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pISSN : 2733-8649 / eISSN : 2733-8657

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2016, Vol.22, No.4

  • 1.

    Study on the Network System between of the Outpatient and Central Treatment Department of Long Term Care Hospitals

    Bae, Sunmi , Kim, Suktae | 2016, 22(4) | pp.7~17 | number of Cited : 0
    Purpose: As our population ages and becomes an elderly society the number of elderly care hospitals is rapidly increasing. Because physical functions and spatial perception in the elderly decrease with age, these hospitals require more systematic and intelligent space designs. The design of these spaces are even more complex because they must accommodate medical programs to treat various different diseases and ailments and also because there are many first time patients and irregular short term patients that seek out outpatient treatment services. Also by analyzing the spatial configuration systems and systematic relationships between each of the functional spaces of the outpatient treatment service departments for hospitals specialized in care for the elderly by focusing on the hallway and corridor systems of these hospitals, the according characteristics and trends were examined. Methods: Based on preceding research, the types of hallway and corridor systems of these hospitals were categorized into five types, including gallery corridors, middle corridors, hall-type, mixed type and cyclic type corridors, and into six types according to function including by medical diagnosis, patient registration, examination, administration and convenience and shared common space to derive any interconnecting relationships between the corridor systems. Also by comprehensively examining the types and combined utilization of the corridor types and the integration and the intelligibility of the space syntax, any trends within the corridor system were derived. The elderly care hospitals examined in this research study were twelve hospitals that opened after the year 2000 in Korea with more that 150 sick beds with areas larger than 1000㎡ and with all outpatient medical service related rooms located entirely on a single floor of the hospital. Results: The following results could be confirmed based on this research study. 1) The spaces where medical diagnosis and examination occurred were adjacent, and the movement lines for first time patients and re-visiting patients were taken into consideration by separating the treatment space. 2) This research study confirmed that the larger the size of the hospital was, there were more detailed categorizations of treatment services and that there was a tendency for treatment areas to be separated and independent from examination areas. 3) There was a tendency for integration and intelligibility to decrease the more complex and diverse the combination of hall types designed into the corridor systems of these hospitals was. cyclic type corridors dramatically decreased the intelligibility of the corridor systems of these hospitals. 4) The priority rank of these spaces were confirmed to be highest in the order of registration, diagnosis, examination, treatment, administration and shared common spaces. However it was confirmed for the local integration that the diagnosis scope had the highest priority rank. Implications: There were exceptional cases confirmed where the number of unit spaces did not have an absolute effect on integration and intelligibility. These results can be interpreted to mean that this can be overcome through efficient architectural planning.
  • 2.

    Changing Tendency of the Psychiatric Hospitals’ Acute Wards for Return to Society in Japan

    고상균 | 2016, 22(4) | pp.19~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Purpose: This study shows a changing tendency of Japanese psychiatric hospitals, presenting "Visions in Reform of Mental Health and Medical Welfare", changed to "Hospitalized Medical Treatment to Living in the Community" and reducing the number of beds since 2004. Methods: This study uses a documentary survey, especially Jananese 「Visions in Reform of Mental Health and Medical Welfare System」 and a field survey on hospital built for early treatment and return to society after 2004. Results: Change tendencies of psychiatric hospitals are 1) diversification of isolation room and ward, 2) cluster of patient's room, 3) phased organization of space, 4)individualization. Implication: This study will be an important data for researching plan of Korea psychiatric hospital which needs to change by global tendency.
  • 3.

    A Survey on the Barrier - Free Environment of Public Office Building in Jeju Area

    Ki-Chang Seong , Park Chul-Min , Kim, In-Bae | 2016, 22(4) | pp.29~36 | number of Cited : 1
    Purpose: Considering the proportion of the population such as the elderly, pregnant women, infants companion and constantly increasing foreign tourists, there is a high need for implementing an environment without barriers. In terms of policy and institutional aspects, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province is striving to create an environment without barriers and to promote the safety and convenience of Vulnerable Pedestrians. But it is not enough to create a viable barrier-free environment. Methods: Method of this research is to analyze the general population status and installed facilities status for the disabled in Jeju. And analysis of policy research needs and level of barrier-free. By applying the barrier-free environment certification standards should conduct an assessment of the level of the current public office buildings in Jeju. It presents the environmental improvement of public office buildings for barrier-free environment. Result: Barrier-free environment status of the five public office buildings research surveyed all buildings have shown low levels of installed facilities for the disabled. In particular, it was analyzed that represents a very low level in the intermediate facilities and other facilities. The development of a specific installation manual for the facilities for the disabled is required to improve public office buildings. And barrier-free criteria need to reflect on the implementation of regulations. Implications: Through continuous research to analyze the barrier-free level and problems of public office buildings, it will be made to improve the comprehensive and reasonable alternative.
  • 4.

    A Comparative Analysis of Patient Visibility, Spatial Configuration and Nurse Walking Distance in Korean Intensive Care Units(ICUs) - Focused on single corridor, Pod and Composite type units

    Ubaid Ullah , Park,Jae-Seung | 2016, 22(4) | pp.37~45 | number of Cited : 0
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze a sample of single corridor, pod type and composite type of ICUs in terms of patient visibility, spatial configurations and nurse walking distance focused on Korean cases. Methods: The measures of static visibility were used to quantify the patient visibility (upper third part of the patient bed) from the nurse station. The measure of space programme and area distribution (patient zone percentage, staff zone percentage, circulation zone percentage, corridor length per bed, distance from nurse station (NS) to patient bed and departmental gross square meter (DGSM) per patient bed) were calculated by using AutoCAD and MS Excel programs. In the second step of analysis the values of space distribution were compared among the three type of ICUs as well as the nurse walking distance, DGSM per bed and gross factor. in the third step of analysis regression analysis was conducted for the possible correlation between visibility and space programme and area distribution factors as well as nurse walking distance factors. Results: (1) It was found that on average composite type unit offer highest value of patient visibility followed by pod type, while single corridor type unit offers the minimum value of patient visibility among the three plan typologies. (2) Average patient visibility and DGSM per bed shows a strong positive correlation (r²=0.75) and p=0.026. (3) Average patient visibility and average distance from NS has a strong negative correlation (r²=0.78), and P=0.02. (4) On average composite type unit offer the minimum walking distance from NS (7.22 meter) followed by pod type unit (8.35 meter) and single corridor (9.76 meter). (5) Maximum distance from NS was noted in single corridor (18.19 meter) followed by pod type unit (15.14 meter) and Composite type unit (11.1 meter). Implications: This study may contribute to the visibility analysis of existing and future ICU design in Korea to achieve maximum patient visibility and reduced nurse walking distance.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Optimum Range of Space Depth for Hospital Architecture Planning Focused on System

    Kim EunSeok , Yang, Nae-won | 2016, 22(4) | pp.47~55 | number of Cited : 0
    Purpose: Growth and change are the most important things in planning of hospital architecture. It is especially necessary for countless changes taken place since the hospital opens to be adapted to the planning of hospital architecture phase. The space depth in the hospital serves a very crucial role in accepting these changes. The purpose of this study is to provide basic data necessary to space depth planning to prepare for change through analyzing space depth’s change in hospital architecture chronologically. Methods:: The method of this study is analyzing space depth’s change in cases of 19 hospitals in total, from the 1980’s, which is the quantitative growth period, until recently. Especially this study is analyzing Max & Min space depth focusing change of medical environment. Based on this, this study suggests an form of space depth and optimum range of space depth response to growth and change of hospital architecture. Results: The conclusions of this study are as follows. Considering these conclusion, double linear system is most appropriate for space depth for hospital architecture planning focused on system. Optimal range of space depth is at least 21.6m or more in case of clinic room and from 27 meter to 37meter in case of examination & treatment room. Implications: Space of Depth is a key element determining system for hospital architecture planning focused on system. The results of this paper can be data for planning system of hospital architecture which copes with the change.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Evaluation of Environmental Quality required in the Accreditation Program for Mental Health Facilities – Focus on the Mental Institutions Assessment of KOIHA

    HEE BOON JUNG , Uk Kim | 2016, 22(4) | pp.57~66 | number of Cited : 1
    Purpose: According to the trend of the global burden of disease, in the future our society is expected to face with gradually increasing problems related to mental health and the demand for the various types of quality mental health facilities. This study investigates whether the accreditation of Mental health facilities serves as a building evaluation tool, and contribute to environmental welfare of the mentally ill. Methods: The facility assessment items related to architectural design are extracted through the analysis about the accreditation program of KOIHA. Extracted items should review if they comply with the relevant regulations, and establish building design standard. Results: This study shows that the accreditation of KOIHA can certify psychiatric hospitals meet the legal requirements, the minimum standard of facilities. But it is not the evaluation of environmental quality. It is difficult to assess the quality of facility in terms of architectural design, because it has no specific standards or the level of assessment. Implications: The accreditation for mental health facilities should be able to provide the right and opportunity to choose a more quality facility for the customer. The introduction of a certification system for the evaluation of environmental quality is required in order to overcome the limitations of the accreditation of KOIHA. Development of design guidelines for mental health facilities that are the basis for certification should be also followed.
  • 7.

    Change of Ward Design in Korean Hospital Architecture since 1945

    유영민 | 2016, 22(4) | pp.67~77 | number of Cited : 1
    Purpose: This paper aimis to analyze the characteristics of ward plan of Korean hospital architecture constructed in each periods and identify the change since 1945. Methods: Literature review was conducted while ward plans for analysis were sellected. And then the important points of ward design were analyzed in each periods. Results: The important points of ward design - type of corridor in ward plan, number of beds per nursing unit, location of nurse station, organization of multi-bed rooms, location of patient toilet, number of day room, concentration and separation of elevator halls for patient and general- were analyzed and the characteristics of change were identified in each periods. Implications: This paper could be a basic data for arranging the history of hospital architecture in Korea
  • 8.

    Isolation Effectiveness by Progressive Space Organization in Negative Pressured Isolation Unit

    Kwon, Soon-Jung , Sung, Minki | 2016, 22(4) | pp.79~86 | number of Cited : 5
    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of Progressive Space Organization (ante-rooms) in Negative Pressured Isolation Unit(NPIU) such as National and Regional Isolation Units in Korea in order to build basic data for the evidence based design of Airborne Infection Isolation Units which should prepare and respond effectively to the public health crisis due to the hazardous airborne infectious disease. Methods: 1) Gas(SF6) test and analysis on the 23 Korean Isolation Units under operation. 2) Assessment of the isolation level of the space components by checking the Gas concentration. 3) Analysis of the Isolation Effectiveness according to Space Organizational levels. Results: 1) The higher segregation level is, the lower Gas(SF6) concentration is. 2) Too many segregations(anterooms) of Isolation Unit are not efficient for the prevention of infectious bacillus spread. For example, 4 level of segregation has similar segregation effect to the 3 level of segregation. Implications: Many anterooms in front of the isolated patient bedroom will guarantee the safe environment against the danger of hazardous airborne nosocomial infection. On the other hand, too many segregations is inefficient, expensive, inconvenient, narrow(unflexible) and so on. This study can be used as basic data for further development of design guidelines of isolation units
  • 9.

    A Study on the Space Design for Nosocomial Infection Control in Intensive Care Unit

    HYUNJIN LEE , Kim Khil Chae , Young-Hun Oh | 2016, 22(4) | pp.87~95 | number of Cited : 9
    Purpose: Recently an experience in the MERS crisis focused on the importance of infection control in hospitals. According to Korean National healthcare-associated Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) of the KSICP, a great number of 498 people, 841 people, and 1021 people were infected by pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia respectively from 94 hospital ICUs during the year of 2014. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the configuration and design guidelines for the ICU rooms to minimize the nosocominal infections. Methods: Based on the several infection control guidelines and revised Medical Law, consequent analyses which classified the planning and operational behavior in the ICUs of seven hospitals, were performed to reduce the cross-infection. Results: The results of this study are offering a space, configuration and design guidelines for effective infection control in the intensive care units through the unit-bed area, the bed-to-bed distance, the isolation room, etc. Implications: It is expected that this study propose the direction of architectural planning and guideline for the ICU room in order to realize the intension of revised Medical Law.
  • 10.

    Infection Control in Triage Space of Emergency Room: Based on Analysis of Healthcare Facility Standards

    Kim, Joong-gi , Hyun-Bo Seo | 2016, 22(4) | pp.97~104 | number of Cited : 6
    Purpose: Facilities for infection prevention according to the characteristics of the patients, caregivers and medical personnel are needed in the patient triage room of the emergency department as a space for the first medical examination and classification of the patients. This study focus on the patient tirage room with the highest frequency of use in the emergency department to prevent the hospital acquired infection of the emergency department. Methods:: This study analyzed the facilities standard needed for the infection prevention through interviews with the medical personnel and analyses on the facilities standard/cases of foreign hospitals and facilities standard at home and abroad Results: And based on this, it attempted to present improvement measures by analyzing the line of circulation and space used by infected patients in a hospital designated in the regional emergency medical center among hospitals whose emergency department overcrowding index is high. Implications: The facilities standard for the infection prevention among the courses for patient classification of the emergency medical centers could be identified and implemented to prevent infection.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Characteristics of Remodeling Planning in Small - mid sized Hospital - Focused on the case study of 300beds general hospital

    Choi, Kwangseok , kiyon KIM | 2016, 22(4) | pp.105~115 | number of Cited : 1
    Purpose: This study is a case study of a small-mid sized hospital to promote a full-scale remodeling to ensure the quality and competitiveness of the medical services and trying to arrange the remodeling characteristics of small-mid sized hospital which is suffering from aging facilities as well as chronic congestion and lack of spaces. Methods: Research was conducted by consultation with hospital executives and each department operators, and on-site investigation, Results: The result of this study can be summarized into two points. The first one is that existing statistical value like area per bed, in the remodeling of the small-mid hospitals may not mean much. planners have to verify the necessary room space areas in close consultation with the department operators. And after confirming layout possibilities, they have to create the program. The second one is that remodeling planning can be a realistic plan with structural and installation diagnosis at the same time. If so, it is advisable to proceed architectural design from the beginning for cost and time savings. Implications: This results can be applied to small-mid hospitals to apply to the medical law revision and others.