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2013, Vol.32, No.

  • 1.

    Rethinking li as a systemized longevity technique with a special focus on Lüshi Chunqiu

    Eunkang Koh | 2013, 32() | pp.5~30 | number of Cited : 1
    This article focuses on li or propriety as a social system of longevity techniques. This focus is not based on conventional understanding of li, which literally means propriety, etiquette, or ritual. Li is appropriated by Confucian philosophers, who position li as one of the four sprouts of human nature. Li, part of human nature, enables an individual to repress self interest and to care for others. In Confucianism, li is interpreted as a social system of law and order. An individual following li sometimes represses emotion and desire. Repressed emotion and desire create stress, which prevents an individual from longevity. Therefore, it is difficult to relate li with longevity techniques. Lüshi Chunqiu is one of the most appropriate texts to relate li to the issue of desire for life. Longevity techniques derived from desire for healthy and long life is a major subject of Daoism. Li is interpreted in Confucian tradition. Lüshi Chunqiu ties several different traditions of early Chinese thoughts together. Daoism and Confucianism play the leading role in constructing Lüshi Chunqiu. In this article, li is interpreted not as a social order based on repression of individual desire, but as a social system to satisfy individual desire such as healthy life and longevity. Desire for healthy and long life is part of human nature. However, there are many reasons to prevent an individual from searching for healthy and long life. Li is a way to healthy and long life. Li enables an individual to pursue healthy and long life under the conditions of living with other individuals and competing over the source of desire.
  • 2.

    The Female Character Image in 『Huanxiyuanjia』 and Cultural Psychology

    Jeon EunSuk | 2013, 32() | pp.31~56 | number of Cited : 0
    The character images of women in the late Ming dynasty work <Huanxiyuanjia> are different from other erotic novels from the same age, taking the shape of a number of character images, and the method in which the conclusion is drawn shows consistency. The female character images in the work can be categorized as lustful type, loyal type, and practical type. In the work, the women all commit adultery and have extramarital affairs, and given the fact that late Ming society was a feudal Confucian society, it can be understood how immoral and socially censured their acts are. In other erotic novels of the late Ming Dynasty, female character images take on the form of lustful women or temptresses with a serious sexual thirst, and, for the satisfaction of the sexual desires of male readers,the writer creates women who are debauched and self indulging to no end. Next, in the conclusion of the work, most of these women are punished by death as the price for their debauchery and self-indulgence. Therefore, most works give the impression that the writer is stressing caution against carnalism and recommending that readers avoid it. However, in <Huanxiyuanjia>, the writer does not morally reprimand the women in the work, instead assuming a sympathetic, even supporting,attitude toward them. The several types of female character image that stand out in the work, and the consistent method of drawing conclusions, are directly associated with the social issues of the time, and, instead of being mere representations of personal desires or daydreams of the writer himself, reflect the collective cultural psychology of common male folk of the time.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Imagined Geographies about "Europe" written by Lee Ea Ryeung’s Essays published in 1960-1970’s

    Mee Young Kim | 2013, 32() | pp.57~82 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this article is revealed for Korean people in 1960 70’s how to recognize the european culture & how to understand Korean cultural identity in those times, too. with analyzing to the Imagined Geographies about Europe in Lee Ea Ryeung’s Essay. Lee Ea Ryeung was a famous essayist & literary critic. He wrote A Place of the Wind:This is the West(1966) and the Morning of the East Looking at in The west:Modern Civilization & East Culture(1974). He emphasized european culture were based on Greece & Christianism, so there were splendid relics of ancient times in the west. But nowadays The western civilization revealed mechanism of materials, so that the western culture would have some problems as like as environmental pollution, alienation of human beings &potentialities of war. On the other hand, Korea or the east had civilized less than the west and did not sparkled culturally in those times. But the eastern culture is an alternative plan to solve the problems in modern times. The essences of the eastern or Korean culture are environmentally friendly. And the speciality of the eastern or Korean culture are focused on relationship of human-beings, based on the experiences, emphasized spiritual aspects. Lee Ea Ryeung said he eastern or Korean culture had the key of human being’s future, but still those are the seed not plant. The essays on the western culture & civilizations by Lee Ea Ryeung showed us cultures were developed through exchange between the one and the other. And said for us that 1960 70’s Korean culture must had seen self identifications & the other’s.
  • 4.

    A study on existence space shown on poetry of Park Bong-woo

    Kyungbok kim | 2013, 32() | pp.83~108 | number of Cited : 3
    Space and place obtain its value as biological conditions human has and experimental existence events fuse each other. Meaning of a space shown on poetry reflects things made in the midst of sensual experiences of a poet, experiences of social reality, and mutual subjectivity of space. This thesis investigated existence space shown on poetry of Park Bong woo and the study results are as follows. First, Original space shown on the poetry includes meanings based on problem of a lost individual in the historical reality and racial identity. This is a space representing fundamental existence such as house or hometown . The space appears as dismantlement of house, deformed reality, loss of home town, and mental trauma after war. Such meaning of a space is caused by absence of race and a nation which is a source as value to be protected’. Second, Marginal space shown on the poetry is signification of desire to escape horrible reality. This has a form of psychology to reverse space to overthrow reality as shown in window . In a poem flower garden , gap between reality and ideal was embodied to hostility. Regardless of aspects appeared from such gap, pointing to external world is based on racial desire but all appear as aspects of frustration. Third, Closed space shown on the poetry is signification of ideological frustration experienced during Korean war, 4 19 revolution, and democratization process for 1980s. This appears as revolutionary resistance in wall . In sickroom , ideological violence resulted from historical reality is embodied. This shows that element to make spirit of individual and race become ill is ideological violence. Such violence is all expressed in space aspects of suppression. Consciousness on space of Park Bong woo reflects absence of identity, frustration in reality, and suppressing political violence. All this has negative form. Conflict of ideology and politics of violence after 8.15 Liberation Day are causes for this. Thus, existence space on Park Bong woo’s poetry shows aspects reflecting mental characteristic of an individual and social reality through history of disorder.
  • 5.

    A Study on 'Ethics Consciousness' in text written by Oh Jang hwan

    Kim jisun | 2013, 32() | pp.109~132 | number of Cited : 4
    This study is to find out the aspect of Ethics Consciousness in text written by Oh Jang-hwan. Ethics generally means the right reasons and the rules to be observed by man according to the norms of the community. But ethics means here that the subject would have the will of freedom and action. Above all the norms of the modern colonial imperialism had immoral. Oh Jang hwan tried to escape this negative situation. He had made the aesthetic effort to overcome the difficulties of unstable period and trid to cognize this situation. At this time, the subject will appear ethical. Though he had the ideology of socialism, his poetry is decadent and appears the aspect of self-negation. This rather indicates that he actively tried to find the direction of the practice and value. Negativity of his poetry appears by responsibility. It is thought that he is responsible for rebutting the modern Japanese imperialism. As well as he internalized the negativity of perod. Oh Jang-hwan trid to take responsibility for the attitude. It was reflected that he wanted to remain the petit bourgeois. This attitude is called symbolic suicide . After that, Oh Jang hwan believed that they would establish a new ideal society. This is just Ethics Consciousness in text written by Oh Jang hwan.
  • 6.

    The Methodological Foundations of Political Economy: A Historical Survey and Theoretical Critique

    Joo-Hyoung Ji | 2013, 32() | pp.133~168 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study locates various currents in political economy in their historical and methodological contexts to reveal their historical conditions and theoretically categorize and critique them. The history of political economy can be characterized as the struggle between political, social, institutional, and historical methods and abstract, mathematical, and modelling methods around the problem of how to relate politics and economy. Through this struggle, political economy has developed a number of competing and contrasting methodological foundations:reductionism(economism and politicism), soft economic sociology and political economy including eclecticism and separatism on the one hand,and hard political economy, post national global political economy, and cultural political economy on the other. In its earliest stage, political economy did not fully abandon political analysis although its main role was to provide theoretical grounds for liberal governmentalities and policies in line with the(supposedly) autonomous logic of the economic sphere. However, soon it broke with its origins and transformed into(allegedly) politics free economics or even economic analyses of political phenomena. Then this transformation brought about reactions such as eclecticism, politicism or political reductionism. Nonetheless, political economy also developed hard political economic methods for analyzing political, historical, institutional nature of the economic and social order as well as global analysis beyond the national scale. However, conventional hard political economy tend to neglect political analysis as well as the global dimensions of the political economy in its actual practice. Post-national or global political economy tends to neglect the symbolic and cultural dimensions of the economy and naturalize economic categories such as market, capital, money,commodity, profit, competitiveness and crisis as if they were pre-given rather than being socially constructed. From this perspective, this article suggests global cultural political economy as a methodological orientation by combining hard political economy, global political economy and cultural political economy.
  • 7.

    Descriptive transformation analysis in ascension story of Korean dragon tale focused on the movie 'The war'

    CHO SEONGSOOK | 2013, 32() | pp.169~198 | number of Cited : 2
    Today, movie 'The war' was released in the mood of reproducing classical literature. It means each pieces of cintamani ascension story among dragon tales make another complete dragon tale. Taking note of this point, this writing studies transmission pattern of cintamani ascension story among dragon tales. Then, this writing shows how the movie transforms these aspects. The things to become a dragon in the cintamani ascension story among dragon tales need cintamani to ascend to heaven. In spite of passive thing, tale has been passed down as cintamani acquisition of dragon and day of ascension are arranged by heaven. Also it should be proper to heaven’s reason to ascend to heaven. Especially, heaven warns greed toward cintamani. We can see also competition story in tales. In these tales, cintamani is acquired from the outside, it is hard to get cintamani. We can see these tales as competition story about cintamani. Through this competition,the thing becomes heaven dragon by receiving human(hero)’s help. As tales are passed down, it is showed that Cintamani is created by female. Cintamani is related to female sexuality. This move far from the personality of cintamani as orb and dragon’s bead. So transfomation in tales is also verified. These cintamani ascension story among dragon tales is emphasized or transformed in the movie The war . Preallotment is emphasized as repetition tool for previous and present life. Cintamani is personified as Sarah . It becomes sacrificial lamb to rescue space. The fictional hero who cuts in the battle of dragon and helps ascension is transformed as hero against destiny. The hero is not related to dragon’s competition directly but opposes to the plan of heaven. The movie The war transformed structure, material and role of characters in cintamani ascension story among dragon tales. So it recreated classical literature.
  • 8.

    The Social Discussion and the Literary Characteristic of 『New Life』

    김종현 | 2013, 32() | pp.199~222 | number of Cited : 5
    This study is to check the social discussion and the literary characteristic of <New Life> as the part of study to determine the social discussion and the literary aspect in the first half of nineteen twenties. Socialists participating in the production of discussion of <New Life> tried to rebuild the social system and the personality. Therefore, they claimed that Joseon people should be rebuilt to be the individual leading the life where the self is completed and realized by escaping from the restriction of system. The power of Christianity understood the existence purpose of religion in the community relation sharing their fate with Joseon. Namely the religion is not necessary to be existed if the religion that has to play the role of salt in the society can not finish its role. The role the religion has to do this time was the extension of life rightly. The literature published serially in <New Life> desired to leteralize the emotion and the life of public. The literatures published serially may be classified to the tendencies of 3 kinds based on the contents. The first tendency is to maximize the misery of reality the laborers are confronted. The second tendency is the contents emphasizing the appropriateness of socialist revolution, the third is emphasizing the value itself of life. Consequentially, the literature of <New Life> might be published serially to reproduce and to magnify the social discussion.
  • 9.

    Reinterpretation of the North Korean Refugees’ Human Rights for the Win Win of the East Asia:focused on a Chinese tradition,『Huani nam Tzu』

    Eom, Tae Wan | 2013, 32() | pp.223~246 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The North Korean Refugees of the East Asia have been regarded as trouble or passive victims. Along with it, the concepts of western human right and East Asian sovereignty conflict together on the lives of the North Korean refugees. Especially, China where the largest number of North Korean refugees is dwelling doesn’t even try to participate in any discourse on issue of the North Korean refugees’ human rights. In such geographical, historical and political situation, this study regarded the North Korean refugees as the nomad of East Asian Win Win Strategy. Also, this study suggests that the human rights violations for the North Korean refugees are against the dignity of human life and the thought of respecting relative value inherent in Chinese tradition of 「Huani nam Tzu」. From 「Huani nam Tzu」, I could learn that the human rights are not merely fruit of the West with intention but historic fruit of mankind that respects universal humanity. I could confirm that the thoughts of respect for all lives over humankind are included in the 「Huani nam Tzu」 and other Asian tradition. And I suggest to include human rights as a concrete means to realize this.
  • 10.

    Women’s City and Satisfaction level of Local life on Gender perspective: A Case of Changwon City

    In-Soon kang | 2013, 32() | pp.247~278 | number of Cited : 5
    This study aims at suggestion for effective promoting plan to build women’s city as gender equal city through verifying and diagnose the consciousness survey of Changwon citizens about various realms of satisfaction–level of life in this city. Data were gathered via two different sources. The first one is the statistics generated by Changwon City Government about the infrastructure of citizens’living. The second one is primary data collected by survey on citizens’ consciousness about their satisfaction leve lof life in this city. The authors argue that these results could be caused by the unbalanced states of regional living conditions. The results of this study show us that their satisfaction level of life in this city are very low. So it needs for strong gendered policy raise to the life leve of condition in Changwon city as women’s city and needs for equitable policy between 5 regions. So for effective promoting proposal for building women’s city as follows:First, making various working group for making women’s city. Second,constructing the governance between female citizens and local governing organization. Third, making the communications structure between various citizen. Fourth, expending o female citizen’s participation to build women’s city.
  • 11.

    Confucianism in a hoedeokdang intellectual - Confucianism education and religious service practice

    lee giwon | 2013, 32() | pp.279~306 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Osaka(大阪) was nationwide distribution of the material and financial center and a city where tyounin(町人) were more than 90% of the population and had controlled power or economic power. Hoedeokdang(懐德堂:kaitokudo) in this environment was the education place(學問所) born in Osaka. Hoedeokdang is evaluated as the formation of intellectuals or the birth of modern reason , as you can see from the evaluation hoedeokdang was the backbone of confucian, while education place were moved from the existing form of traditional place to other place through the western studies. In terms of that hoedeokdang used the name of the school, you can see they pursued professional confucianist and confucianism culture by choosing public gangseok. The contents of confucian delivered to the public with plain language and the result of hoedeokdang’s efforts was important to spread confucianism to society. While practicing honoring filial conduct exercises and claiming no ghost theory(無鬼論), we can understand that practicing confucian ceremonies and creating and trying to spread a model of sacrifice are an effort to spread the expansion and distribution of confucian culture to common people.
  • 12.

    The types and acceptance aspects of 'friend' in sijo Focused on 『Korea Sijo Unabridged Dictionary』

    Byun Seung-Goo | 2013, 32() | pp.307~328 | number of Cited : 1
    We have elucidated the meanings examining the types of acceptance aspects as well as analyses of work and authors in relation to ‘friends’ in sijo. They are summarized as follows:First, we analyzed works in which ‘friends’ in sijo were employed as materials. For sijo whose materials are friends, it was found there are total 231 pieces with short sijo 196, and long sijo 35. In addition, authors with real names who employed friends as their materials are 74 people and their works are 147 pieces. For materials of friends accepted in sijo, many works were created in the late Chosun Dynasty. On the other hand, we could find out that for the base of writers who wrote sijo employing friends as their materials, literary people and poets are the main class. And we examined the types of friends in sijo:Characters have 8 items and total frequency was 146 times, animal types were 8 items with 28 times, plant types were 6 items with 7 times, nature types were 8 items with 21times, and others were 10 items with 10 times. The most designated friends among them were acquaintances, of course. Second, we examined the acceptance aspects of friends in sijo. The first is ‘boundary between likelihood and life’ and we examined it subdividing into boundary between likelihood and honor and wealth, and luxury, and boundary of politicians. The next is entertainment of leisure and appreciation for the arts , and we examined entertainment through friends dividing them into appreciation for the arts, leisure and life in seclusion, and finally ‘filial piety and patriotic sentiment’are gratitude for monarchs and affection for parents, patriotic royalty and reign of peace as we confirmed the acceptance aspects in detail. Lastly, we investigated the roles and meaning of friends employed in sijo and it was found that first,our ancestors’ recognition of friends was extending over a wide range, and that objects of friends in sijo effectively express poetic atmosphere as well as authors’ mentality, and that friends accepted in sijo show flexibility and solidity of developing content etc.
  • 13.

    Kang Hong sik’s Life and His Work

    HAN SANG EON | 2013, 32() | pp.329~350 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper is to restore Kang Hong sik’s unknown true life that is because he was going to North Korea. And this paper is to search traces of Joseon film under Japanese imperialism in the first North Korea art film <My Home Village>(1949) directed by Kang Hong sik. We only know about Kang Hong sik that he was an actor at Japan, and he came back to Joseon working as an actor and a singer. This paper confirms Kang Hong sik’s career at Japan through check of various information. I concentrated the inheritance of Joseon film under Japanese imperialism such as traces of Joseon film under Japanese imperialism in the <My Home Village> directed by Kang Hong sik and Kang Hong sik’s directing features came from his experience. When he directed <My Home Village>, he focused on homogenized realistic acting. There are traces of Joseon film under Japanese imperialism such as exposed film set and folk song insert in film. We can also find out the traces in Kang Hong sik’s film. Until now film studies revolve around the influence of the Soviet Union on earlier North Korea film. But through these discoveries I could ascertain the formation of North Korea film is combination of influence of the Soviet Union and Joseon film heritage under Japanese imperialism. These facts can help to understand North Korea film which is difficult to study because of limited research material and ideological problem.
  • 14.

    A study on the Meaning of the word 'Ye sul' in Korean modern novel in the early days

    Kim Kyung-Ae | 2013, 32() | pp.351~374 | number of Cited : 2
    In this paper, I have analyzed the changes aspects and meanings focused on the transmission and expropriation of art concept in Korean Literature. Art is the word, its the vocabulary and concepts have not existed in the original oriental culture. It was translated into Japanese and was made in the form of Ye sul . The vocabulary was found for the first time in Korea in 1915, and it was found in the course of the Japanese translation of Western books. In the fiction at that time, the art was considered to be a noble, to be a true and to be a mental. The thing that Ye sul have this peculiar meaning, is due to those factors the influence social and cultural of that time. Young people who was responsible for literature, accepted it as distorted and exaggerated form because it was the time of colonial at the time. Art was considered an alternative to inconsistency of previous period and the new value. The action making art as a myth accelerated more and more, finally they compare it with the Confucian ideology, the dominant ideology on the previous period. Trend that art was considered the best value could be understood in this regard. This paper is written to show that the recognition for art at that time made influence our recognition even today. Korean literature entered a new aspect by the recognition that literature is a self contained thing as itself.
  • 15.

    A Study on Korean Science Fiction’s Characteristics of genre fiction 『The Complete Series of Korean Science Fiction』(1975)

    김지영 | 2013, 32() | pp.375~398 | number of Cited : 15
    This paper is the study on Korean Science Fiction’s Characteristics of genre fiction. <The Complete Series of Korea Science Fiction>(1975) is analyzed in this paper. The reason for analyzing <The Complete Series of Korea Science Fiction> is genre fiction. Korea’s pop culture began in the 1960s and Korea’s genre fiction began the same time. Science Fiction are three characteristics of genre fiction. The first character is reasonable fantasy,the second character is schematic plot and the third character is directional reader. Three character <The Complete Series of Korea Science Fiction>(1975) is applied to. The first character is the co-existence of possible and feasible, the second character is the plot of the novel Adventures and the third character is directional youth reader.
  • 16.

    The peculiarity of the genre Grimm in the adaptation of the fairytale The Frog Prince

    KIM, CHONG-CHOL | 2013, 32() | pp.399~418 | number of Cited : 3
    The present paper discusses Grimms’ genre, which is manifested in the fairytale The Frog Prince. In order to discover details about the genre Grimm in this fairytale, the three versions(Oelenberg script,first print, and last edition) were compared to each other and analyzed. The brothers Grimm(foremostly Wilhelm Grimm) executed the adaptation of the fairytale bearing in mind two aspects. The first aspect concerns the preservation of the attributes of the folktale. The following three points were considered:Firstly, the law of the entrance has been respected. In addition, the main character has been put into the marginal position, in order to be easily detached. As well as this, the patriarchal order, which is valid in the fairytale, has been legitimized. The second aspect concerns the desire of the brothers Grimm that their fairytales serve a paedagogical purpose. Considering this aspect, changes were made to the sexual element of the fairytale, resulting in an avoidance of expressions that allow for a sexual connotation, which are not befitting for children. The genre Grimm serves to preserve the nature of the folktale and contributes to child education.