Following the Cold War era, violence has been reduced while the rapid flow of globalization has made its presence. There are constant efforts to overcome various crisis that continue to arise due to complicated international politics. It is important to note that this kind of threat has originated mostly from society, not from the political community. Weak nations, which see globalization as a threat of exploitation, inevitably form counter-hegemonic force against globalization. In addition, these conflicting values between weak nations and globalization will remain as a cause of complications, disruption, violence and trouble.
The weak nations, suppressed by the logic driven by the stronger nations in international relations, will use armed force as a means of revolting against the existing governing order and disparages in that order, while on the other hand, the rulers, which are stronger nations, will use military power against the weak nations in response to their challenge and resistance to maintain their identity. This process was defined as terrorism.
In the post-Cold War era, there has been little possibility of outright inter-state warfare, but the possibility of identity-based dispute has been on the rise. Conflicts between races, nations, regions and countries throughout the process of globalization could cause various forms of terrorism anywhere in the world. Recently, terrorism has reorganized as an asymmetrical threat to national security used to reach a particular political goal.
This study defines the concept of terrorism, which has risen as a new, complex dispute from the perspective of international political studies, and establishes the fundamental causes of modern terrorism. In addition, it focuses on the background of the proliferation of transnational terrorism and international counter-strategies against terrorism.
Considering the strategy and tactics of using minor disputes for their purposes, and the latent treat of cyber-terror and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) in the future, a global, multilateral anti-terrorism efforts should be developed. It is necessary to establish a more powerful international organization with the authority to exercise its role without interference, requiring all nations to change their original way of thinking, cooperate and maintain a positive manner.
However, these measures could never be the fundamental solution to terrorism. To eliminate terrorism, an inevitable tool of weak nations vying to survive the process of globalization, the most important task is to put efforts into guaranteeing indiscriminate human rights. Also, rather than looking at management of the world order from an individual standpoint, such as the doctrine of Pax Americana, it is more important to follow the international order so as to maintain universal peace.