Aims 1. Military history research compilation, which is the original mission of the Institution for Military History 2. A Study on the war and military history from traditional era to Contemporary era 3. Expand the field of research in military history, and improve the level of research Scope 1. Historical contents of domestic and foreign military policies, systems, and war 2. Contents of the political, diplomatic, and military sectors related to the national defense and security which suitable for the characteristics of military history 3. Research papers, book reviews, research trends, data introduction, research paper translation, etc. related to sub-paragraphs 1 and 2
Following the 70th anniversary of the Korean War outbreak in 2020, the year of 2021 marks the 70th anniversary of establishing the United Nations (UN) Cemetery in 1951. In light of these two significant milestones, this thesis examines the transition period from the UN Cemetery to the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea (UNMCK), mainly focusing from 1955 to 1960.
The study researches the historical process from the adoption of UN General Assembly Resolution 977(X) (Resolution 977(X)) in 1955 to the signing of the “Agreement with the United Nations and the Republic of Korea on the Establishment and Maintenance of the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea (Agreement)” in 1959. Also, the research scrutinizes the aspects of the transfer ceremony from the UN Command to the United Nations Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea (UNCURK) of taking over the UNMCK in March 1960, which remain unexplored in the existing literature.
Expanding its meaning as the UN's symbolic milieu, the decision-making process of contention, compromise, and cooperation among the UN allied nations during the Korean War demonstrates a collective response of common destiny in the period of Cold War. In this regard, Resolution 977(X) and the Agreement, which provide the cause for the burial ground of the fallen soldiers fought under the UN Command, can be understood as significant milestones in the history of both the Republic of Korea and the UN.
Moreover, the study suggests that we should correct the misinformation regarding the management and signing of the UNMCK by analyzing the historical papers of the United Nations Archives and Records Management Section (UNA), UN materials, and newspaper articles. In particular, the UN archival documents, which are the first materials to be released, are expected to expand the scope of existing military research by filling the gap in academic discourse on the Korean War and the UN.
This article analyzes the competition of naval power between the U.S. and Japan before the outbreak of the Pacific War in the early 20th century. Japan, which emerged as a new maritime power in Asia in the early 20th century, began to seek hegemony in the Pacific region, whereas the United States, which sought to maintain the status quo in the Pacific region, recognized Japan's move as a challenge to the United States.
The U.S.-Japan competition, which took place in the Pacific region, developed into a naval superiority competition, and eventually the Pacific War broke out in 1941. The naval power competition between the two countries raised the question of how to operate naval forces in Asia-Pacific, which developed into a maritime strategy competition between Japan's “interception-attrition strategy” and the U.S. war plan “Orange” ➜ war plan “Rainbow" against Japan.
After the end of World War I, Japan became the first Asian maritime power and advanced to the South Pacific ocean. Japan joined the Washington regime in 1922, but considered the U.S. as the first virtual enemy and continued to build submarines, landing ships, and auxiliary ships which were exceptional maritime arsenals from the treaty. After terminating from the Treaty of Washington in 1936, Japan continued to strengthen its naval capabilities and developing a maritime strategy(interception-attrition strategy).
Meanwhile, the U.S. began to recognize Japan as an official potential enemy in the 20th century, and developed an orange plan against Japan. The real perception of Japan's threat came as Japan's withdraw from Washington Treaty(1936). In 1938, the U.S. began building up its naval capabilities through the Vinson-Tramel Act to enhance its naval power, and responded to Japan's naval capabilities. The U.S. won over Japan in the maritime strategic level.
This article aims at focusing on the matter of diverting use of the Extraordinary War Expenditure by Japanese Army and Navy during the Second Sino-Japanese War and analyzing it.
When the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in July, 1937, the Japanese Government decided to run the Extraordinary War Expenditure for the war. Therefore, drafts for special accounting laws and expenses of the Extraordinary War Expenditure were submitted to the Imperial Diet in September in the same year. But the Diet members were concerned about the prolonged and extra use of the Extraordinary War Expenditure, because there were various problems caused by the dispatch of troops in Siberia resulting in the prolongation of the World War I in the past. However, the government said that the Extraordinary War Expenditure would be short-term means and they were used for the Second Sino-Japanese War only.
Therefore, the members of the Imperial Diet raised the questions about the Extraordinary War Expenditure during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The government emphasized that the Extraordinary War Expenditure were justly used for the Second Sino-Japanse War. but the government's reply was not a fact. The Japanese Army and Navy diverted large amount of the Extraordinary War Expenditure for expansion of armament for the the Soviet Union and USA, respectively. It could be confirmed by internal documents from the Navy and the Ministry of Finance, and the testimonies by the parties concerned. In conclusion, the Japanese Government(especially, the Army and Navy) diverted large sum of the Extraordinary War Expenditure, which could not be used with any other purpose.
Then, what is the noteworthy matters of diverting use of the Extraordinary War Expenditure by the Japanese Army and Navy? There are broadly two points as follows: First, it was the deterioration in control of military expenses by the Imperial Diet. Second, it was collaboration between the Ministry of Finance and the Army and Navy. Therefore, the matter of diverting use of the Extraordinary War Expenditure in the Japanese Army and Navy shows that How much did the Imperial Diet control military expenses and How was relationship between the Ministry of Finance and the military authorities.