This study investigates a thought experiment that reverses the dominant space exploration rhetoric of the 1960s in The Moon is a Harsh Mistress (1966) by Robert A. Heinlein and Solaris (1961) by Stanisław H. Lem. These two works show us the 1960s’ space conquest rhetoric of the Cold War era and the opposite movement for liberty. I discuss how these two works reverse the dominant space frontier-ship, speculating a new world in which they are free from the authoritative atmosphere. In The Moon is a Harsh Mistress, Moon Colony succeeds in getting liberated from the Earth’s federal nations, representing both of the space frontier-ship and its subversion. Stanisław Lem’s Solaris shows that space exploration is just geocentricism, a new version of colony expansion, and tries to find a new way of communication with the others.
In the Northern Song dynasty 北宋 (960-1127), iron coins in Sichuan province 四川 underwent three significant changes. First, after the annexation of Shu 蜀, the central government allowed only iron coins to be used in the Sichuan province. That caused a rapid decrease in cooper coin circulation there. Second, the government issued large coins, the coin of Jingde 景德大鐵錢 and Xianfu 祥符大鐵 錢, to solve the coin circulation crisis. However, those coins nominal values differed from their actual values. That led to insufficient quantities of coins in circulation and inflation. Third, after the appearance of the unofficial paper currency jiaozi 交子, the demand for iron coins decreased. This tendency became more pronounced when jiaozi’s amount increased. That led to prices’ stabilization for a while. However, the overissue of jiaozi caused its downward adjustment. As a result, the policy lost its effectiveness. The root cause of the coin’s downward adjustment in the area was the government's fiscal deficit.
Feng Menglong was an outstanding popular literature in Ming Dynasty. "San Yan" (Yu Shi Ming Yan, Jing Shi Tong Yan and Xing Shi Heng Yan) compiled by him were a monument in the development history of Chinese short vernacular novels, as well as the representative work in Ming Dynasty. "San Yan" is not only rich in content and changeable in subject matter, but also includes the essence of folk literature works such as operas and legendary novels since Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties.
Jing Shi Tong Yan is the second of the three classics of "San Yan". There are many distinct folk figures in Jing Shi Tong Yan, which shows a wealth of civil society life. Some vivid female images in the works are very representative, which can still be described as the original. This kind of few female images pursuing personality independence undoubtedly added a new aesthetic perspective and a more three-dimensional dimension to the group images of traditional street novels. This made great contributions to the study of women's social status, existence value and gradual sprouting anti-feudal imprisonment consciousness. It is of great research value. Up to now, there is little research on women's independent images in the Chinese literary. This paper focuses on women's images in the book and emphasizes their independent characters, combine out the representative women's independent images so as to have a clearer understanding of women's self-positioning and value embodiment at that time.
After the defeat of the war, Japan faced the challenge of not returning to the fascism before the war and overcoming American democracy at the same time. To overcome this situation, Ishimoda Sho published Discovery of the History and Nation. This study analyzed the book to reveal ① how Ishimoda used Stalin’s theory, ② why he introduced the limitations of positivist historical view and Tsuda Sokichi, and reconstructed its meaning to reveal how the connection between naturalness and the emperor was established. First, it covered Stalin’s theory and the perspective toward the world history. Ishimoda interpreted the world is divided into bourgeois nationalism and proletarian nationalism, not the West and the East. Ishimoda viewed that Japan formed bourgeois nationalism in this global trend. He argued that Japanese fascism was developed because it suppressed the nationalism of the oppressed people in such global trend. He attributed the cause to the “uncritical” following of “Western theory,” in other words, a lack of subjectivity. Ishimoda was critical of the idea that the nation existed from ancient times, but agreed to the fact that the emperor is manifested throughout the history is connected with the naturalness of Japan. This discussion posed the risk of eventually agreeing to the combination of Japan’s “naturalness” and the emperor as universality. Ishimoda combined anti-Americanism with nationalism of the Asian oppressed nation through this very global idea. This marked the starting point of Japan’s post-war nationalism, and its content was the emphasis of a transparent yet chaotic Japanese-ness. In other words, it returned the national nationalism of postwar Japan to colorlessness and introduced a hybrid nationalism that called a new mass nationalism, paving the way for a return to “natural imperialism” at any time.