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2009, Vol., No.73

  • 1.

    A Study on the Military System of Old Silla Dynasty

    Kim Jong Soo | 2009, (73) | pp.1~35 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The Silla was founded in the course of collapsing system of Li(禮) in the Jinhan alliance. In other words, while the solidarity of the Jinhan alliance was broken down as the productivity increased, Silla regime was established. The establishment of Silla included 6 counties around Jinhan area in a alliance form. Therefore, the military system during this period was operated as the Military System of 6 Bu consisting of the residents from the 6 counties. As Silla conquered the countries of the Jinhan alliance, the military power increased. In the early time, the Military System of 6 Bu consisted of approximately 1,000 soldiers and the military power increased as the war of conquest actively proceeded. During Isageum Adala Period, nearly 28,000 soldiers were called out for the war. This increase in military power is estimated to be due to the soldiers called out from the conquered countries. Thus, the military formation was divided into inner soldiers and outer soldiers. The inner soldiers are the central army force referring to the soldiers in 6 Bu and the outer soldiers are the army from the conquered countries (later belonged to Gun) referring to the local army force. The military formation during Maripgan was operated as 2 Bu system. The period when the early 6 Bu military system was remodified into 2 Bu system is estimated to be the Maripgan Nulgi Period. Maripgan Nulgi became the king after killing Isageum Silseong dignified by the soldiers of 6 Bu. After Maripgan Nulgi became the king, it seems he disorganized 6 Bu military system and remodified it into 2 Bu system. After this, Maripgan Nulgi established a dualistic military system in which the soldiers of Hewpu(喙部) are commanded by Maripgan and the soldiers of Sahwepu(沙喙部) by King Galmun. Although the 2 Bu system in Maripgan Period lent the exclusive monopolization of military power to the royal family Kim, it might induce the conflict among the royal family Kim. Thus, the 2 Bu military system was remodified into a unitary commander system in Junggo Period.
  • 2.

    The Territorial Meaning of Chugyeokcheo and Yogyeokcheo -Focused on the “North Jeseungbangryak” as a Military Systemat Hamgil(Hamgyeong) Province in the 15∼16th Centuries-

    Choi, Chang Kuk | 2009, (73) | pp.37~64 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The positions of Chugyeokcheo (a place which the Joseon Forces pursued enemies, Nüzhen) and Yogyeokcheo (a place which the Joseon Forces ambushed and defeated enemies), which were operated under the JeSeungBangRyak, were in the North Gando Area, north of the Tumen River (Jeseungbangryak was a military system at the Tumen, Hamgil (Hamgyeong) Province in Joseon Dynasty). It means that Joseon's view of territory was continent-oriented and not limited to the Korean Peninsula. Besides, it was related to the Northeast Nine Castles which were constructed by general Yoon Guan in Goryeo Dynasty(1107~1108). After General Yoon defeated Nüzhen who resided in the Tumen and North Gando, at that time he constructed the Nine Castles there. There have been various opinions about the area of Nine Castles. Under the colony-centered historical view, many experts have said that those castles were around the Hamheung plain. Recently, however, the theories which are explaining that the locations of Castles were around North Gando including Jilinsheng wangqingxian in China.  I already have asserted that Castles of Gongheomjin which was located in the most northest Castle was constructed at Chunyangzhen, Jilinsheng wangqingxian in China. Much to my entertainment, the area of Nine Castles and Chugyeokcheo ⋅Yogyeokcheo were alike. This fact is saying that the territory of Korea included f North Gando and is not limited at the Korean Peninsula. This thesis will make clear that the position of Chugyeokcheo and Yogyeokcheo was north of the Tumen, North Gando. From that thesis, I will examine Korea's magnificent view of territory and present the blueprint for Korea from the point of domain history.
  • 3.

    The Founding of the Republic of Korea Air Force andthe Increasing of the Air Power before the Korea War

    김경록 | 2009, (73) | pp.65~99 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This research progressed a details research of military field based on the Korean War. A details research is the air force operation of a war period while to the Korea war with an air power enforcement course. This research arranged the course which the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) is established. Research to see distinguished with the human asset to the air asset and arranged the power of the air force. The human asset arranged by the native, looked into an individual case unit install course and how arranged becoming a human structure. A human asset of the air force was processed to complex form due to various native. Japan Air Force native showed absolute predominance than the China Air Force native and these led the development with the setup maintenance of the ROKAF. The ROKAF concentrated the power in the course to progress as the army at the confirmed report of the fighter plane. The ROKAF could not prepare the fighter plane to the economy ability of the ROK and depended on the soldier assistance of the US. The US limited the ability of the ROKAF to the defense ability of the at least. The ROK requested the air control of the fighter plane strongly in the US. Various diplomacy activity of the ROK failed and was the low so that the ROK raised the fund and prepared the fighter plane. The Rhee Administration gathered the money to the condition which the pro-Japanese group does to pardon the crime. The ROKAF made efforts to overcome the situation to be the people and shortage of the aircraft before the Korea War.
  • 4.

    Reexamination of the Hwaryeongjang Battle andIts Military Meaning

    장삼열 | 2009, (73) | pp.101~139 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Studying history of war is the most effective way for military personnel who haven't participated in actual war to build a sense of war. In the same aspect, we're able to learn much about war from the history of Korean War. The Hwaryeongjang Battle, which I am trying to deal with in this paper, is the victorious battle that took place in 1950 from July 17th to July 25th, when the ROK (Republic of Korea) Army was conducting a delaying operation at Sobaek mountain range. After receiving information that North Korean troops were to attack towards the Sangju and Hwaryeongjang routes, the ROK Army gave a defensive order to the ROK 17th Infantry Regiment. The 17th Infantry Regiment prepared an ambush attack near Hwaryeongjang and conducted a surprise attack against two regiments under North Korean 15th Infantry Division. This is known to be one of the most considerable military achievements of the Korean War. Consequently, all troops including the regiment commander were specially promoted to a higher rank. The victory raised the morale of the ROK troops when the army was under adverse circumstances. Nevertheless, because of the lack of follow-up studies, the Hwaryeongjang Battle is not enough educated. Also, it seems that there is a tendency of incorrect recordings of the order of battle (OB) of the North Korean 15th Division and partial distortions of the combat progresses including operation map. In this paper, I tried to recompose the accurate combat progress from many angles based on the basic historical materials possessed and the updated data from the communists party. I analyzed lessons learned from the Hwaryeongjang Battle with a view of operational level and tactical level. Facing crisis, the ROK Army Headquarters gave several combat orders, reassigning available combat strengths and ordered the 17th Infantry Regiment to put an end to the North Korean troops' attacks towards Hwaryeongjang. The commander of the 17th Infantry Regiment made every effort to collect useful information and to utilize terrain to be fully prepared for combat and conducted the ambush attack successfully. From an operational aspect, the meaning of the victory in the Hwaryeongjang Battle is as follows. First, it frustrated North Korea's plan to surround and destroy the main body of the US 24th Division and the ROK 6th Division in the Sobaek mountain range. Second, it provided time for the ROK Army to reorganize units and adjust the frontline. Third, it contributed to the formation of the Busan Perimeter (Nakdong River Defense Line) to the UN Forces. From a tactical aspect, the lessons we learned are as follows. First, they were able to carry out an ambush attack at the right time because of continuous collection and utilization of informations. Second, they conducted a surprise attack successfully making full use of terrain. Third, they maximized the combat results with close command and control and concealment of attempt. Finally, they destroyed the main force as big as azedvision with only the combat strength of one regiment. This battle is recorded as a typical example of a small unit that achieved victory over a bigger unit. I hope that through this paper the Hwaryeongjang battle would be reexamined carefully in a military historical view, and that it would help encourage militarism among our ROK Army.
  • 5.

    The Contracting Negotiation and Outcome of the ROK andthe US Status of Forces Agreement during 1960's:the US Perception about Park Jung-hee Administration's Strategy

    UM JUNGSIK | 2009, (73) | pp.141~172 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article analyzed why the contracting negotiation of Status of Forces Agreement(SOFA) during 1960's had a conflict and reached an understanding. The Park Administration had a weak legitimacy due to getting power by the military coup, so at the beginning of their government, they totally tried to build favorable relationships with the United States(US). In fact, during the entire Park Administration period they had good relationships with the US such as the normalization between the Republic of Korea(ROK) and Japan, the Vietnam Dispatch of Korean Troops, the Deal of SOFA, and so on, even though there were conflicts with the US because of the North Korea's Provocation in 1968 and the Nixon Doctrine in 1969. If so, during favorable relationships between the two governments, why did the SOFA negotiation make a conflict? What was the Park administration's strategy to deal with the SOFA negotiation? How did the Park administration make a linkage between the normalization between the ROK and Japan, the Vietnam Dispatch of the ROK Troops? What was the effect of SOFA negotiation in this linkage? In these circumstances, how was the SOFA negotiation accomplished? This article focused on the SOFA negotiation after Park Jung-hee had succeeded in the transformation of the civilian government. After that, although the Park Administration had an inner conflict (Kim Chong-pil groups vs Anti-Kim Chong-pil groups), they had never changed the aims for a military security and an economic development. However, they definitely needed the support of the US to be successful in accomplishing a military security and an economic development. So they strategically approached the US by using the normalization between the ROK and Japan, as well as the Vietnam Dispatch of the ROK Troops. According to this article, after the success of transformation of the civilian government, the Park Administration more used the SOFA negotiation for a military security and an economic development than we assumed. In addition, they did not set an offensive position toward the US during the SOFA negotiation for maximizing the effect of the normalization between Korea and Japan, as well as the Vietnam Dispatch of the ROK Troops. Finally, the political process of the SOFA negotiation gave the Park Administration direct accomplishments (good results through visiting the US and the deal success) and indirect accomplishments (maximizing the effect of the normalization between the ROK and Japan, the Vietnam dispatch of the ROK troops). In the same manner, it gave the US direct accomplishments (substantial authority over the SOFA) and indirect accomplishments (support for the Park presidential election). In sum, the SOFA negotiation and its deal was a win-win strategy for the Park Administration and the US.
  • 6.

    Proliferation of Transnational Terrorism andCounter Strategies in the Post-Cold War Era

    김응수 | 2009, (73) | pp.173~207 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Following the Cold War era, violence has been reduced while the rapid flow of globalization has made its presence. There are constant efforts to overcome various crisis that continue to arise due to complicated international politics. It is important to note that this kind of threat has originated mostly from society, not from the political community. Weak nations, which see globalization as a threat of exploitation, inevitably form counter-hegemonic force against globalization. In addition, these conflicting values between weak nations and globalization will remain as a cause of complications, disruption, violence and trouble. The weak nations, suppressed by the logic driven by the stronger nations in international relations, will use armed force as a means of revolting against the existing governing order and disparages in that order, while on the other hand, the rulers, which are stronger nations, will use military power against the weak nations in response to their challenge and resistance to maintain their identity. This process was defined as terrorism. In the post-Cold War era, there has been little possibility of outright inter-state warfare, but the possibility of identity-based dispute has been on the rise. Conflicts between races, nations, regions and countries throughout the process of globalization could cause various forms of terrorism anywhere in the world. Recently, terrorism has reorganized as an asymmetrical threat to national security used to reach a particular political goal. This study defines the concept of terrorism, which has risen as a new, complex dispute from the perspective of international political studies, and establishes the fundamental causes of modern terrorism. In addition, it focuses on the background of the proliferation of transnational terrorism and international counter-strategies against terrorism. Considering the strategy and tactics of using minor disputes for their purposes, and the latent treat of cyber-terror and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) in the future, a global, multilateral anti-terrorism efforts should be developed. It is necessary to establish a more powerful international organization with the authority to exercise its role without interference, requiring all nations to change their original way of thinking, cooperate and maintain a positive manner. However, these measures could never be the fundamental solution to terrorism. To eliminate terrorism, an inevitable tool of weak nations vying to survive the process of globalization, the most important task is to put efforts into guaranteeing indiscriminate human rights. Also, rather than looking at management of the world order from an individual standpoint, such as the doctrine of Pax Americana, it is more important to follow the international order so as to maintain universal peace.
  • 7.

    The Republic of Korea Armed Forces' Civil Operationsin the Lebanon

    오홍국 | 2009, (73) | pp.209~246 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is to study on the civil military operations(CMO) of the ROK Armed Forces' overseas. After analysis of its activity from the Vietnam War to the Iraq War, main content of the CMO Eastern light unit' in Lebanon. The CMO of the Eastern light unit are best model to local people as well as the dispatch foreign troop unit. The commander of UNIFIL refer to set a high value on the ROK Armed Forces' CMO and military operation like as torch-carrier. The ROK Armed Forces' CMO carried out the principle of respect and consideration for the local people. The Lebanese of the region have acknowledged Eastern Light as their true friend and as a white-hand. Their all CMO activities have achievements above military operations that medical service and support to the social welfare facilities, the improvement of social infrastructure by pavement road, sports and cultural exchange and the support to LAF. The ROK Armed Forces' have been imaged as global Korea not only above activity, but also a variety of project that Hangul and computer classes, sewing course. This is compared with as world-friends Korea to KOICA, the ROK Armed Forces' are strengthened the position of world-peace Korea. A number of nations are improved the brand of nation participated peace-keeping activity. Therefore, it will be needed to participate for peace-keeping activity, we should have to priority that training unit and make a law in order to the dispatch troop unit overseas shortly. It also should be synchronized all efforts the each government branch when the decision of the dispatch troop unit. We have to make a variety concept of CMO and the management of CMO personnel. It also needed to build the friendship with them after close the mission. It should be the ground of history education the inspiration of pride as well as a commemorative exercises. In order to do that, we think that national competition throughout the image of strong force's although small size and real pursuit to peace of global. Conclusionally, this is all soldiers who contributed to the success of the CMO among PKF is to lessons learned through the Vietnam War CMO and the background by respect and consideration for humanity as well as wining the heart and minds.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Decision of Military Policies andCommand System in North Korea

    황성칠 | 2009, (73) | pp.247~281 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The decision of military policies and command system in North Korea are different from ordinary nations in characteristics. Firstly, the decision of military policies is made on Kim Jeong-il's own judgment with the reports submitted through the vertical channel without horizontal discussion of various policy issues by related agencies. Secondly, the fact that the policies are set up extemporaneously by a few persons around is helpful to quick decision making but it restricts the formation of reasonable and balanced policies by ignoring the actual situation of the field. It is impossible to decide or execute any policy directions without the approval of Kim Jeong- il. The centralized authoritarian rule has an advantage of making it easy to control. However, it can cause problems in two respects. Firstly, though Kim Jeong-il emphasizes that all the drafts of policies undergo policy agreement by related agencies in advance, the policies are usually decided and executed by the ratification of Kim Jeong-il and as a result decisions are made dually without the policy agreement in advance. Secondly, the influential group in special agencies such as the party or army may commit abuse of power and graft under the pretext of approved documents. Furthermore, there is no means of sanction if a coup breaks out against the regime when Kim Jeong-il cannot control the party due to health problem. The military command system in North Korea has a dual system controlled by the party and the army. The highest in the hierarchy are the Party Committee in the North Korean People's Army(NKPA) and the General Politburo in the NKPA, and the party organization and political agencies directly belonging to them are dispatched even to the terminal squad to control the military in substance. Such a dual command system makes it easy for the superior authorities to command quickly and exert integrated military power through a thoroughly centralized powerful control which does not allow the leeway of the commanders of individual military units. However, the superior authorities of the NKPA give detailed instructions and strictly control and watch the subordinate commanders with distrust while the subordinate commanders make operations inflexibly. As a result, their coping ability is weak when the situation suddenly changes or the information system between the top and bottom is disconnected. The study on the decision of military policies and command system showision othe military commander cannot control his military unit flexibly n ohis own wi mibut is a person in charge of the administron in cperating the military unit by the instruction of the General Politburo. As a result, they have limited flexibility compared to the commanders of the Republic charorea Armed Forces, and thus cannot cope actively with environnviral changes in time of emergency.
  • 9.

    An Social-Semiotic Analysis of Leaflets in theKorean War

    박현수 | 2009, (73) | pp.283~319 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study paid attention to the importance of communications involving leaflets at the Korean War in terms of psychological tactics and made an analysis of the social-semiotic features of the fliers scattered at the hostilities. In this connection, this survey took a close look at 42 kinds of leaflets strewn at the battle and looked into the general features and tendencies of the leaflets issued during the period from the perspective of social semiotics on the basis of the findings. The study was designed to examine how one can derive meanings from the images of the objects and how they correlate with broader semantic systems by reading images through the concepts of ‘social semiotics' when it comes to an analysis of leaflet images. With this in mind, this paper resorted to Kress, G.'s and van Leeuwen, T.'s social-semiotic approaches as a vehicle for focusing on visual signs. This study aimed at clarifying how the flier images were expressed with what image practices and symbols and what kinds of social meanings the signs conveyed through these techniques. The factors of this analysis may help to investigate the features of the fliers and to draw their logics and effects in light of social semiotics, which will offer a profound insight into the military strategies, the occupation policies, and the propaganda policies of the state parties concerned and the cultural acceptance of contemporary ideologies as well. The study shows that the South and the North forged mirror-image effects from the angles of their recognition of each other, their propaganda, and their ways of waging psychological wars and that both the states' leaflets displayed social-semiotic characteristics: the ideology-based puppet- regime claims of the parties, their military strategies and their ways of waging wars, a big difference in each state's philosophy on wars and the leaflets using their tactical psychology operations. The standardizing tendencies of visual communications based on mass media and the Internet, or currently dominant visual languages, should be kept in mind in preparation for future war. It is necessary that a wide diversity of social-semiotic application should, as far as various visual representations are concerned, be made by combining the vividness that attracts the attention of viewers with persuasive communications designed to deliver messages to propagandize and to evoke the emotions that one wants.
  • 10.

    The Type and Arrangement Plan of theUS Military Archives During the Korean War

    마정춘 | 2009, (73) | pp.321~350 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Since 2000 numerous councils on past affairs were created and in result examination on truth such as civilian compensation and regaining impaired reputation during the Korean War along with general social attention on modern and contemporary history have excited the interest on the United States (US) Military Archives. The US Army Archives are documents produced by the US Army who were handed over the operational command. They contain the general set of strategies, tactics, personnel and administrative work during the Korean war. there is a problem of each collected the US Army Archive being categorized in one criteria of Korea related archives located abroad regardless of their characteristics. In order to resolve such a problem this research have organized a new archive management department. Even if the categorization method of original source is unknown if domestic institutions manage through a huge archive management department called the US Army Archives management department, users will experience maximized efficiency in usage. Also the US Army Archives are not documents that are transferred by administration ministries based on archive management law but rather have characteristics of manuscripts that are collected in small amounts with allocated budged on national institutions when needed. So far it is limited to NARA possessed documents but in the future archives such as random collections on numerous items, files, and series of data from McArther memorial hall or President Truman memorial library will be collected depending on the research task projects or research tasks of council on past affairs. By placing each group from the sub level of archive management department in order, effective use and systematic management will be possible.