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2017, Vol.44, No.

  • 1.

    Taking image: the expression of artistic values

    Kim, Yeon-joo | 2017, 44() | pp.5~27 | number of Cited : 1
    Creative thinking is emphasized throughout the modern society. This research aims to examine the concept of ‘taking image( )’ that has been revealed creativity through representation, symbol and free imagination in East Asia.‘Taking image’ is the basic thought of artistic creation of East Asia for how created visual images can induce new experiences and realize artistic values by mobilizing all senses. The category of ‘image( )’ had been presented in Yi Zhuan( ) for the first time as a means of making up for the limit of language and connecting with saint’s deep meanings and further more keeping symbolizations and implications. ‘Taking image’ activities which went through aesthetic modification have created diverse images and viewpoints of interpretation ceaselessly from the emblem, imagination and metaphor to stages of artistic creations and appreciation. ‘Taking image’ as art activities are to reflect experiences of creator through the formation of relationship with objects and more to authorize the artistic value to the simple objects. Images obtained artistic value have to create the stage of imaginative communication in relationship with creator and appreciator that transcend time.
  • 2.

    Korean climbing novel study

    송용철 | 2017, 44() | pp.29~52 | number of Cited : 1
    This article is a fresh attempt to conceptualize the novel handling Climbing. It has been 100 years since the modern mountain movement started in the Alps in the early 20th century, and entered in Korea later. Despite the international competitiveness of technology and increasing number of climbing population, it has shown relatively slower progress in documentary literature. Firstly, clarification of terms is required. We are not so discriminative between 'mountain' and 'mountain climbing as we use it as customary. This is due to the influx of modern mountain movements from Japan. This is because the Japanese term, which translated ‘Alpine’ of English into 'mountain', was used without filtering. As 'mountain' was used as a universal term for 'mountain climbing', 'climbing' and 'mountain' became synonymous. Assuming custom has its own semantic structure, the concept of 'mountain literature' can be considered as a subject of consideration and customary definition. When we discuss genre theory, 'literature' can be classified such as philosophy, sociology, and physics. Aristotle’s "poetry", a traditional genre theory, can be branched into lyric poetry, epic poetry, and drama. The range of literature containing mountain is quite broad. "Mountain literature" contains life of common people who live on mountains, people who climbs mountains, animals and plants making up mother nature, songs related to mountains, fables, language, and custom. So-called 'climbing novel' is just a part of epics, which is talking about the mountain climber. Climbing is a means and goal itself in modern climbing. And we call it ‘Alpinism’.
  • 3.

    The Causes of the Russo-Japanese War and Bezobrazov’s Clique

    Hoyeon Cho | 2017, 44() | pp.53~79 | number of Cited : 2
    A number of researchers concerned with the origins of the Russo-Japanese War have remarked on the so-called ‘scapegoat theory’, which emphasized on the roles of the clique around A. M. Bezobrazov at the outbreak of the war between Russia and Japan in the beginning of the 20-th century. The theory explained that the adventurers, including Bezobrazov, tried to seek the commercial interests around the Yalu River and stimulated the Japanese to attack on Russia. This article is to examine the relationships between the origins of the Russo-Japanese War and Bezobrazov’s clique. I traced the organization and activities of the group in detail. In result, it is thought that the influences of Bezobrazov’s clique on the Russo-Japanese war must not be overemphasized. The best days of the clique and the downfall of S. lu. Witte who was regarded as the main opponent against the clique, did not coincide. Moreover, the tsar’s government did not provide any aid to the clique, which encountered the financial crisis in June, 1903. It was not the adventurous activities of Bezobrazov’s clique but the groundless optimism of the Russian government that resulted to the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War.
  • 4.

    A Sudy on the Character Transformation of "Chunhyang" and "Lee MongRyong" : with a Focus on Chinese Female Writer Kim InSoon's "Chunhyang"

    조계홍 | 2017, 44() | pp.81~110 | number of Cited : 1
    Kim InSoon is an influential writer of Korean minority in the contemporary Chinese literature. She was born in 1970, called “the 1970s writer” who grew up during the Chinese reform in 1980s and experienced the great change in 1990s. There is a saying about the 1970s writers: they were born under the red flag and grew up in the desire. In the late part of 1990s, this group of people became the main social force. During this period, Kim InSoon stepped into literature. In 2003, she gained the attention through the film GREENTEA adapted from her short story “Adilia at the water’s edge”. In 2008, she drew attention again because the publication of the long novel CHUNHYANG in Harvest, as a writer of Korean minority. The novel CHUNHYANG is the 180 degree reversal of the South Korean Classic “the story of Chunhyang”, bringing about the exotic culture to Chinese literature. In 2011, this work was granted the Stallion Award of the Tenth Session of Literary Creation of Chinese Minorities. CHUNHYANG by Kim InSoon is recreation of South Korean classic “the story of Chunhyang”, starting its era of Chinese acceptance, at the same time plays a positive role in introducing South Korean culture to Chinese besides Korean minority. Not only in the degree of acceptance, but also in transmission of South Korean culture, CHUNHYANG has its own literal values. Its other values are not given equal attention, especially the study of characters. To remedy this, the paper focuses on the character transformation of Chunhyang and Menlong to dig into the significance of rewriting such classical work and to grasp the theme accurately. This paper includes the following parts: the first part briefly introduces the writer and her work; the second part makes a contrastive study between CHUNHYANG and “the story of Chunhyang” through analyzing the change of two main characters Chunhyang and Menlong; the last part summarizes the significance of such transformation and the theme of this novel.
  • 5.

    The Comparison of Chinese Adverbs “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” and their teaching strategies for Korean Students

    KIM JEONGHOON | KIM HYUN TAE | 2017, 44() | pp.111~128 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper analyzes the similarities and differences in the repetition meaning of “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” in modern Chinese from the three planes of semantics, syntax and pragmatics. On this basis, we on the Korean students in the use of “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” “when the errors are analyzed, from grammar angle errors classification, and made discussion on the genesis, and puts forward suggestions. In the description of the existing about “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” repetition of research achievements are briefly summarized and reviewed, summarizes the research meaning and purpose of the topic; introduce the methods; used in corpus and text symbols in brief. The semantic meaning of “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” is investigated from the semantic point of view. They are all able to express repeated meanings, and in semantic orientation, they can point to the behavioral verbs behind them, indicating the repetition of an action, action, or state. However, there are many differences, for example, “Hai(还)” means subjective, “Zai(再)” means objective, “You(又)” can mean “round and round” meaning, “Ye(也)” means complete, narrow sense and identical. From the choice of sentence type of “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” shows similarities and differences. On the pragmatic level, the speaker's preSet the choice of repeated adverbs. At the same time, we also find that in the case of a single repeated adverb, the same sentence, with different stress positions, often produces different semantic meanings. Finally, the author makes some analysis of the errors caused by Korean students using “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” and puts forward some suggestions on the teaching of “Hai(还)”, “Zai(再)”, “You(又)”, “Ye(也)” .
  • 6.

    An Approach to Yeats’s Late Poems from the Zen Perspective

    Haksun Han | 2017, 44() | pp.129~162 | number of Cited : 1
    The ultimate goal of Zen is to look within ourselves in order to directly see our true nature. Yeats suffered from the conflict between ideal and reality and body and soul. He had a strong desire to lead a harmonious life by escaping from the conflict caused by the crash of his outside self and inner self. Suzuki Daisetsu, a Japanese author of books and essays on Buddhism and Zen, had a great influence on Yeats’s thinking, which made him write many poems based on the teaching of Zen in his late life. However, rather than unconditionally accepting it, he took it as a model for resistance against modernity and succeeded in explaining his philosophy, Unity of Being, by appropriately employing it. This paper studies on the features of Zen and Zen Buddhism and how they are expressed in Yeats’s late poems and what meanings they have from the diachronic perspective.
  • 7.

    Postwar globalism and nationalist literature Focusing on Lee, Chul-Bum's criticism

    KIM HYUN-JU | 2017, 44() | pp.163~186 | number of Cited : 1
    This thesis aims to establishing Chul-Bum Lee's universalism as a view of the world by surveying his logical argument about the universalism. 1950s was the times when the influences of western literature on Korean modern literature was greater than any other times and there was lively interactions between the Korean literature and the western literature. But the study on the cosmopolitanism of 1950s have been in the stages of abstract universalism, because the period was negatively evaluated as the ‘interregnal times’ which didn't connect the modern literature before the liberation with the contemporary after 1960s. Most of the studies around the concept of the cosmopolitanism have been overshadowed by the criticism that regards the times as the unconditional pursuit of the West which lost the sense of reality. Chul-Bum Lee set out a logical argument about the universalism that we have to take note not the universalism of the world culture but the existential life of the Third World people. His argument embraces from the Third World people to the alienated people in the system. Ultimately he advocated the alienated masses of the world. The life of the people cannot help being impoverished as the advance of science, the destroy of the war and the materialism of the capitalist ideolgy bring about the crises of the civilization. Therefore he emphasizes that it is urgent to search the ideology and common ideals to lead a new era for the sake of the symbiosis of humanity. Not staying at the theory, he testifies his argument with the practice of writing.
  • 8.

    Syntactic and Prosodic Constraints on Focus Identification in Language Acquisition

    Kim, Soyoung | 2017, 44() | pp.187~212 | number of Cited : 0
    The study aims to investigate how Korean learners of English identify focus in a dative construction (subject+verb+NP+PP) containing only(located between a verb and direct object NP) constrained by syntactic and prosodic information. Focus identification in sentences containing only has been claimed to be constrained by the c-command principle, that is, the constituents in the c-commanding domain of only can be focused. Prosodic information such as pitch accents, stress, intonation is also said to be integrated into the process of focus determination. In contrast to active previous studies that explored how 4- to 6-year-old English-speaking children used such syntactic and prosodic information in focus determination, there has been little research from L2 acquisition perspectives. To fill the gap, the current study attempted to reveal intermediate knowledge of Korean learners of English on syntactic and prosodic constraints, using three types of experimental sentences; sentence type 1 with postverbal only before NP+PP; sentence type 2 with a stress on PP; sentence type 3 with postverbal only and a stress on PP. In a sentence verification task, the Korean learners of English were found to consistently make use of a syntactic cue of only, thus associating it with NP. It also revealed that they were able to use prosodic information to make a stressed PP as a focused constituent. Lastly, they were found to prefer to use the syntactic constraint although prosodic information was apparently provided. It indicates that the c-command constraint plays an important role in their process of focus identification. The results can be further discussed in relation to L2 acquisition processing and English education.