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2010, Vol.26, No.

  • 1.

    The organized crime groups of Russia and national security: government's countermeasure and its actual conditions

    Yeoung Hyeong lee | 2010, 26() | pp.05~42 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The diverse organized crime groups have come into operation in the process of the capitalism-zation of a Russian style since it began in January of the year 1992. The organized crime groups had a big impact on national security of Russia. It was not until Russia was about the time of the year 1995 of a turning point in a political & economic structure that she actively coped with the organized crime groups. The Russian government's countermeasure against the organized crime groups developed into showing several features as follows, Ex post countermeasures, in dealing with what after the organized crime groups' activity had actively committed. A strong countermeasure against a channel of narcotic-related distribution in order to check the spread in the east of Russia. A countermeasure against infiltrate into the country through a mutual- assistance system with CIS, & SCO, the regional associations in and around Russia which borders on her. Although the Russia's government has taken a strong countermeasure against them since the year 2000, yet the organized crime groups' activity in Russia is going on up to now. This indicates that the government's efforts was affected by the organized crime groups.
  • 2.

    Lee Moon-gu's narration-tactic as a resistance about negative-modernism-Revolve around Ulidongne-

    배경열 | 2010, 26() | pp.43~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Today it is evident that farm literature is declining in Korea. Especially the farm novel having lost its pro- ductive capacity, only Moon Gu Lee and a few other writers continue writing stories about rural villages in existence. In this situation the purpose of the study is to investigate the literary results of Moon Gu Lee, and also help people to recognize the current state of the farm novel. I'd like to examine his literary accomplishments from the socio-cultural point of view through Ulidongne which consists of 9 short-stories. They describe our rural society which has been changed by force to urbanization and industrialization since the 1970s'. First, modernization in the 70s' had been suggested as a model and progressed rapidly as a socio-cultural point of view. I'd like to explore the basic problem of modernization, the importation of western capitalism into Korea, that caused the gaps between Urban and rural communities, economic difficulty, cultural alienation, and the changing process of peasant consciousness. And also I'd like to observe that the process of change is strong and heartbreaking as these people wish to maintain their identity from the social historic point of view. That purposes to confirm the author's literary opinions which center on the rural community as a literary home to contribute to history. At the same time that purpose to know the effect of the rural community because rural society still possesses ethic and traditional beauty. As far as form, he wrote this novel in series. I'd like you to grasp his intention and to understand that his writing style is very unique, because he frequently used local traditional language. Indeed he is a very unique stylist and also a novelist who helps to preserve the Korean language. In Ulidongne is consisting of 9 novels which have continuity and contain similar episodes, he uses similar situations and subjects repeatedly in his writing. He knows it is impossible to describe Korean farm life well using western plots. Likewise in his novels he employs a unique writing style to describe the transformation of rural society after industrial modernization. To illuminate his distinguished writing style, there are four points I would like to mention. The first is that the literary spirit of his novels enlists the use of local traditional language. The second is that he enjoys writing in a versatile style that is appropriate to express ‘dialog from Pansori’ containing sarcasm, criticism and resistance. The third is ‘the element of humor’. We can feel the tough and abundant humor of people who face trials and try to keep their pride while struggling not to fall. The fourth is that he enjoys musical verse with paired phrase and repetition.
  • 3.

    A study on Construction of Providence of Guàxiàng and the Time of Sexagenary Cycle in the Book of changes

    Lim, Byeonghak | 2010, 26() | pp.95~130 | number of Cited : 1
    The time of sexagenary cycle is showed clearly in Jeong- Yeok(正易). In Jeong-Yeok, it is based The Book of changes(周易) and the Bible of Confucian. Jeong-Yeok and The Book of changes have relations the dual principle of the sun and moon(陰陽). The way of Heaven calling the providence of Lishu(曆數) shows in Jeong-Yeok, and the morality calling the Providence of Guàxiàng(卦象) shows in The Book of changes. The time of sexagenary cycle symbolizes the way of Heaven calling the providence of Lishu. The time of sexagenary cycle is composed of The 10 Heaven's Stems(十天干) and the 12 Earth's Branches(十二地支). The 10 Heaven's Stems represent the five elements principle. That is to say, jia(甲)-yi(乙), bing(丙)-ding(丁), wu(戊)-ji(己), geng(庚)-xin(辛), ren(壬)-gui(癸) pair off each into couples that symbolizing mu(木), huo(火), t'u(土), chin(金) and shuei(水). The 12 Earth's Branches contain the yungchiu(用九) of times(用九度數) and the yungliu(用六) of times(用六度數). The yungchiu of times is composed of xu(戌) hai(亥) zi(子) chou(丑) yin(寅) mao(卯) and the yungliu of times is composed of chen(辰) si(巳) wu(午) wei(未) shen(申) you(酉).
  • 4.

    The Meaning and Perspective Represented in Dosan Sibigok

    Byun Jong Hyun | 2010, 26() | pp.131~176 | number of Cited : 5
    Dosan Sibigok consists of ‘Eonji Yukok(言志 六曲)’ and ‘Eonhak Yukok’'(言學 六曲). This thesis focuses on how the structures of two Yukoks(六曲) are intimately connected to one another and how Toegye's Yigicheolhak(a kind of philosophy) is reflected in his works. First of all, let's examine the relationship between ‘Dosanjapyeoung’ and ‘Dosan Sibigok’. Two works show a world view of Toegye, an ethicist who had tried to understand an abstruse principle of Taegeukyeomgye. They are connected deeply to each other. At first, Toegye created a chinese poem, ‘Dosanjabyeoung’ to express his joy in Dosan and then he wrote ‘Dosan Sibigok’, which was written in Korean, to depict his emotion which he couldn't express with chinese letters. In the epilogue of ‘Dosan Sibigok’, he wrote that he had composed two ‘Dosan Yukoks’ by imitating Yukga of farewell. One was ‘Eonji Yukok’ and another was ‘Eonhak Yukok’. He also wrote that his work called ‘Dosan Yukok’ was a style of Yukga. In this respect, ‘Eonji(言志)’ and ‘Eonhak(言學)’. are well organized each other. Especially, they have something in common in their last stanza. Both of them are related to Gunjajido(君子之道, a way of man of virtue) of Bieunjang(費隱章) in the doctrine of the mean <中庸>. They sing ‘a way of nature’ and ‘a way of human being’ in common. ‘Eonji Yukok’ shows the world view of Juriron(主理論) (a theory of Neo-confucianism). Toegye inherited Juryeomgye's point of view in literature, which had a moral value. His poems were based on virtue and his ideal poem was Doyeonmyoung's Chungdamhana(冲澹閑雅). In ‘Eonji Yukok’, he desired people to realize and pursue a way of man of virtue. That is, ‘Eonji 1’ shows a poetic self to try to be in harmony with nature and ‘Eonji 2’ reveals that he wanted to live in an age of peace. ‘Eonji 3’ presents his enthusiastic will to train a lot of talented people. ‘Eonji 4’ reveals that he would long for the king and he would be loyal to him, not forgetting pimiirin (彼美一人, a king) even though he was living in a beautiful scenery of Dosan. ‘Eonji 5’ shows his thought of being in government service(出處觀) so that he tried not to forget the world even though he lived in nature. In ‘Eonji 6’, the poet desired people to realize a reason why Eoyakyeonbi (魚躍鳶飛, a very active state) and Unyoungcheongwang(雲影天光, a harmonious state) were repeated and rotated, depicting the beauty of four seasons. Toegye wrote about an attitude, a mind and a way for study in the later Yukgok, calling ‘Eonhak’. In ‘Eonhak’, he insisted on keeping studying and cultivating mind, based on ‘gyoung’(敬, respect). In ‘Eonhak 1’, he recommended people to read a lot of books for study (萬卷生涯), and to rid themselves of greed and to appreciate the arts (往來風流) for self-discipline. In ‘Eonhak 2’, he recommended that to be wise men they should practice a way in which ancient people had done. In ‘Eonhak 3’, he resolved that he would devote himself to his studies and self-discipline as ancient saints had done. In ‘Eonhak 4’, he wrote that people should not stop a way in which they had performed and they should keep practicing it without being distracted. In ‘Eonhak 5’, Toegye decided that people should keep studying and maintain self-discipline like everlasting nature. ‘Eonhak 6’ also emphasizes on ceaseless study and self- discipline. Bieunjang(費隱章) in the doctrine of the mean <中庸> is recited in ‘Eonhak 6’, which is related closely to the contents expressed ‘Eonji 6’. As mentioned above, ‘Eonji’ and ‘Eonhak’ harmonizes with each other and has unity in various aspects.
  • 5.

    Human, Religion, and Ecology : “Walking into the bigger ‘Story’”

    Kibbeum Yoo | 2010, 26() | pp.177~218 | number of Cited : 3
    This article critically examines the ways in which people have related ‘religion’ to ‘ecology’ with regard to ecological crisis and tries to investigate the relationship between religion and ecology in the particular context of Korean Environmental Movements, and then suggests the unique role of religion in the efforts of getting over contemporary ecological crisis. In chapter II, I look into the place of religion within ecosystem, and argue that in order to make contemporary society change adaptively in accordance with today's ecological changes, it needs to reexamine the realm of meaning and value of our society, and at this point, religion could play an important part. In chapter III, I critically examine some deep ecologistic approaches which find the alternative-ecological worldviews from ‘past, far-away’ religions. In chapter IV, I look into the practical role of religion in Korean Environmental Movements. In chapter V, I explore the potential power of religion in the field of environmental movements focusing on it's capacity to communicate and create ‘story’ and ‘ritual’. Especially, I analyze ‘eco-pilgrimage’ of Korean Environmental Movements as an example of revised eco-ritual which unites older or bigger stories with personal experience through bodily acting of walking.
  • 6.

    Study on Teaching Methodology of Vietnamese pronunciation and English pronunciation

    쩐투이빈 | LEE JEE SUN | 2010, 26() | pp.219~242 | number of Cited : 3
    The primary purpose of language is to communicate and the importance of pronunciation in communication is undebatable. Both empirical and anecdotal evidence indicates that there is a threshold level of pronunciation for the people who speak a foreign language. If they fall below this threshold level they will have oral communication problems no matter how good their grasp of grammar or vocabulary may be. This paper compares some aspects of phonetics: sound system, stress, intonation and tones in Vietnamese and English as well as the effect of the native language on learner’'s pronunciation of the target language, since this can help foreign students make fewer mistakes when learning Vietnamese pronunciation and vice versa. In addition, this paper presents some suggestions to help foreign students study pronunciation in the target language more effectively.
  • 7.

    A Phonetic Study on the Prosodic Realization of Korean English Utterances

    Sunyoung Hong | 2010, 26() | pp.243~276 | number of Cited : 10
    The current study investigates the phonetic manifestations of stress patterns of English and compares the behavior of Korean English learners with that of native speakers of English. It has been known that English is classified as a stress-timed language and Korean as a syllable-timed language. This fact leads to a prediction that Korean English learners would behave differently from native speakers of English in terms of the realization of prosodic properties. It was found in this study that for native speakers of English, pitch was the significant acoustic correlate of the stress patterns in English. In general, vowel duration and intensity were not found to be strongly correlated with the stress assignment throughout the target words. However, one important finding regarding vowel duration was that words with the final syllable stressed had a significantly long final vowel except the word accent which starts with the full vowel. Compared to the utterances of native speakers of English, Korean English learners did not utilize pitch actively and thus their pitch contour was quite flat and monotonous. Besides, they did not use intensity as a significant phonetic cue to indicate the stress assignment. The Korean English learners tended to produce the final vowels longer than the initial vowels regardless of the stress patterns, and did not make the final vowels as long as native speakers of English in words with the final syllable stressed.
  • 8.

    Social Minds and Family Systems -D. H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers and Alan Palmer’s Critical Theories-

    John V. Knapp | 2010, 26() | pp.277~315 | number of Cited : 0
    In this essay, I focus on Alan Palmer’s ideas from Fictional Minds (2004) and Social Minds in Fiction (Style, spring 2011; Ohio State UP, January 2011) concerning aspectual points of view and situated identity. For Palmer, “the concept of aspectuality serves as a reminder that ... the storyworld is ... being experienced differently, under other aspects, by all of the characters who are not currently being focalized in the text” (22 in MS version of Style). He then notes my discussion (in the context of family systems theory) of the father, Walter Morel, in Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers as an example of how aspectuality is “a way of bringing to centre stage previously marginalized characters whose voices may not often be heard” (cf. also my Striking at the Joints, 1996). I elaborate on some reasons why previous discussions of literary character in Lawrence’s novel have been so relatively one-sided for/against either spouse, what this critical bias has meant generally for criticism, and why I think this example suggests how Palmer’s work is a major step in a useful critical direction.
  • 9.

    An Exploratory Study of Performance of Korean DDA: Focusing on the early period of its enforcement

    Kam,Jeong-Ki | 김남숙 | 2010, 26() | pp.317~356 | number of Cited : 2
    Two years has passed since Korean Disability Discrimination Act was enforced in April, 2008. The purpose of this Act is to realize the dignity and worth of the disabled people by prohibiting disability-based discrimination in all area of society. This study aims to estimate the effectiveness of Korean DDA performed during the early two years of its enforcement. Main data of this study were gathered through the Korea Public Information Disclosure System (PIDS). Showing that some positive change has been performed since the enforcement of Korean DDA, this study suggests there are more tasks to be done in order to let the Act realize its purpose. The tasks are improving or reforming related laws and regulations, strengthening competent public organizations, developing societal understanding and recognition of the DDA, making efforts of public sector to be a good model of performing a duty, and constructing a monitoring system.
  • 10.

    Analysis on Current Situation of Chinese Carbon Finance

    JUNG JI HYUNG | 2010, 26() | pp.357~392 | number of Cited : 0
    Topics such as natural disaster, strange weather, and sea level rise have been recognized not only as alarming issues but also as ones directly connected to national security, personal lives and global economy. As the growth engines to reduce a green house gas emission and overcome a global economic crisis, low-carbon economy development, a new economic model has risen dramatically. China has attracted the most global attention of all countries since it is the worst carbon-emitting country and carbon-emitting resources. Chinese greenhouse gas emission from Irrational structure of Chinese industry and energy consumption going along with its rapid economical growth is getting more and more sensitive in the international society. Therefore, Chinese government has begun to cover environment and energy as major issues and established relative regulations and long-range plan to practice low-carbon economic development. Companies rush to register in CDM project, while general service is offered such as carbon loan of commercial bank and operate of Environmental Exchanges in Beijing, shanghai and Tianjin and low-carbon finance service of Quasi-fund business. In the other hand, consistently keeping international pledge comes to the fore as a big uncertainty in growth of Chinese carbon finance development, while price fluctuation of CDM market, examination, ratification of CDM Executive Board (EB) and approval of DOE, are also risk. Chinese carbon-finance market is in the middle of such uncertainty but is a potential market in the future at the same time. Besides, we would be able to see a lot of suggestions in making our ways in the future by continuously recognizing countermeasures and policies of Chinese carbon finance, which currently faces uncertainties and risks.