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2008, Vol., No.92

  • 1.

    The Political society and the instituion of Hwarangdo in the reign of King Jinheung in Silla

    Park Namsoo | 2008, (92) | pp.1~36 | number of Cited : 7
    The policies in the reign of King Jinheung are featured as Budhhist and territorial expansion policies. Those were led by high officials belonging to Ryanbu and Saryangbu encircling King Jinheung. Considering that Hwarangdo was systemized by them with King JinHeung at that time, its purpose, function and characteristic seem to be related closely with those policies. In this point of view, this study focuses on examining the main group of establishing Hwarangdo and its aims and researching the politic tasks and ideological atmosphere in the reign of King Jinheung in Silla as the background of Hwarangdo establishment. Furthermore, it is examined in this study how Wonhwa, Hwarangdo and Puwoldo were related with each other and what the relation with Hwabaek Council was. On the basis of those examination, the author would like to trace the issue on the origin of Hwarangdo. As a result of the study, Wonhwa and Hwarang were enacted to harmonize the social, political issues with the tradition of Gabae as an organizational principle of 6 Bu, the belief of Sun-and-Moon God and Buddhism, especially, Mireuk Hasaeng Sinang(Maitreya faith). In particular, it seems that Wonhwa characterized as a transient system aiming at selecting the talented only in 6 Bu restrictively was changed to Hwarang as a policy for selecting the talented inclusively in the true bone class as well as sons of 6 Bu in Capital. This change was carried out through unifying the Wonhwa system with Pungwoldo functioning as a political preparation course for noble sons in the process of withdrawing the authority of the recommendation system of 6 Bu to the central government.
  • 2.

    A study on Dunchon Yi Jip’s Learnning and Thought

    Juhee Ryu | 2008, (92) | pp.37~68 | number of Cited : 1
    Dunchon Yi Jip, who was good friends with Sung Confucianism scholars such as Yi Saek(李穡), Jeong Mong-ju(鄭夢周) and Yi Sung-in(李崇仁) in Goryeo period, contributed to the settlement of Sung Confucianism in Korea. Most of them were academic officials when Seonggyungwan(成均館) was restored and Yi Saek was appointed as Daesaseong(大司成) by King Gongmin. Yi Jip kept close relations with them. He was deeply interested in Sung Confucianism and had a profound knowledge of it. Yi Jip believed that the idea of Sung Confucianism to be the basis of all studies as well as the fundamental study of ruling the country. By applying the practical ethics of Sung Confucianism, he tried to implement it in the real society. His practice was respected by all the scholars from that period. Yi Jip valued Jungyong(中庸) and admired the idea of Maengja(孟子). He lived a secluded life. He understood the idea of Jungyong from Cheyongnon(體用論)'s point of view. This is realistically a point of view, which places importance on the study and moral culture that practices the doctrines of Jungyong. Junghwa(中和) is a mental peak that people try to reach. He considered Junghwa and Jungyong as important inner values and hoped to reach Junghwa through Jungyong. The truth of Jungyong requires people to give up something. Sometimes it asks for flexibility, and sometimes Dalgwan(達觀), a philosophical view. Therefore, Junghwa is to enjoy the happiness of becoming one with the nature in the peacefulness that is the simplicity without lies. Thus, Yi Jip pursued a secluded life for his whole life. However, Yi Jip’s secluded life did not mean living completely isolated from the world. He as a Sadaebu(士大夫), was never apart from the society and constantly had an interest in social reality. The seclusion of Sadaebu was a struggle against the contradictions in real society, but on the other hand, it was a silent appeal to convince people. Yi Jip continued to take an interest in social reality and expressed his loyalty and love of people through poems. This appears to come from the late Goryeo Sadaebu’s idea of responsibility and pride.
  • 3.

    Su-Ryong(守令)'s Going to and from the Office and His Ordinary Jobs in the Latter Period of Cho-Seon

    이선희 | 2008, (92) | pp.69~104 | number of Cited : 9
    This study is about Su-Ryong's ways of working from attendance at office till going home after work and his ordinary jobs in various work places in the latter period of Y dynasty. This is mostly based on the various diaries. Among them, There are Yi Yu Gan(李惟侃)'s <Woo-Kok Ilki(愚谷日記)>, Hwang Yoon Seok(黃胤錫)'s <I Jae Nan Go(頤齋亂藁)>, Oh Hyong Muk(吳宖黙)'s <Jeong Seon Chong Sae Rok(旌善叢瑣錄)>. Their areas cover Cheon Ahn(天安), Mok Cheon(木川)ㆍJeon Eui(全義), Jeong Sun(旌善). And their terms of offices include from 1609 to 1613년, from 1779 to 1780, from 1786 to 1787, and from 1887 to 1888. <Woo-Kok Ilki> and <I Jae Nan Go> were about Cheon Ahn, Mok Cheon, Jeon Eui. Those area were adjacent to each other so that the diaries are meaningful though their timely gap. Therefore I tried to find the characteristic jobs of Su-Ryongs from these adjacent areas, comparing their situations around work. That enabled me to compare the ordinary jobs of Su-Ryung’s of a distant area like Jeong Seon. This method may be problematic of generalization and particularity. But the national powers were given and the governmental demands were carried away through the same official position. So I believe that it is meaningful to study of the administrational events of these matters. Because, without regard to time and region, whether Su-Ryungs had their ways of common jobs shows how the central government in the latter period of Y dynasty controlled eventual administrational operations to ordinary people.
  • 4.

    The activity and personality of national liberation movements parties of Changbai Prefecture(長白縣) in China - Around the activity of Korean Independence Armament corps(大韓獨立軍備團) and Gwangjung corps(光正團) -

    KIM JOO YONG | 2008, (92) | pp.105~139 | number of Cited : 7
    As only Korean Autonomous Prefecture(延邊朝鮮族自治縣), Changbai Prefecture(長白縣) have rugged mountains and Ap-lok river(鴨綠江). The present, Changbai Prefecture is situated on the north of Wu-song Prefecture(撫松縣), on the south of Hyesanjin(惠山鎭) of North Korea. Since national ruin of 1910, The Korean emigrants increased suddenly in Changbai Prefecture. Korean Independence Armament corps(大韓獨立軍備團) was Organized in Changbai Prefecture after 3ㆍ1 movement, 1919. From early establishment, Korean Independence Armament corps be absorbed in war funds draft throughout strong armament fighting. especialy, The responsible person grandmeeting of 12 Sep, 1919 was concretized war funds draft problem. Since March, 1921 to Sep, 1922, large and small battle came about 10times. Korean Independence Armament corps was unified new party with changes of the inside and outside circumstance. 20members of Korean Independence Armament corps, Gwangbok corps(光復團), Heungup corps(興業團) assembled in Shinchang Village(新昌洞), 16daogou(16道溝), Changbai Prefecture at 1 July, 1921. As the leader of Heungup corps Chang-il, Kim was elected for temporary chairman. Thus, Korean Independence Armament corps was dissolved and developed to Gwangjung corps(光正團) throughout struggle policy of high level. The formality name of Gwangjung corps was Korean Independence Gwangjung corps(大韓獨立光正團). The headquarters was located in 17daogou(17道溝), Changbai Prefecture. The early important officers of Gwangjung corps were Duk-bo, Yoon(尹德甫), Woon-sub, Han(韓雲燮), Woo-gun, Kang(姜宇鍵), Tae-gul, Lee(李泰杰), Byung-ryool, Lee(李秉律). They were most of important officers in Korean Independence Armament corps. Gwangjung corps succeed to structure of Korean Independence Armament corps. Because the activity of Gwangjung corps was similar to Korean Independence Armament corps's. First, Gwangjung corps planned militarized infiltration to the interior of a country. As well, war funds draft was spread out to variety. Gwangjung corps propelled not only war funds draft but also school establishment in Wu-sung Prefecture. Baeksan military school(白山武官學校) was mportant. Already, establishment of Gwangjung corps was preengaged in the first half of 1910s. Also, the Jiandao(間島) & the Maritime Province(沿海州) invasion of Japanese military in 1920 was the crisis or opportunity about Korean Independence patriot. The disorganization and sublimation of national liberation movements parties was 'making masterpiece' of Korean Independence patriot what unification of parties's the principle and practice. As a result, national liberation movements was risen up.
  • 5.

    The Role of Lee Guk-ro in the Hangeul Movement in 1930's

    박용규 | 2008, (92) | pp.141~180 | number of Cited : 6
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of Lee Guk-ro in the Hangeul Movement in 1930's. Japanese imperialistic language policy is to eradicate the Korean native language and to spread Japanese. By doing so the imperialists tried to assimilate Korean to Japanese. They tried to root out the consciousness of Korean national identity. After returning Korea via Europe, Lee Guk-ro promoted the Hangeul Movement all over the country. He organized the Korean Language Society(朝鮮語學會) and a committee of the compilation of Hangeul dictionary(朝鮮語辭典編纂會). Though the organization, he studied, permeated, developed Hangeul on a nationwide scale. This Hangeul Movement provoked by Lee Guk-ro has significance in national history. In this process the leading figures in the Korean Language Society has established the Spelling System of Hangeul, and compiled Hangeul dictionary, and settled the standard language and the orthography of a word of foreign origin. They resisted Japan's language assimilation policy and their fundamental principles formed the basis of the language policy of independent nation-state. Lee Guk-ro specially celebrated Hangeul Proclamation Day all over the country. He and his colleague opened Hangeul workshop on a large scale. Uncompromising nationalist Lee Guk-ro played an leading role in the Hangeul Movement of the Korean Language Society in 1930ㆍ40's national combat. The historical feature of Hangeul Movement in 1930's was anti-feudalistic and anti-imperialistic. In other words this movement was the modernization movement of language and the independence movement of nation.