The Review of Korean History 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.28

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2021, Vol., No.144

  • 1.

    The achievements and prospects of the Joseon Dynasty’s “National Ritual(國家儀禮)” research

    Na Young hun | 2021, (144) | pp.7~36 | number of Cited : 2
    The Joseon Dynasty’s “National Ritual(國家儀禮)” can be summarized as “Five Rites(五禮)”. This study was attempted based on the fact that there were no attempts to summarize these achievements, compared to the accumulation of significant achievements related to Joseon’s ‘National Ritual’. It was attempted to understand the limitations of the study by organizing the ‘National Ritual’ study in detail and to think about the future direction of the 'National Rituals’ study. The prelude to the study of ‘National Ritual’ begins with the study of ‘Five Rites(五禮)’ by “Lee Bum-jik” and “Ji Doo-hwan” in the 1980s. The 1990s was the time when the foundation for the study of ‘National Ritual’ was established, and it is of great significance. This period is meaningful as a starting point for the field under the theme of ‘National Ritual’ to gradually secure academic areas within Korean history. The 2000s was a time when the number of researchers increased and academic research exploded amid interest in the ‘Royal(王室)’. The 2010s was a time when the extension of the methodology of ‘National Ritual’ research was expanded and extensive case studies were conducted. Despite the accumulated studies so far, several challenges remain to be solved. First, attempts must be made to encompass the entire ‘National Ritual’. Second, while expanding the scope of methodology, research with the main theme of ‘National Ritual’ should be conducted. Third, it is necessary to seek close convergence research with other branches and disciplines. This joint research organization has only played a role in integrating research on ‘National Ritual’ accumulated so far. It is expected that substantial research will be conducted based on this in the future.
  • 2.

    History of Royal Rituals and Ceremonies in the Joseon Dynasty : Current research status and suggestions for the future

    Jean-Hae Shin | 2021, (144) | pp.37~80 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    When it comes to Gilrye(吉禮), it encompasses national rituals and ceremonies in the form of sacrifice rituals among the five rituals(五禮). The study of national rituals in Joseon commenced later than the other fields of history. After establishing the foundation for understanding national rituals in the 1990s, detailed research progressed during the 2000s. Researchers nowadays can attempt to understand the field of rituals, which would not have been possible if it had not been for the hard work of previous researchers. However, despite the accumulation of remarkable research results, academia still regards ritual research as part of the political history or a cultural history, and it is necessary to reflect on the fact that it has not been recognized as a unique field of “The History of Rituals”. This study was organized to determine where future research should be directed to by looking back on the progress of accumulated research on the Joseon Dynasty’s royal ritual until now.
  • 3.

    Current Status and Tasks of the Researches on Garye in Choseon Dynasty

    Park mi sun | 2021, (144) | pp.81~140 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is purposed to review the existing researches related to Garye and to consider future tasks. First, the study reviewed research achievements in the field of history, focusing on the items of Uiju and Seorye from Garye of 『Sejong Annals』 「Orye」 in the early Choseon Dynasty to Garye of 『Gukjo-Orye-Tongpyeon』in the late Choseon Dynasty. The trends in the study on Garye are categorized and organized into ① a study on the direction of Garye maintenance, ② a study on the classification of Garye items, and ③ a study on individual subjects of Garye. According to the research result, four tasks are presented; ① Following researches should be conducted on a kind of ‘Related Source Theory (典據論)’ on Uiju (Protocol) or ‘Epistemology (認識論)’ on the composition of Orye (The Five Rituals). ② In order to categorize the rites and ceremonies of Garye, the premise of the classification of national rituals should be examined in depth in relation to the planning of the Confucian country. ③ It will be necessary to consider the step-by-step setting of the scope of the study on Garye and the categories of ritualized ceremonies that are not included in the liturgical books. ④ It is required to draw a discourse on the Yechi/Yegyo society of Choseon in connection with the main discourses of the Choseon Dynasty as well as the continuous excavation of subtle topics.
  • 4.

    The Current Trend and Future Task of Research on the Proprieties for Guests during the Joseon Dynasty

    Kim Sung Hee | 2021, (144) | pp.141~178 | number of Cited : 1
    In this paper, among the research achievements of Joseon history, articles that directly dealt with the proprieties for guests or analyzed Joseon’s foreign relations from a ritual point of view were summarized and future research tasks were sought. Existing historical accounts on Joseon’s foreign relations were mainly focused on political and diplomatic issues. In recent years, as interest in envoys, who oversee negotiations between countries, has been aroused, studies focusing on the activities of foreign envoys visiting Joseon and the aspect of Joseon’s hospitality with them have increased. Subsequently, an attempt was made to grasp the substance of the relationship between Joseon and the Ming dynasty by clarifying the background of the formation of diplomatic rituals and the establishment and adjustment process of ritual directives for the Ming dynasty. In this process, specific criticism was raised on the discourse of the East Asian tribute system. As such, the importance of rituals in grasping the substance of the relationship between Joseon and the Ming dynasty has been proven, but the change in diplomatic rituals followed by the replacement of Ming and Qing has yet to be clarified in detail. In addition, there is a need to overcome the dichotomy based on Sino-centrism and carefully review the specific aspects of Joseon’s making relations with the Qing dynasty. Meanwhile, sufficient research has not been conducted on the neighborly relationship of Joseon. Attempts to elucidate the historical nature of Joseon’s relationship with Japan and the Jurchen tribes began considerably early. However, a full-scale review on the directives of the proprieties for guests that Joseon implemented for them has not been attempted until recently. This stems from the tendency that research on Joseon’s relations with neighboring countries was mainly focused on analyzing Joseon-Japan relations or focused on envoys dispatched from Joseon to Japan. In order to elucidate the substance of international relations during the pre-modern period, it is necessary to pay more attention to the envoys at the forefront of diplomatic negotiations. In addition, it is necessary to promote quantitative and qualitative growth of related research through diversification of research topics on envoys from the neighboring countries. In addition, efforts are also required to analyze the process of establishing and reorganizing diplomatic rituals throughout the Joseon dynasty in accordance with the macroscopic context of international relations at the time.
  • 5.

    The Current and Future Research on Funeral Rites of the Joseon Period

    kim dong geun | 2021, (144) | pp.179~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Since the 1980s, there has been a diversity in the topics covered in studies on the funeral rites (凶禮) of the Joseon period. Research was actively conducted on topics such as the descent-line heir system (宗法制度), ritual studies (禮學), and discussion on ritual principles (禮論), and from the mid- to late 1980s, the controversy of ritual propriety (禮訟) as well. In the 1990s, research topics that gained prominence included the development of ritual studies and the formation of the discussion on ritual principles in the 17th century, as well as the controversy of ritual propriety. Previously, funeral rites had been studied as just a part of the five rituals (五禮), but in this period, the importance and status of the funeral rite as a state rite began to emerge. The 2000s was a time of overall expansion in the quantity of research on state rites. In the area of funeral rites, in particular, many noteworthy research findings began to emerge. After the 1990s, researchers were influenced by several factors, including an increased interest in royal culture and the Royal Protocols (儀軌), the publication of compendiums by repository institutions of the Royal Protocols, and an increase in related translations and academic articles. As a result, there was a great increase in research findings on the compilation of books about ritual precedents and the reform of state rite processes, as well as research on specific ritual procedures. Finally, in the 2010s, as prior studies continued, a new direction also emerged. What made this new research possible was the emergence of PhD dissertations that comprehensively organized the existing research findings. There was a sudden increase in research on individual case studies, which identified the trends of ritual reforms for each period. Not only this, but it became possible to analyze the detailed ritual procedures and practices. Despite the diversity of topics, the increase in the number of researchers, and the expansion of the quantity and quality of research findings, future tasks remain. First, research needs to be conducted with a comprehensive perspective that views not only the parts, but the whole. Second, the dichotomous thinking toward ritual studies needs to be overcome. And third, convergent multidisciplinary research needs to be actively pursued.
  • 6.

    The Current Status and Assignments of Discussion of Rites and Study of Ritual in Practical Learning

    Lee Byeong Yu | 2021, (144) | pp.213~258 | number of Cited : 0
    This article is a thorough investigation of the study of ‘The Current Status and Assignments of Discussion of Rites and Study of Ritual in Practical Learning’ in the late Joseon Dynasty by period. The timing of the study and the number of papers are as follows. Until the 1980s, there were 4 studies, 14 studies in the 1990s, and 75 studies since the 2000s, a total of 93 studies. The ritual study of Dasan has the largest number of studies with 63.5, followed by that of Seongho with 16.5. There are 13 other studies by practical learning scholars. The study of ‘The Current Status and Assignments of Discussion of Rites and Study of Ritual in Practical Learning’ has the following characteristics. Until the 1980s, it can be understood as a period of ‘macroscopic design of research’, diversification of research in the 1990s, and detailed research after the 2000s. Henceforth, research on study of ritual conducted by various practical learning scholars in addition to Yi Ik and Jeong Yakyong is needed, and the scope of the study should be further expanded to research on the actual practices of rites. In addition, if researchers take an in-depth approach to the practical learning scholars’ perception of the main concepts of each ritual procedure, the study of ritual during the Joseon Dynasty will become richer.
  • 7.

    Education during disasters–Natural disasters and school enrollment during the Colonial Period

    Kihoon Lee | 2021, (144) | pp.261~302 | number of Cited : 1
    During the colonial years in Joseon, with agriculture being the most basic activity among the people, natural disasters had a large impact on school education. While flood related disasters affected limited areas, the impact of disasters caused by droughts was far-reaching. It even affected children and their school education nation wide. It’s impact peaked in the 1920s, when the enrollment rate of boys was recorded around 7-20%. But in the 1930s, elementary school education became an integral part of life. And despite repeated natural disasters over the years, numbers of school enrollment increased, while that of drop-outs and days of missed schools declined, indicating elementary education was further expanded and became more essential in life. Despite the great drought of 1939, school education continued to expand. This could be in part due to the Japanese Government General of Korea’s plan to make effective use of the human resources of Joseon. But it is also true that the people of Joseon yearned for more education. Education and learning thrived, not because natural disasters subsided, but because for most people, primary education became essential for survival. However, more education did not resolve the hardships of living. To the contrary, education became a burden to the households: an issue demonstrated by the increases in asset seizures from not being able to pay for the school tuition of children. Graduating from a primary school did not guarantee any benefits, but was considered essential, and thus put a heavy burden on the farmers. Children from poor farming families often missed schools, because their tuition was not paid. Increase of school absence rates in 1938∼1939, when natural disasters and conscription to war coincided, clearly illustrates this fact.
  • 8.

    The sinking incident of a Marine passenger ship in the period of Korean War (1950-1953)

    Songsoon Lee | 2021, (144) | pp.303~352 | number of Cited : 1
    This study examined the specific facts, causes, and national response patterns of passenger ship sinking disasters that occurred continuously in the southwestern coastal region during the Korean War (1950-1953). After liberation, Korea’s shipping industry was in a crisis situation. However, in the traffic situation at the time, marine passenger ships were an inexpensive and convenient means of transportation. The shipping administrative system continued to the Joseon Government-General of Korea’s Transportation Bureau, and the legal system was not reorganized. After the sinking of the Pyeonghae-ho in October 1949, the Chochun-ho sinking in December 1950, and the accidents of the Namgyeong-ho, Geumseong-ho, 1st Samho-ho, 5th Pyeonli-ho, 3rd Haenam-ho and Pumcheon-ho in 1951 occurred in succession. In January 1953, the sinking of the Changgyeong-ho, which killed more than 300 people, occurred. These accidents were the result of defects in the ship, overboarding of passengers and loading of excess cargo, and defenselessness against accidents. The captain and the shipowner were legally punished for this accident, but the state authority responsible for management and supervision was not responsible. Since it was the process of the Korean War, civilian disasters and damage had to be dealt with at the expense of individuals. The last resort for victims was the state, but in a war situation, the state did not have the system and awareness to protect the safety of its people and respond to damage.
  • 9.

    The Tower of Babel of High Modernism in Korea: the Development of Cheongnyangni and the Fire Incidents in Daewang Corner

    Yum Bok Kyu | 2021, (144) | pp.353~388 | number of Cited : 2
    In 1966, the Park Administration of South Korea appointed Kim Hyeon-ok, an ex-military officer as the mayor of Seoul and gave him the task of developing downtown Seoul. The new mayor promoted to construct the modern apartment buildings with lower-level stores with private capital in underdeveloped downtown districts or in the covered strips over a river. These modern buildings were to create a high-rise modern landscape and cover an outdated ugly mess of the capital city. One of the newly-built residential complexes was Daewang Corner in Cheongnyangni, one of the sub-centers in East Seoul. As a transportation hub, it featured notorious red-light districts since the 1950s. The brand new edifice was given a role as a screen hiding the embarrassing scenery of brothels. The new high-rise store-residential complex led to further development of Cheongnyangni but suffered three different fire incidents in 1972-75. Unfortunately, the brand-new modern building was not fit up with fire-fighting equipment and its proprietor repeatedly ignored the administrative orders for improving the situation. This blatant disregard for public safety and executive orders was possible due to the fact the building was a part of one major drive for modernizing Seoul. Mayor Kim was more than a mere administrator and the pioneer of high modernity who executed the will of the strong leader of President Park for transforming the space of the capital into a modern metropolis. However frequent actionable fires revealed that high modernism in the 1960s Korea stopped at a superficial plane while sacrificing the value of public safety.
  • 10.

    The Life and Political Activities of Seo Hee in the Early Goryeo Dynasty

    Jung-Soo Han | 2021, (144) | pp.391~430 | number of Cited : 0
    This article attempted to examine the life and political activities of Seo Hee, who led the peace talks in the war against the Khitans in the early Goryeo period. He was a talented person proficient in classics and history in the early Goryeo Dynasty and had a strong sense of succession to history. He was also active as a diplomat as he was conversant with the ceremonies of treating guests with courtesy as an envoy. He was also a strategist who knew the tides of war and the importance of territory and fortifications, etc. HIs political activities were particularly prominent during the reigning period of King Seongjong. Seongjong pursued the maintenance of Confucian culture while admiring Chinese customs, and he also participated in it. In addition, he fulfilled his role as prime minister by establishing the status of a monarch and correcting the relationship between the monarch and the subject through direct speech. In the war with the Khitans, he led the peace talks to exchange envoys with the Khitans and secure territories. In particular, they tried to restore the former territory of the Goguryeo Kingdom through the expulsion of Jurchen people and the construction of 6 provinces in Gangdong. However, this could not be realized as King Seongjong started the toadying relations with the Khitan on a full scale.
  • 11.

    Subordination and Response of Women in the Sex Industry in the 1920s and the 1930s

    Wona JANG | 2021, (144) | pp.431~478 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to interpret the various aspects of Korean women in the sex industry in the 1920s and 1930s, which appeared under economic and structural subordination. During the colonial period, women in the sex industry were placed in several subordinate situations. Poverty in rural areas became the background of the influx of women with exchangeable bodies into the sex industry. The sex industry system of Imperial Japan and colonial Korea legally and effectively operated such a body trade. The commercialization of women for a family’s livelihood was accomplished in a situation where there were no other options. Women’s economic subordination deepened through a chain of debts. Cases of suicide emerged in violent situations where resale and abuse occurred, which appeared in the perception where other options are blocked. In order to become aware of this blocked world and move forward and survive, the women attempted to escape and collectively went on strike. Even if they were subordinated to the structure, women were not just powerless beings, and various aspects appeared. Unlike the abolition movement at that time, most of the demands from the strike aimed at improving the working condition, not abolition. Also, women participated in various donations, and despite social stigma and discrimination against women in the sex industry, women confirmed their existence by establishing relationships with society.
  • 12.

    ‘After the mine accident in the 1980s, Gangwon-do Mineral Coal Co., Ltd.’s “Reconciliation” process and coal mine workers’ choice’

    Kimserim | 2021, (144) | pp.479~514 | number of Cited : 1
    This study attempted to understand the mine disaster in multiple layers, paying attention to what problems the victims of the mine disaster faced after the disaster and what they actually hoped for. Since the late 1970s, major disasters in mines have been increasingly frequent. The government has established measures to prevent mine disasters by reducing government subsidies and intensively managing them when designated as disaster-prone light mine. As the government’s punishment policy strengthened, mining companies tried to lower the “disaster rate” using various expedients. Statistics and documents covered the reality of the mine accident, and mining companies urged disaster workers to “settlement” to deal with the mine disaster as quietly as possible, and to ensure that personnel review is not affected at the supervisor’s level. The reason why mining companies tried to compromise with disaster workers was that social attention was focused on improving the treatment of coal mine workers after the 1980s Sabuk uprising, and the Chun Doo-hwan administration also promised to improve the coal mining village’s environment. In addition, the background was that the industrial accident litigation ruling was made in favor of workers. However, at that time, lawyers frequently demanded excessive fees or embezzled all alimony, so even if they received compensation for damages, the share of coal mine workers was less than the reconciliation money offered by the company. Above all, coal mine workers living in company housing and educating their children with coal scholarships had to give up these benefits in order to file a lawsuit. For this reason, the victim and his family also responded to the “settlement”, and they had no choice but to “brawl” to receive maximum compensation from the company. And in order to maintain life at company housing and coal scholarships, the victim’s wife had to go back to the disaster site. In the 1980s, disasters responsibilities were passed on from the government to companies and from companies to individuals, the industrial accidents faced by coal mine workers during this period. Coal mine workers struggled to ensure the stability of life and child rearing in front of this structure. Reconciliation with the company should also be understood as part of this struggle.