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2017, Vol.43, No.

  • 1.

    The concept of ‘Love’ in A. Akhmatova’s early poems

    Yang Young Lan | 2017, 43() | pp.7~23 | number of Cited : 0
    First of all, it should be noted that the concept of ‘love’ is central, fundamental in Akhmatova's lyric system. The first and most important of its features is its multivaluedness, the semantic inexhaustibility. “Love” for Akhmatova a whole complex of conflicting feelings, emotions, emotions, however, in a complex interaction. The two extreme semantic points here are love-the greatest happiness and love-tragedy. Between them there is a whole spectrum of the most diverse shades, but they are all different implementations of a single meaning: love embodies everything. However, the tragic and undivided love turns out to be the dominant one in Akhmatova's lyric poetry. The poet finds a huge amount of linguistic means for expressing a variety of semantic nuances that convey the sadness and suffering of a loving but unloved woman. Thus, on the whole, it can be stated that for all the inner semantic multi aspect, the concept of ‘love’ in Akhmatova's early lyrics is predominantly tragic in tone. As for the options for lexical implementation of this concept, they are just as diverse. Poetess uses and keywords(любовь, любить, любовный), but does not often. In addition, the semantic content of keywords is created, among other things, by their semantic context. Completely neutral or even positively marked word finds in the lyrics of Akhmatova additional ‘side’, deep meanings. Using synonyms and antonyms to express the semantics of love is also frequency. However, as already noted, synonyms and antonyms in Akhmatova's lyrics are neutralized; Sometimes antonymous tokens become in her verses contextual synonyms. And this, like the abundance of oxymoronic combinations, again and again emphasizes the contradictoriness and multidimensionality of the concept of ‘love’. In addition, to express all the same ‘ineffable’ meanings, the poetess uses descriptive constructions, that is, descriptions of objects, rooms, phenomena, sounds that do not (at first sight) have any relation to the expression of love feelings. But all these subjects, nevertheless, are able to express a love experience as sharply and deeply as the language trails and figures of speech. Thus, the concept of ‘love’ in Akhmatova's lyrics combines a variety of contradictory meanings, but nevertheless continues to be an integral, unified semantic field, inseparable into separate components. It is this multifacetedness, contradictoriness and at the same time integrity, the indissolubility of the semantic field “love” that can express the multifacetedness and contradictoriness of a love feeling. The range of ‘love’ (feelings and their linguistic expression) is great and inexhaustible, as are the inexhaustible meaning and ways of expressing the concept of ‘love’.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Combination and Significance of Harness excavated from Ancient tombs at the Yimdang Site in Gyeongsan

    chang,yoon-chung | 2017, 43() | pp.25~46 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways of combination shown in harness from th Yimdang-dong and the Joyeong dong Ancient Tombs both of which are located at the Yimdang Site in Gyeongsan. For this purpose, the study reviewed prior researches to identify the components of harness made in the Shilla period, and examined how such components were when discovered in the above mentioned ancient tombs. Specifically, this study analyzed how much the features of harness or trappings from the ancient tombs of Gyeongsan are stylistically closer to Shilla. And then, the study determined how changes in political relations between Gyeongju as the very core of Shilla and Gyeongsan were according to three different times based on the formation of the south part of the Hwangnam Great Tomb. As the results of this study, harness excavated in Gyeongsan suggests it’s difficult to assert that the region at the time when ancient tombs were formed there for the first time there was already under a strong political rule by Gyeongju. This is supported by the fact that the excavated harness didn’t fully employ trappings as they were common in Gyeongju at that time, but just accepted only a few components of harness, especially, hangyeop and woonju that were originally used not to directly control, but to decorate horses. The other components were later introduced little by little. It may be because they were selectively accepted by Gyeongsan or selectively granted by Gyeongju. Another finding of the study is that the ways of combination and component materials are different between the harness from the Yimdang-dong Ancient Tombs and from the Joyeong-dong Ancient Tombs, indicating that political closeness between Gyeongsan and Gyeongju changed over time.
  • 3.

    Political Literature of Eochon Shim Eon Gwang from the Reign of Jung Jong

    KIM MYUNG JOON | 2017, 43() | pp.47~63 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning of political literature of Shim Eon Gwang from the Reign of King Jungjong. Shim was a close servant of King Jungjong and he served in various major posts with relatively good understanding of King Jungjong's intentions. For that reason, it seems that he tried to resolve King Jungjong’s concerns through literature activities. King Jungjong's complex related to the succession of throne was overcome by a certain degree through Shim's eulogy for Queen Jeonghyeon. Queen Jeonghyeon was compared to the mother of King Moon and King Moo to justify King Jungjong's enthronement. Shim also agreed to King Jungjong's borrowing of authority of the Emperor of Ming Dynasty to fight the political powers that threatened him and engaged in diplomatic activities through poetry as the diplomatic delegation. He suggested the righteous attitude for the entire government officials and emphasized that the essence should be the loyalty. However, Shim was not a missionary who only worked to understand and spread King Jungjong's message. He had a dream to make Joseon an ideal state during the reign of King Jungjong. He sang about King Jungjong's enthronement on the surface, but he actually intended to make King Jungjong like an ancient ruler. He emphasized the loyalty of servants, but did not forget to mention that it is conditional faith that should be given only with freedom of speech. His diplomatic poems were the outcomes of his determination to make Joseon a civilized state like the Ming Dynasty while following King Jungjung's alliance with Ming. In conclusion, he believed that the king's appointment and positive use of competent manpower could make Joseon an ideal state, so King Jungjong was not his purpose, but a political tool.
  • 4.

    A study on Ecofeminism Appeared in 『Poem of Wanderer』 by Seo Jeongjoo

    Yang So Young | 2017, 43() | pp.65~89 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this thesis is to look for elements of ecofeminism appeared in 『Poem of Wanderer』 by Seo Jeong joo and analyze the poem based on that. The daily and normal nature is appeared in the 『Poem of Wanderer』. But that nature is recreated newly by Seo Jeong joo. For example「Wojunguje(Thought in the Rain)」, if we consider the expression “Looking at pine cone under shower as medicine, it seems to be korochorom”, the pine cone is recognized as a medicine to a poetic narrator. It means the narrator is absorbed by the nature. The pine tree has power of the universe, its life and recreative ability in its fixed shape. In this view point, the 'pine cone' increases vital energy and gives abundance and wealth. The reason that the poetic narrator is thinking medicine while looking at a pine cone under the shower is possible because it revitalize the nature and symbolizes all of the vital energy. There are women in 『Poem of Wanderer』. They live their own life in the town. This time, they have a energy of the life, and it is spiritual one and is connected to other life forms. In the 「Women under Sacred Tree」, the women under the sacred tree in Jilmajae begin to date at their old age. The dating is realization of self existence and forms subjecthood of their lives. While they are dating, they are most beautiful in the world and energetic. This is the energy of life and spiritual. it connects all relationship and makes the town of Jilmajae peaceful and abundance. There are desirelessness and spirit of a transcendence centered on normal daily materials in the 『Poem of Wanderer』. Particularly it appeared through orchid. The poetic narrator gains “the deepest mind abyss” looking at a orchid in the 「Looking at orchid leaves」 It is the spiritual world of desirelessness and transcendence. In “a day in which I newly learn the reason from a winter bended orchid leave that I could go by turning around the cliff that I can't if I want to go through”(「Gok」), the orchid is an object to have a poet understood the world and know the spiritual realm of a desirelessness. It means he expressed his inner state that is not shaken by any desire or hardship through the orchid's thin and smoothly bending line.
  • 5.

    The Effects of an Encouragement Group Counseling Program for Mothers on Parental Efficacy, Inferiority Complex and Parenting Stress

    Park Soonhee | Kyunghee Yoon | 2017, 43() | pp.91~117 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study was to develop an encouragement group counseling program to help mothers to encourage their children and himself and to examine its effects. For the effect verification of the encouragement group counseling program, 30 mothers of elementary students were selected. And an experimental group and a control group were made up of 15 mothers respectively after a pretest was carried out to confirm their equivalence. The experimental group participated in the program in 10 sessions, one a week, 120 minutes each, and the control group didn’t. A pretest and a posttest were conducted for both groups, and the repeated measurement analysis of variance was carried out to verify its effects. The major findings of the study were as follows: First, the encouragement group counseling program developed in this study was effective at boosting the parenting efficacy of the mothers and at relieving their inferiority complex and parenting stress. Second, the encouragement group counseling program helped the participants to form positive self-concept through parental understanding, parental acceptance, recognition of encouragement’s importance, self reflection and self-encouragement.
  • 6.

    The Study on the development of cultural policy and soft power in China - Focused on the cultural strategy of The Belt and Road policy

    LEE, Chanwoo | 2017, 43() | pp.119~141 | number of Cited : 5
    Culture is an economic resource that creates new added value and is an important component of soft power. Recently, the Chinese government has been proposed ‘The Belt and Road’ policy as a national strategy which will bring a new opening-up and cooperation in the political, economic and cultural fields. The Belt and Road policy is an active foreign strategy and a long-term project to complete so-called “China's dream”, which is to be implemented a great revival of the Chinese people. This paper examines Chinese cultural policy of the Belt and Road policy in terms of strengthening soft power of China. The Belt and Road policy aims to expand Chinese influence through strengthening cultural soft power such as building cultural exchange system, strengthening cultural exchange platform, and expanding cultural trade. Therefore, it can be suggested that China should have a strategy of strengthening cultural soft power based on universal human values that respects the other's culture and values.
  • 7.

    Literary Pearls of a Unique Nation—Exploring Writing Skills of "Ruth"

    Gong, Ying-Rui | Lee Myeongae | 2017, 43() | pp.143~155 | number of Cited : 0
    “Ruth” is hailed as “literary pearls” in Israeli literature. Literature has its own soil to harvest results. This article explores writing skills of “Ruth”, showing that the Old Testament is a magnificent national historical biography with its unique national culture. It gives birth to a variety of literary works, making itself Afro-Asian classics and one of two European literary sources. “Ruth” is the glorious transformation of historical literature, creating a new genre in the human historical literature documentary novel.
  • 8.

    Types of Vietnamese proverbs and characteristics of traditional ideas inherent in it

    Kim Hyunjae | 2017, 43() | pp.157~187 | number of Cited : 2
    The proverb reflects the age, ethnicity, and humanity of the members of the society and is a very appropriate tool to understand people of the people and their cultures. Although contemporary society, which is a proverbial society, and today's modern society have differences from the changes of many cultural and spiritual values due to the time gap, the prototypes and traditions of the culture, language, values, Much has been passed down to the present day in the consciousness of the people. Therefore, studying the proverb can still be a way to understand the culture, history, religion, and customs of the people and to understand the inherent traditional ideas inherent in it. From this point of view, this study examines the proverbs of Vietnam and tries to draw out the characteristics of the traditional ideas of the Vietnamese. This will help to raise the understanding of Vietnamese people.
  • 9.

    A study on Mythical motif in <Being a richman using dokkaebi tales>

    김경혜 | 2017, 43() | pp.189~214 | number of Cited : 0
    Being a richman using dokkaebi tale is similar to Yaraeja tale <夜來者說話>, structure and motif. So Yaraeja story is circular. Both tales are similar to the beginning and the whole narrative process. Yaraeja story tells that a woman is born with a great character after sleeping with an earthworm. Being a richman using dokkaebi story is rich when a woman sleeps like a dokkaebi. This is the difference. It is because of the change of the times that the story changed. The ending of this story reflects the thoughts of those who enjoy it. The dokkaebi is a reflection of human desire. But Being a richman using dokkaebi tale is like other myths that anticipate the emergence of a new order. In this story, the dokkaebi is afraid of the horse’s blood and the horse’s head. The horse means the chief, and after the initiation, he knew the order of the world. So this story is told that the past world symbolized by the dokkaebi and the order and the new world and order are replaced by the horse. It is a variation of myth. The woman of two tales had the function of the myth. Yaraeja tales the woman in the story is a definite Goddess of Earth because she creates a character. A woman of a dokkaebi story does not give a person a birth. But the dokkaebi’s money or gold and silver spend treasure in buying the land. This is the ability of the God's mother. Thus, Being a richman using dokkaebi tale is a variation of Yaraeja story with motif of the heavenly land model which is a combination of heavenly order and earth. It is a story that changed and developed according to the society of the late Chosun dynasty which capitalism is blooming.
  • 10.

    On the Types of Studies about Sino-Korean words in Korean Language - pivot on Korean papers drawn up by Chinese-

    AILI WANG | 2017, 43() | pp.215~234 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this writing is reviewing the theses which the Chinese students in Korea wrote with the them of words written in Chinese characters, categorizing the types, grasping the trend, and thinking deeply about what directions the research should be heading for. When Chinese Korean learners learn Korean, the easiest and the most difficult thing is the Sino Korean words, because words in the same form but with different meanings are often used in Korean. Based on this aspect, Chinese students started to study the differences of Sino-Korean words in form and meaning and the teaching methods of the Sino-Korean words with these differences. However, nowadays, it is very difficult to make distinctions among the research contents which were based on the morphological similarities and the semantic differences of the Sino-Korean words. Moreover, there are many similar studies also. It seems that only consumptive studies are being written. Considering this point, this paper proposed the attitudes that the Chinese learners should have when they do studies, presented the points that should be improved between Korea and China and figured out the fields that can be considered as research subjects in the future.
  • 11.

    The Status and Tasks of Projects Associated with the Humanities in Chungnam Asan

    Yoo ,Choon Dong | 2017, 43() | pp.235~249 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study is to examine Chungnam Asan(牙山) regarding the status and outcomes of projects related to the humanities in the area sponsored by Sunmoon University, one of the universities located there. Presently, projects intended to promote the humanities or cultural development in the region are being carried out nationwide in Korea. Along with the trends, in Asan, too, they are developing projects intended to vitalize old downtown area, develop cultural contents in the region, enhance the humanities in the region, or to excavate or utilize resources of history and culture. In fact, Sunmoon University’s department of history and cultural contents is aggressively participating in the projects. So far, national projects or projects sponsored by the Ministry of Education have been mainly considered to be done by professors of engineering, and it has been regarded as virtue that majors of the humanities should stay away from them. These days, however, majors of the humanities or liberal arts are in desperate reality that they also should pay attention to that matter and cope with or participate in it positively not to fall behind. Even projects to promote the humanities have been mostly dealt with in the aspects of urban or architectural engineering while the humanities have been playing only auxiliary roles in them. Now is the time to conduct competitive research differentiated from what has been done by universities of engineering by developing new methodology in the aspects of the humanities and sociology and also supporting scholars of the humanities join in them actively. This study is going to deal with this issue focusing on Asan.
  • 12.

    On the Matter of the Homogeneity and Heterogeneity of G. Freud's Unconscious and Consciousness

    Hwang Soon Hyang | 2017, 43() | pp.251~271 | number of Cited : 2
    Freud showed the revised concept of the unconscious that even 'ego' including preconsciousness which was considered the part of consciousness in his early theory could be unconscious in his later theory. But he didn’t resolve the ambiguity of the revised concept which caused many critics to be significantly confused of interpreting the concepts of the unconscious and consciousness. Thus this essay tries to demonstrate the fact that even though Freud insists that by arguing that ego (consciousness) including the superego(preconsciousness) is fairly unconscious, the unconscious and consciousness have rather homogeneity, the Freudian unconscious has a lot of traits which cannot be concerned with secondary process thinking regarded as the thinking process of consciousness by Freud and the fact that the Freudian unconscious has lots of traits that can be concerned with primary process thinking characterized by ‘timelessness, exemption from contradiction, condensation and displacement, which means that the unconscious and consciousness have heterogeneity considering the dynamic mechanism that governs the process of generating the Unconscious through censorship and repression. In order to insist these facts mentioned above, first, this essay tries to examine how Freud conceptualizes the perceptions of ego and consciousness related to the matter of the Unconscious. And secondly, this essay examines the dynamic relationship between censorship and repression to analyze the relationship between the Unconscious and superego which is governed by the realms of symbolic law and morality, that is to say, ethics.