century. Major facts are based on the story written by Mr. Duck-ham Shin(申德涵). The story include a life story of the woman Woo described by her birth, growth, marriage, widowed procedure, threat of soldier Young-bal Lee(李永發) by force, seduction her to remarry by a neighbor woman. The story consists of the touched description such as her strong will of keeping her chastity, trial of suicide at the yard of Young-bal Lee's house and revival in details. Woman Woo supported her father and step mother in hard situations. Also she hold a memorial service for the repose of her husband and father-in-law with her sincerity.
Duck-ham Shin wanted to give lesson to next generations. Woo who was born poor in the lower class was admired by him for her chastity, filial duty, wisdom and courage, which a nobleman had to keep at that time. The author hope to find more stories of the chaste women to be introduced.
This study explores the collection and rationing policy of staple grains from the establishment of the government of the Republic of Korea until the Korean War in South Korea.
Following the establishment of the government of the Republic of Korea, the food still remained under the control of the Korean government. At first the government pointed out that farmers had been exploited as a result of the government's program for food control during the Military Government era and that the prices to be paid for rice and summer grains should be much higher, in order to meet production costs. However, the government's rice purchase prices were still lower than the production costs. At that time the collecting of food with compulsory means was impossible, and food collection programs failed.
Therefore, the Government could not help changing the distribution method of food which restricted the rations to civil service employees, and certain other classes of workers contributing to the Government. The rest had to buy food on the free market.
The Government tried to control rice price by releasing government- controlled rice onto the free market, but this policy failed because there was not enough government-controlled rice to regulate the prices.
Under the continuous fiasco, the government abandoned food control around the beginning of 1950. In addition, the government could not pay a high amount of subsidies for food control, when financial balance was required to control inflation.