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2009, Vol., No.70

  • 1.

    The Shifts in the Confrontation Line of the Mid-upperGeum River and the Strategy of Three Kingdoms inthe Late 5th Century

    이부오 | 2009, (70) | pp.1~33 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is written to clarify the shift in the confrontation line of the mid-upper Geum River valley and the strategy of Three Kingdoms in terms of tactics followed by Goguryeo's surrendering Han-fortress, Baekje. Main force units of the Goguryeo withdrew from the position right after the collapse, some of the force remained to command Asan coast-Baekma ridge line based on the Mongchontoseong as the strategic point. Baekje transferred its capital to Ungjin to rebuild a dynasty supported by Silla. Goguryeo maintained the dominance by oppressing the Geum River's mid valley and the Miho stream valley-a branch stream of Geum River-through the Cheonan and the down stream of Namhan River, respectively. Silla secured the Miho stream valley as the strategic place and supported the defense of the nearby Miho valley at the same time. The Silla-Baekje Allied switchover from restrictive cooperative relationship to destinies military alliance. Baekje advanced to the Hansan fortress in contraposition with Goguryeo military with the help of cooperation of the Wae-Silla until 482. To make an example of this, Goguryeo attempted to make a raid on the capital of Silla, which ended up a failure. However, Goguryeo procured an advance base in the Namseonggol Fortress, Jungwon and Weolpyungdong, Daejeon through the Miho stream basin in about 484, which resulted in the cut off between the Baekje and Silla, recovering the overwhelming dominance over those two countries. Henceforth, both nations of Silla-Baekje laid stress on the defense against the Goguryeo. Though, Baekje founded the stepping stone to the stable development by recovering the Miho stream basin until 494. Silla stabilized its control over the upper Geum River as well as put pressure on the upper Namhan River valley. Goguryeo took a turn for the better preservation of the strong point in the Namhan River valley. In consequence, Three Kingdom's confrontation line maintained its relative stability until the violent collision between the Three Kingdoms around the Han River valley in the 6th mid-century.
  • 2.

    The Tactical Characteristics of Cavalry Horseback MartialArts in the Late Period of the Joseon Dynasty

    최형국 | 2009, (70) | pp.35~66 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study looked into the characteristics of basic cavalry tactics during the later Joseon period through Masangpyeongon utilized by cavalry during the later Joseon period, and how Masangpyeongon could be the essence of the then tactics. In particular, the study conducted not only literature research but also an analysis of actual arts delineated in Muye-dobo-tongji, and added a actual approach through the analysis and research. While waging the Imjin Japanese Invasion, Joseon realized the limitations of cavalry tactics, and organized a hand-to-hand fight approach introduced from Ming, China. However, it became necessary to adopt cavalry tactics swift in attacks and defends against an alien nation in the northern area again during the Ching period as well as for the Byeongjahoran. Such a tendency was also shown in Gwangmuje, a sort of the state examination during the Joseon period, and the test subjects of Gwangmuje during the later Joseon period included various arts, involving Gichu and Pyeongon which were for actual wars, unlike during the early Joseon period. Given the battle formation of Yonghoyeong composed of cavalry among other battle formations of Byeong-hak-tong which was published during the later Joseon period, and the tactics of cavalry during the battle, Masangpyeongon was approved to be a core assault weapon for cavalry during the late Joseon period. Furthermore, the battle formation which had been unique to cavalry, which was not shown in existing battle formation books, were diversely contained in Byeong-hak-tong. Therefore, cavalry was supposed to have consistently played a crucial role during the late Joseon period. When looking at the changes of military arts on horses during the early and late Joseon periods, Gichang had been mainly perceived as the core military arts in the preemptive strike and assault tactics during the early Joseon period, but Masangpyeongon was approved as the core of the military arts for cavalry assaults because of its rapid collection and easy portability during the later Joseon period. This fact is clearly revealed when considering the basic armament condition of cavalry during the later Joseon period. It was because Masangpyeongon which had been utilized as Hwando, basic defensive weapons for the basic armament of cavalry and bow along with assault weapons which had been used for remote distance attacks, was clearly documented during the period.
  • 3.

    Japanese Forces' Attack and Volunteer Corps' Resistance inthe Southern Coast after the Naval Battle of Myeong-ryang -On Activities of Choi Dae-seong in Volunteer Corps anda Battle at Anchi, Boseong-

    조원래 | 2009, (70) | pp.67~102 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is as follows. First, it is to investigate that the Japanese Army executed attacks mainly on the coast of Jeolla Province. There were two retaliatory attacks made by them. After the naval battle of Myeong-ryang, the southwestern coast of Jeolla Province was chiefly attacked in the first battle, and the army made attacks mainly on their eastern coast in the second battle. Second, this study is to reveal the activities of Choi Dae-seong in volunteer corps. His activities play an important role to reveal the truth of a battle at Anchi, Boseong, Jeolla Province. Third, this study investigates why Choi Dae-seong was not honored although he, one of the soldiers in few of armies in the cause of justice, fought against Japanese soldiers even when government troops evaded fighting against the Japanese Army. It is found that Admiral of the Naval Forces, Yi Sun-sin, reported Choi Dae-seong as a runaway soldier in the fierce battle where it was hard to get any news through somebody. Fourth, it is to investigate why his descendant and local scholars made request for reestablishing his impaired reputation and how they tried to correct a wrong record about him over one hundred years. At last, he restored his honor and secured government position and was promoted by a governmen after his death. But it remains a problem that he is still described as a runaway soldier in Seonjo-sillok and that it can not be corrected. That is, this study shows how significantly one wrong record has an effect on a history and people.
  • 4.

    A Study on Seogye Park Sedang's Spying for Ching,China

    김종수 | 2009, (70) | pp.103~136 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Seogye Park Sedang was most active after the mid-seventeenth century. In this period, China had the change of the dynasty from Ming to Ching, China. The change meant the reorganization of an international order in Eastern Asia. Then Joseon had to be adapted to the new international order which the Ching Dynasty led. At that period, dispatched envoys from Joesen to Peking tried spying called Jeomguk(覘國-secretly collecting information about a competitor or hostile country to decide how to act). Park Sedang also did that as an envoy. He spied out all the areas of Ch'ing-politics, economy, society and culture. Especially he centered on the movements of Ch'ing's military, the situation of the Ch'ing Dynasty, and the discrimination against the Han race(漢族) who had been Ming's people. After his spying, he found out that the Han race were seriously discriminated by Ch'ing's local government offices. The Ch'ing Dynasty was threatened by the counterforce-the South Ming Government(南明政權), Sambeon(三藩-one of the most powerful local families) and some marine forces secured a strategic point on Taiwan(臺灣). So the Ch'ing Dynasty's early political situation was somewhat unstable. However, the dynasty brought the counterforce under control step by step and had command of China. So its political situation was being stabilized. Park had placed his hope on the counterforce's rebellion against Ch'ing that could overthrow of the dynasty. Its stable political situation was contrary to Park's expectation. He had to give up his hope. After all, the results of his spying inspired Park to improve diplomatic relations with the Ch'ing Dynasty more closely in reality.
  • 5.

    Activities of the Donghak Peasant Army in theMokcheon Area and the Battle of Seseong Mountain

    Yangsik Kim | 2009, (70) | pp.137~169 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Mokcheon is an area in Cheonan City, in current Chungnam Province. Donghak had widely spread in this region in 1880. In 1883, Donghak scriptures had been published in this region and its total number of believers were increasing day by day. Therefore, the believers of Donghak had congregated in the assembly of Boeun that was organized in 1893, and also actively participated in the battle of Donghak Peasant Army in 1893. The Seseong mountain battle was the battle that broke out between the Donghak Peasant Army and the Government Forces. The size of the Donghak Peasant Army was 4,000. They were led by Kim Bogyong and Lee Huieun. They started reinforcing their arms from around September 30, 1894 after they occupied Seseong mountain. In order to secure the strategically important area while preparing the main force of the Donghak Peasant Army to attack Seoul. Against it, the Government Forces (Jangwiyeong Army), led by Lee Duhwang, departed Seoul on September 18. After passing by Cheongju and Boeun attacked the Donghak Peasant Army in Seseong mountain on October 21. The Government Forces surrounded Seseong mountain and attacked them. After a whole day of battle, the Donghak Peasant Army was totally defeated by the Government Forces.
  • 6.

    A Military Historical Approach about Ahn Jung-geun'stroops as the Korean Righteous Army

    Kiin Baek | 2009, (70) | pp.171~195 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the phases of the Korean Righteous Army's military operations by arms and tactical or strategic system. In order to achieve the purpose, I conducted the analysis on the Ahn Jung-geun's troops, which was active in the East Manzhou and the Maritime Province (Primorskiy krai) about 1909. I conclude as follows on the phases and its characteristics of Ahn Jung-geun's military operations against the Japanese Imperialism. First, Ahn's troop was also different from others's conditions. His troops had been used to the rifle such as matchlock or flintlock, and was gradually changing to the musket. His one revealed the mixture of traditional and modern weapons. When Ahn shot Ito Hirobumi at Harbin, his pistol was a Browning (Browning M1900 or M1903). Second, in the military formation and tactics, the Korean Righteous Army as a volunteer was naturally different from high structure and low structure. Their principle of military basic formation was 3-3-5-5 system, but their chain of command was weak and dispersed. Ahn's troops had 100 persons, they developed the way of small-sized military operation, so called guerrilla warfare. Even though Ahn had been full of military knowledge and operational capacity, his military operations were failure for discordance of command with the leaders around as a result. Third, conclusion concern that, although Ahn's troops were in the limited condition, his spirit for fighting against Japan be toward the peace. Therefore it means that his fighting against Japan by armed forces was only a limited measure. On that point, some people say that Ahn is a Romantist. In conclusion, even if Ahn was toward to fight Japan by dint of the Military Base, it seems that he stressed a peaceful intentions in spirit than the fighting, in that conditions.
  • 7.

    The Modern Japan's Total War Plan and theImperial Defense Policy

    장형익 | 2009, (70) | pp.197~229 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, which occurred in Sarajevo, triggered the outbreak of World War I in the summer of 1914. The war lasted longer than people's expectation, got into the long-term stage of position warfare, and spreaded throughout the world that had never been experienced before. In response of a protraction over 4 years and a massive attrition of the whole national resources, the participated countries poured their every energy into the war under the controlled economics. After the end of World War I, European countries recognized that the future aspect of war would be a total war and should prepare for the total war in peace time. Japan entered World War I on the part of the Allies on demand of the United Kingdom that was allied with Japan at that time. Besides, Japanese Army and Navy dispatched quite a few investigators to Europe to get the bearings of the situation. Through these activities, Japan began to recognize the brand-new concept of the total war that appeared in World War I. Based on the recognition of the total war, Japan carried out improving their organized equipments and expanding armaments that had not made better since the Russo-Japanese War. For the national defense, moreover, Japan began to recognize the importances of securing the industrial raw materials and expanding the industrial productivity as well as the well-organized mobilization plan and complete preparations. Thereafter, the Japanese military authorities from 1920's to 1930's continued revising their national defense policies and military strategies with developing the conception of a total war. National defense policies and military strategies of modern Japan was prescribed by the Imperial Defense Policy. It was the highest level of strategic documents. It was established in 1907 and amended three times in 1918, 1923 and 1936. The 1923 edition among the amendments was the first official document that represented Japan's cognition of total war. Though a number of reports and statements about total war was referred previously, it is the first time that this document was adopted as a official national policy. In the meantime, Japan's conception of total war was confronted with difficulties of the way to advance under the Establishment of the Washington and the postwar economic recession. This was due to the limitations of Japan like scanty natural resources and low industrial productivity. In the face of these limitations, the Japanese military authorities was divided into two groups. One insisted on the completion of the national power for carrying out a prolonged war like strengthening the civil economic power, while the other persisted in retaining a strong military strength in peacetime to attaining the purpose of war in a short period when the war occurred. This conflict about the national defense policy escalated into a fractional strife between the Army and the Navy. This conflict resulted in the amendment of the 1923 edition of the Imperial Defense Policy. At that time, the key positions in the high command was taken over the latter group that insisted on a short-term war. The Imperial Defense Policy amend by them was described on the ground of their strategies and operations. In addition, the requirements of war potential were appropriated by their military expansion plan.
  • 8.

    The Asia Pacific War and the Military Positions built inthe Southern Parts of Korea by the Japanese Forces

    sin ju back | 2009, (70) | pp.231~273 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This paper addresses the rough picture of military activities of the Japanese Forces just before the end of the Second World War in Korean Peninsular. In particular, the writer examines the history of the military strategic points and facilities built in the southern parts of Korea, Busan and Yeosu, by Japanese Forces to perform their strategic plan in the Korean territory. The key points in Busan and Yeosu were built in 1940s just after the War broke. Having roughly established for the purpose to fight against Russian Baltic Naval Forces during the Russo-Japanese Wars (1904-1905), the Gadeok-do Island position, Pojinji, were later re-modeled and enlarged in 1940s. And most of the facilities of the Pojinji position were made for the decisive battle against the Allied Forces in 1945. Though these positions were not divisions, they were under control of the Commander, 17th Division, which means the role and the benefits of these positions were not ignorable for the Japanese Forces. To keep Busan and Yeosu, critical channels connecting Japanese islands and the peninsular, under their control means they could secure the channel of transportation of necessary stuffs, or personnel, and it also showed their military strategy they would not allow any possible landing of the enemy in Busan or Yeosu port. In building the facilities many Koreans were forced to provide labour power; Korean soldiers forcefully registered by Japanese Forces and civilian residents in neighborhood as well were forced to build the positions day and night. As the case of Okinawa Battles shows, if any battle broke in the Korean Peninsular then Korean people would have been sacrificed as a shield against the bullets for the Japanese Forces in front of them. There is no any signpost of commemoration in these places. The history is just under way to be forgotten.
  • 9.

    A Study of the Development Stage at the South Korea-North Korea Military Affairs Negotiation Process

    Misook Lee | 2009, (70) | pp.275~314 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The development stage of South Korea-North Korea military affairs negotiation process are composed of the period of military affairs proposal, the one of military affairs sub-committee negotiation and the one of military affairs main-committee negotiation. The performance of military affairs committee negotiation and military affairs main committee were clearly difference at the mutual agreements. The performance of agreement didn't implement at the military affairs sub-committee, but, military affairs main-committee did one. However, as the result of investigation to the mutual agreement and the content of fulfillment to the South Korea-North Korea military affairs negotiation, the implementation of mutual agreement of military affairs used for the non-military objective than military one. North Korea objective was non-military one, South Korea one was military one. But, South Korea implemented North Korea proposal for the sustainable negotiation. Therefore, even though main-committee provided institutional frame as military affairs negotiation, the process was not sufficient at the content of mutual agreement and implementation of the military affairs. The implementation of military affairs main committee negotiation was first one of the pure military affairs part, be just rudimentary step as partial of military aids and military faith buildup within secure of non-military economical interest. It was far from arm reduction. But, a series of military affairs negotiation provided confidence building measures agenda become public understanding and the condition of discussion as South Korea-North Korea negotiation issue, can available prospect of enlargement of confidence building measures management between Sout Korea and North Korea.
  • 10.

    A Study on the US WMD Counter-proliferation Policy

    임채홍 | 2009, (70) | pp.315~350 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    WMD Counter-proliferation led by US DOD constitutes a part of national grand strategy as well as a core of new national security policy. Apart from international law and practices, so-called rogue states and non-state actors coaxes others to develop, produce and transfer WMD such as nuclear and chem-bio weapons, and ballistic missile since it causes huge damage to a superior enemy to themselves in cheap price. WMD proliferation has been constrained by the international nonproliferation regimes based on diplomatic negotiation in the past, but today, reportedly even UN Security Council faces their ongoing brinkmanship tactics with no substantive progress in solution for North Korean and Iranian nuclear cases. Now it is suspected that at least 25 countries possess or in the process of acquiring and developing capabilities to inflict mass casualties and destruction, and also predicted that those number will continue to be increased over years. The US Counter-proliferation Policy was initiated under the perception that nonproliferation policy of diplomatic means failed, and more practical, aggressive action involving military response is required since worldwide proliferation of WMD directly challenges US national interests. In December 1993 Leslie Aspin, the Clinton Administration's Secretary of Defense launched the Defense Counter-proliferation Initiative, followed by establishing the Counter-proliferation Council the mission of which is to supervise overall mission as for counter-proliferation-related works. The counter-proliferation objectives and direction of the Bush Administration are well explicated in a number of presidential speeches and three major policy declarations such as the National Security Strategy of the United States of America, National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction, and National Security Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Under the circumstances that global peace and stability are threatened by rogue states, terrorism, and the universalization of WMD, the US is to deter proliferation, restore the world order, and protect its vital national interests and security of the allies through a number of vehicles embracing PSI, MD, Global Partnership, and international cooperation.