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2021, Vol.64, No.2

  • 1.

    Aspect and Trend of Recognition on Choi Chi-Won in the Goryeo Era -Focused on keeping the ancestral tablet in Munmyo (文廟, the Confucian shrine)-

    Sin Sun Hye | 2021, 64(2) | pp.5~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is not enough to define Choi Chi-Won as a representative of one era and region, given that he was evaluated on his past with praise in many ways, not only during the Silla period, but also during Goryeo and Joseon. In particular, since the aspect of Choi Chi-Won’s future recognition was discussed around the propriety of the Confucian Shrine (文廟) canonization, one can look at the background and meaning of the canonization of the Confucian Shrine as well as process of going out and returning to the Confucian Shrine in order to observe the aspects and trends of Choi Chi-Won’s recognition. However, research until today has shown that Choi Chi-Won’s the Confucian Shrine canonization in the Goryeo Dynasty continued until Joseon Dynasty without any change, so the aspect of Choi Chi-Won’s perception did not show any change. However, in the late Goryeo period, Choi Chi-Won’s godship is lost once. And records show that Choi Chi-Won, along with Seol Chong (薛聰) and An Hyang (安珦), were enshrined in the Confucian Shrine shortly after the founding of the Joseon Dynasty. In this paper, focusing on the canonization of Choi Chi-Won, we show that the Goryeo royal family established a foothold for the praise of Choi Chi-Won by using Choi Chi-Won in writing the theory of ‘Milchanjoup(密讚祖業)’ or ‘Dapgyunhwonseo(答甄萱書)’ from the period around the founding of the Goryeo dynasty until the canonization in the Confucian Shrine during the period of King Hyenjong and that this acted as a background for the Silla scholars, who were taken over and became a Confucian bureaucracy in Goryeo, to canonize Choi Chi-Won in the Confucian Shrine in the early days of King Hyeonjong. At the same time, as the period of King Hyeonjong was a time when invasion and exchange coexisted externally, we also considered that external confidence would have influenced the of Choi Chi-Won’s canonization. On the other hand, we regard the Yuan (元) dynasty as the subject of Choi Chi-Won’s expulsion from the Confucian Shrine the during the late Goryeo dynasty, and see that the Yuan dynasty took Choi Chi-Won out from the Confucian Shrine as they recognized that the canonization could inspire the Goryeo people’s national consciousness since Choi Chi-Won showed the level of Silla culture equivalent to that of China. However, since it was recorded that this proceeded without the approval of the King of Goryeo, we consider that he was soon reinstated. Here, we consider that the background behind the reinstatement was based on the anti-Yuan stance that was held during the period of King Gongmin. In this way, by examining the process and background of Choi Chi-Won’s departure and return from the Confucian Shrine during the Goryeo Dynasty, it was possible to grasp the patterns and trends of the perception on Choi Chi-Won.
  • 2.

    Professor Cho Kook’s Controversy and Discursive Politics of Witch Hunting

    KIM, SUNG HAE | Kim, Sung Wook | 2021, 64(2) | pp.21~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The controversy surrounding Cho Kook, a professor and former Minister of Justice, is still underway. While some argues he deserves such a series of mishaps, the others believe that he was victimized by Witch Hunting heralded by the conservative media. The truth remains at large. The authors sense, however, that the case can be the product of discourse politics cooperated by those who want the status quo in Korean peninsula. Therefore, the authors explore two questions related to this controversial debate. First, this study explores to reveal why the public, which initially did not respond much to criticism discourse about its homeland, actively responded and the forces that led the situation. Secondly, this paper pays particular attention to deciphering discursive strategies adopted by the media believed to collaborate with Christians, anti-Communists, North Korea fugitives, and U.S. government. With regard to the first topic, analysis shows at first that four factors including anti-communism, flunkyism toward America, development mentality, and collective feeling against unfair society were called into play while responding to target audience. It did also reveal that those beneficiaries of national division have taken a critical part either by participating in public demonstration or signing on statements. Final discovery lies in the social construction of ‘Angel and Devil’ elaborated seamlessly by logical, emotional and ethical arguments. Such tactics as agenda setting, framing, and sourcing were found in addition. The authors insist thus that what matters is not improving journalism quality but exposing the reality of discourse politics which stands in the way toward a peaceful unified nation.
  • 3.

    The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on International Students: Focusing on Gender Differences

    Hwangdongjin | 2021, 64(2) | pp.53~66 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempted to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international students in a situation where COVID-19 is intensifying around the world. Especially with the awareness that it may work differently depending on gender, the study performed the comparison and analysis with a focus on the gender differences. The research results can be summarized as follows. The level of depression was higher in women than in men. Based on the previous studies showing that women may be relatively more vulnerable to emotional problems than men, it was consistent with the argument that this problem would intensify due to the situational specificity of COVID-19. In addition, women were found to experience greater adaptation stress than men. Women experiencing emotional difficulties had relatively high stress in their adaptation to their life of studying abroad. This led to a difference between men and women in the level of satisfaction with life of studying abroad. Compared to men, women's satisfaction with life of studying abroad was found to be lower. Based on the findings, this study suggests that emotional health professionals should work to support international students considering their different characteristics and circumstances.
  • 4.

    Korean Protestant Churches Inculcated in Confucian Habitus and Hereditary Pastoral Succession

    Chae, Byung Kwan | 2021, 64(2) | pp.67~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article explores the issue of hereditary pastoral succession of Korean Protestant churches in the light of Pierre Bourdieu's ideas. Due to the long process of Confucianization, Confucian teachings act like social ethics and common sense for Koreans. In other words, Confucian teachings are accepted as habitus for Koreans. Korean Protestants are no exception, and their deep-rooted Confucian traditions have also influenced their way of thinking. In other words, Korean Protestant churches are also inculcated in Confucian habitus. In particular, the issue of hereditary pastoral succession is emerging in some Korean Protestant churches in the 21st century. This phenomenon can be interpreted by considering the influence of Confucianism in them. Church members inculcated in Confucian habitus can legitimately accept hereditary pastoral succession by utilizing Confucian “capital.” In other words, from Bourdieu's point of view, Korean Protestants inculcated in Confucian habitus in the “field” of Korean Protestant churches can distribute Confucian "capital" to (mis)recognize hereditary pastoral succession as legitimate.