According to Citko & Gračanin-Yuksek (2013), there are three different structures in a new typology of coordinated wh-questions (CWHQs): mono-clausal, bi-clausal with bulk sharing, and bi-clausal with non-bulk sharing. This paper presents a non-bulk sharing bi-clausal approach to Korean CWHQs, which is a modified version of Citko & Gračanin-Yuksek’s original structure. Our analysis has two strong advantages against the existing studies about wh-in-situ languages (Kasai 2016; Jung 2018, inter alia). First, from a theoretical perspective, it does not need any stipulated syntactic mechanism such as sideward movement or backward ellipsis. Second, from an empirical perspective, it can account for some of the syntactic or semantic puzzles appearing in the previous analyses. The Korean CWHQ structure involves focus movement of each of wh-phrases contained in different vPs. The target position of focus movement is the specifier and complement position of &0, a head of &P, which requires focused wh-phrases. This paper argues that a bi-clausal structure is a better option in analyzing Korean CWHQs.
Horse trappings is one of the items to be buried in a grave, although it is a necessary tool for riding a horse. It is in contact with the horse trappings as one of the accessories chosen by a person who lives in a space for the dead. In this section, I understood the custom of burial at the time from the combination of the horse trappings of the wooden and stone chamber tombs, which are the main parts of burial. In addition, I have looked into the current status and characteristics of the excavation of the horse trappings by focusing on representative tombs in each region, mainly in areas such as Gimhae, Haman, Hapcheon, and Goryeong. As a result, it was confirmed that there were perceptions of horse trappings and burial patterns in each area, and that they were changing with the passage of time.
The history of the use of Chinese characters in Vietnam can be said to be the history of Vietnam. This is because of the influx of Chinese characters into Vietnam which began in 207 B.C. when a Chinese official from the Qin dynasty established Vietnam's first ancient state. The long history of Chinese characters in Vietnam has had a profound influence on the Vietnamese language and the language culture of the Vietnamese, and is exemplified by Vietnamese idioms in Chinese characters. The Vietnamese idioms in Chinese characters are somewhat different in form and meaning as Chinese idioms were introduced into Vietnam and translated into Vietnamese. Therefore, it can be said that Vietnamese idioms in Chinese characters contain characteristic elements of Vietnamese language and Vietnamese culture. Given these circumstances, the characteristics in form and meaning of Vietnamese idioms in Chinese characters are classified into three types referred to in this paper as isomorphic synonym types, homonymous types, and heteromorphic synonym types.
This study is to examine the formation and development of Buddhist thought concerning mind and material oriented with Dharmakāya and Adībuddha. In the age of Gautama Buddha religion of India maintained the theory of Brahman, a creator of universe along with the materialism of elements asserted by Indian philosophers. Gautama Buddha denied the creator of heavenly god or materialism instead asserted Dependent Origination that any manifestation of mind and material resulted from elements and environment regardless of any predefined attributes or nature. The foundation of the Dependent Origination and the Four Elements of material were designated by Dharma. In the age of Mahāyāna Buddhism. the rule of Dependent Origination and emptiness were integrated into Dharmakāya as a personalization of Dharma. The idea of Two Truth in Mahāyāna Buddhism overcomed the danger of regarding Dharma or Dharma-kāya as independent or eternal nature by dividing all the phenomenon into properties of emptiness and that of distinction and discrimination. The idea of Dharmakāya developed to the three bodies of Buddha, which attributes are described in Ornament Sūtra and also in Kālacakra Tantra as Adībuddha, which prove the historical continuity of Mahāyāna Buddhism that were transmitted to Tibetan Buddhism survived today.
This paper focuses on a case of the Seoul City Official “Spy-Making” Incident to examine the complex nature of politics in post-authoritarian South Korea. The series of “spy-making” incidents under military dictatorship in South Korea had been despotic, frequently involving physical violence and forced confessions. In this paper, we argue that the nature of the Seoul City Official “Spy-Making” Incident (2013) is much more complex, that it has another dimension of hegemonic citizenship practice in addition to the despotic state practice. In this sense, the old despotic “spy-making” practice is dying hard even in the post-authoritarian democratic regimes of South Korea. Theoretically, this paper aims to challenge and demystify Aihwa Ong’s notion of flexible citizenship in the context of the divided Koreas. While a chosen few might enjoy the privilege of “flexible citizenship” under the neoliberal democratic order, others fall prey to the rigidity of the new and lasting boundary-making politics.