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2010, Vol., No.74

  • 1.

    The Making of the Korean Military Art and Science in AncientKorea and Her's Reception of the Chinese Military Works

    Kiin Baek | 2010, (74) | pp.1~34 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Military tradition at the Gojoseon is origin of military philosophy in the Korea. She was early nation at the Bronze Age and the early Iron one, be certain that weapon was manufactured and used, the thought of heavenly Gods and chosen-people appeared when the ruler reinforced governing philosophy. Especially, she was intense about militarism and military- oriented character, did hard line with neighbor nations. By the geological condition, she did the first defense the later attack strategy as defensive one, this one was inherited to the Goguryeo. Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla overflowed martial spirit at the overall society. As ancient nation character, the Three State overall society had firm military appearance. The Silla occasion, owed national level concern and promotion with Buddhism and the code of Silla chivalry, martial spirit and defense spirit sublimated national spirit value. At the Silla society, it can noticeable that loyalty and filial piety thought decide their sense of nationalism and sense of life of death with Buddhism. But, the formerly strategy was introduced before acceptance of China military science book at the Three States. Goguryeo strategy was composed of burnt ground tactics and let hard work our side rest tactics to cope China traditional tactics ‘separation movement combining attack’ this kind defense fortress warfare induced attrition one to erase enemy capability, established 2 fortress defense system with plain fortress to use natural terrain and mountain fortress.  The Three States generalized military science knowledge without critical mind when they accepted China any military science books. Bubunno played active role at the Hsianpei invasion at the BC 9, Eulduji did at the later Han’s Liaodung Forces invasion at the AD 98, Myeorimdabu confronted against Gyeomrimgun, Han minister at the AD 172, Goguryeo produced this military science master. Especially, the strategy by the Myeorimdabu got many points at the tactical principle side with Suntza ping or the other any military theory, even though it was not exactly coincide with them. Goguryeo Strategy and tactics defeated Han forces at the Choawon Battle in nov, 172 AD, this result was originated by the accumulation of Goguryeo military science. Anyway, the Three States introduced Buddhism or Confucianism from China, accepted Chinese character, too. The China military science book propagated to the Three States with the Chinese character introduction. But, it is considered that they had firm development intention to further own military science than China military science. Furthermore PaekJe men handed down military science to the Japan at the Three States days. It is not certain that introduction military science to Japan, Baekje own one or China one, be evaluated that a part correspond to the Baekje style mountain fortress. After Unified Silla, military science or military book clearly appeared. Ankuk tactics appeared at the AD 766. Mr. Kim Am learned necromancer magic at the Tang dynasty, wrote modifying reality doctrine, appointed Sacheon great master when he returned home, taught 6 battle formation at the off-season for farming. It was great fashionable tactics at the Tang dynasty, introduced and applied to the Silla, this fact inform that she maintained battle formation study and development.
  • 2.

    Silla's Black Long-pikeman(新羅 黑衣長槍末步幢)

    Seo Young Kyo | 2010, (74) | pp.35~68 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Spear-armed troops continued to be important elements in many armies until the advent of reliable firearms. The Long-pike(長槍) was the spear used by the Ancient Silla(新羅) Forces. The actual length of the Long-pike(長槍) is now unknown, but apparently it was twice as long as the doru. This makes it at least 14 feet (about 4.3m), but 18 feet (about 5.5m) appears more likely. The great length of the spear was balanced by a counterweight at the rear end, which also functions as a butt-spike, allowing the Long-pike(長槍) to be planted into the ground. Due to its great length, weight and differing balance, a Long-pike(長槍) was wielded two- handed. This meant that the aspis was no longer a practical defense. Instead, the Long-pikeman(長槍步兵) strapped a smaller pelte shield (usually reserved for light skirmishers-peltasts) to their left forearm. Although this reduced the shield wall, the extreme length of the spear prevented most enemies from closing, as the spears of the first three to five ranks could all be brought to bear in front of the front row. This spear had to be held underhand, as the shield would have obscured the soldier's vision had it been held overhead. It would also be very hard to remove a Long-pike(長槍) from anything it stuck in (the earth, shields, and soldiers of the opposition) if it were thrust downwards, due to its length. The Silla(新羅) Long-pikeman(長槍步兵) phalanx could also lose its cohesion while moving through broken terrain; doing so could create gaps between individual blocks/syntagmata, or could prevent a solid front within those sub-units as well, causing other sections of the line to bunch up.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Yongxi North Invasion inEmperor Taizong Period of the Song Dynasty

    PARK JIH HUN | 2010, (74) | pp.69~104 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    In the history of China the relations between the Song and Liao Dynasty are very important. While pursuing various exchanges of political, economic, and cultural areas, the two nations had pursued almost similar policies to realize the grand national unification of China. In that respect, the Yongxi North Invasion(雍熙北伐) was one of the most important events in the relations between the Song and Liao Dynasty. With this battle, the two nations of Song and Liao started to keep a long period of confrontation. Especially, the Battle of Qigouguan(岐溝關) produced many important meanings as a big incident in the history of warfares between the two countries. This paper is an analysis of the relations between Song and Liao in the period of before and after the Yongxi North Invasion, centered around their causes to effects, characteristics of the warfare. The invasion was made without any consideration of the other peoples like Qidans or Hans as they were all small ethnic groups belonging to the whole China. From this perspective, Yongxi North Invasion can hardly be said to be a war of justice. Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty came to throne in October, 976 A.D. After he became a emperor, he wanted to recover the old lost territories to the north. The emperor wished to establish a bid unified nation by conquering the northern land occupied by Liao Territory, the southern land by Hans and the other disobeying nations. It is important to note that this hostile policy of Taizong was originated from his personal wish to keep his own political power. In June, 979 A.D. the Song army marched into Liao in order to conquer the area of Yanyun(燕雲). But they were almost completely destroyed at the battle of Gaolianghe(高梁河). In January, 986 A.D., Emperor Taizong made the North Invasion into Liao with an army of 300,000 soldiers whom he forwarded in three different directions. At that time, as Emperor Liao Shengzong(聖宗) was still young, his mother Chengtienhou(承天后) presided over all political decision makings. Taizong wanted to use this unstable political and military conditions in Liao. Unexpectedly, however, Taizong big army were utterly defeated by the Liao Forces. Though he lost a battle at Qigouguan, however, the emperor resumed his attack on Liao and he made victories in 4 regions. In July of the same year, in the Song army were defeated again at the battle of Shouzhou(朔州) County. In December of the same year, Song was defeated again by Liao's General Yeluxiuge(耶律休哥) at Junziguan(君子館). With this defeat, Song could not help but change its original attack policy to a defense policy. The Yongxi North Invasion made a great social influence on both Song and Liao Dynasty. This was the biggest battle between the two nations. With this battle the Song Dynasty tragically suffered from a war-failure pains. There are several important reasons for this failure. The battle was started for the maintenance of political power. Taizong could not make an objective estimation of the military power of the two countries. He was poor in establishing his military strategies, without consideration of geographical conditions. Meanwhile, the Liao Forces were better in the military organization and training. They had a well-trained soldiers on horse backs with new weapons and good logistics system. With the failure at the Yongxi North Invasion, the great majority of high officials in Song became more suspicious about the possibility to recover the 16 counties of Yanyun to the north. Anti-war opinions became more strengthened. Officials repeatedly submitted their supplications of anti-war. Some criticised that the North Invasion was a mistake from the beginning. And others argued that they should pacify their people, normalizing the relations with Liao. Since the late Tang Dynasty, China was separated for a long time. Reaching Liao-Song Period, a general consensus for a great reunification of China freshly appeared. This was what people wanted, a majority of opinion. Under these circumstances, the two countries of Song and Liao separately, one after another, unified the regions of in each neighborhood. Finally, the two nations succeeded in occupying about the half of China. It created a long-lasted confrontation between Southern and Northern dynasty. In order to unite these two nations, they needed a whole unification of China. The two nations of Liao and Song tried to realize the unification by the policy of defeating the other nation. But the war had lasted for many years and they both realized that none of them could reach the goal because of their similar military power. They came to know that it was still early to realize a grand unification of China. With this realization, the two nations came a cease-fire treatment, dividing the whole China in two big political bodies.
  • 4.

    Transformation of the Military Tradition in the EarlyJoseon Dynasty and Military Training of the Jinbeop(陣法)

    김동경 | 2010, (74) | pp.105~138 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The Owiejinbeop(五衛陣法) which can be regarded as the culmination of military philosophy in the early Joseon Dynasty composes the balanced structural military formation between cavalry and infantry. Along with national security issues, such as concern about massive invasions from Ming, China and Mongol Tribes (Tartary, Oirat), military formations in the early Joseon Dynasty developed from Jinbeop(陣法), Jindojibeop(陣圖之法), Gechukjinseol(癸丑陣說), to Owijinbeop(五衛陣法). As such military formations in the early Joseon Dynasty, in military perspective, transformed from mobile warfare that suppresses local limited warfare to decisive warfare by massive forces. It can be shown that way of war also changed from local conflict to total war. In cultural perspective, Agricultural settler's of the Joseon Dynasty faced the dilemma when pursuing Nomadic military tradition to secure large quantity of military manpower in terms of high- quality cavalries, and the Joseon Dynasty's military characteristic changes to that of settlers. Therefore, it can be referred that paced with development of military formation in the early Joseon Dynasty, the Joseon's way of war-performance and military tradition is transformed.
  • 5.

    The Battle Formation andNaval Weapons Employment of the Joseon Navy

    김병륜 | 2010, (74) | pp.139~177 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is to study on the Battle Formation and naval weapons employment of the Joseon Navy. In pre-modern battles, Battle Formation is a core element that affects the outcome towards a victory or a defeat. The focus of this thesis is to analyze which Battle Formation of the Joseon Navy was introduced, systemized, and changed. The Royal court records of the Joseon Dynasty in 1451, titled the Neo-Regulation of Battle Formation(Sin-Jinbeob⋅新陣法) explains Battle Formations, including the Battle Formation of Hagik(鶴翼陣). and a military tactical manual of the Joseon Dynasty in 1492, titled the Battle Formation(Ohwi-Jinbeob⋅五衛陣法) contains references to Battle Formations as well. A Battle Formations that has been recorded in the Neo-Regulation of Battle Formation was originally from the Army. But, Officers Personnel management System between the Army and Navy that it does not separate. Therefore, Regulation about the Battle Formation that had been used in the Army was naturally dispersed into the Navy as well. The Armed Forces of the Joseon Dynasty introduced Chinese General Qi Ji-guang's Art of War in the Imjin War. General Qi Ji-guang's Art of War was first introduced and adopted into the Army at the end of the 16th Century. As years passed, General Qi Ji-guang's Art of War spread to the Joseon Navy a well. In the late 18th Century, the ratio of Qi Ji-guang's Style Battle Formations was 50% on the Joseon Navy's Exercise Manual. Because there was no strict separation of the Army and Navy during the Later Period of the Joseon Dynasty, the diffusion of the Art of War into both organizations was not a surprising event. Rather, it was a natural occurrence of the closely communication and changing roles within these closely-tied organizations. It was regular practice to have Naval gun's fire from a distance of 240m from hostile ships during the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty. It fires a longer distance because the hit probability is very low. However, the reloading time was slow, and this was problematic for battle situations. However, because of the slow reload rate, the Joseon Navy use not only canons but also smaller weapons such as handheld Bomb, Arquebus. The Joseon Navy retained the use of archers during this period as well. Therefore, Archers continued to serve as one of the main methods of combat in the Navy Warships during the Later Joseon Dynasty.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Korean War and Foundation of theROK-US-Japan Cooperation

    이종판 | 2010, (74) | pp.179~215 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study considered the progress in which the US and Soviet those were the Allied Nations went into the hostile relation, the US and Japan those were the hostile country went into the allied relations, Japan and the Republic of Korea(ROK) those were exclusive each other formed the cooperation system mediated by the US through post-war settlement process of the Pacific War, progress of the cold war and the Korean War. In sum, This results are as the followings. First, after the Pacific War, the US wanted Japan to be joined in order to prepare for the war against the Soviet as the cold war had been gradually aggravated in the post-war settlement process. On the other hand, the ROK was a symbol of the political prestige but strategically less important to the US. This was a dilemma of the US. The US intended to resolve this problem by transferring this from the US-Soviet Committee to the UN. Second, in September 1951, the peace treaty which means the legal conclusion of the Pacific War was made with focusing on the US and excluding the Soviet. In the same day, the US intended to exploit this for defending the free world by remilitarizing Japan through the US-Japan Security Treaty. Meanwhile, in October 1, 1953, it is for obtaining the agreement and cooperation of Syngman Rhee with regard to the cease-fire that the Eisenhower Administration made a mutual defence treaty with the ROK. Japan, however, declined the remilitarization by insisting the nation's and economy condition. Then, the US accepted the division of Korea as a reality and recognize Korea as a new contributor to the Pacific Security. The base of the today's Korea-US-Japan cooperation is the ROK-US Security Treaty and the US-Japan Security Treaty. To the US, for the security of the Pacific obtained through the war against Japan, Korea and Japan are recognized as the first and second defence line, respectively. To Japan, the existence of the ROK is considered the defence wall of the anti-communism, and rear-supporting such as providing the US strategy with bases and facilities in return for the security free-riding by the US Forces. To the ROK, for responding to the invasion from the communism, it can be blocked by the ROK-US alliance and supported from the rear side by the US-Japan alliance. Moreover, the US-Japan Security Treaty plays a role as a bottle cap restraining the enhancement of Japanese military power because the US is mainly in charge of the Japanese defense, so that the security of the ROK feared by Japanese armed threat is guaranteed. In other words, in the US-Japan Security Treaty it is stipulated that they contributes to the world peace and security keeping in the Far East, and the ROK-US security treaty said that they respond cooperatively to the armed attack from outside in the Pacific area. Thus, the application range of the ROK-US Security Treaty is more wider than that of the US-Japan Security Treaty. This is the US' intention of tying Japan in the Far East by controling the Japanese advance to the Pacific.
  • 7.

    The Issue of the Kurile Islands between Russia and Japan:A Case of the San Francisco Peace Treaty

    CHOI TAI-KANG | 2010, (74) | pp.217~244 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper will be examined the issue of the disposition of the Kurile Islands in the San Francisco Peace Treaty. Why did the territorial problem between Japan and USSR come to be left unresolved in the Treaty? This paper will be given the answer why both sides can not so far sign a peace treaty since the end of the Second World War. In tracing the origins of the current dispute, the point of departure is the secret agreement among the Allies in Yalta in February 1945. The issue of the Kuriles Islands was set in place. Although the Cold War intervened the resolve of the territorial issues between Japan and USSR, with post-cold war era Japan-Russia countries do not still resolve this issue without the foreign intervention, especially USA. The Cold War wedge left between Japan and the USSR remains to this date.
  • 8.

    Strategic Culture of the Modern Chinaand Way of War

    Changhee Park | 2010, (74) | pp.245~280 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This research deals with what strategic culture of modern China has been and how it has been reflected in contemporary wars. Firstly, I will review current debates on Chinese strategic culture and suggest some points to analyse Chinese strategic culture. Next, I will examine Mao Tse-dung's strategy and the Chinese Civil War to figure out the origin of modern China's strategy. Then, the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979 which was the most recent war of China will be studied as a case to prove the validity of those hypotheses suggested. It would be undeniable that China has had the strategic culture of Confucian-Mencius Paradigm which was based on Confucianism. China has shown its tendency to limit the use of force and consider war as a last resort in the Korean War, the Sino-India War, and the Sino-Vietnamese War. And, China has regarded the use of force as a means to achieve political purpose. However, while those strategic behaviors are totally consistent with Confucian-Mencius Paradigm in appearance, they seem to have fundamentally different context with the strategic culture of the past Chinese empire. That is, the Modern China's Strategy has been the Weaker's Strategy to counter the stronger enemies like the US and the Soviet Union, not the Empire's Strategy to deal with the weak neighboring states. China's strategy, therefore, even though it has continuity of traditional strategic culture of Confucianism, can be best understood as mixed with the realistic Para-bellum Paradigm to overcome its vulnerability of weakness.
  • 9.

    Groping the Inter-Korean Confidence-Building Measures:Focus on the International Case Study and Historic Lessons

    장용운 | 2010, (74) | pp.281~308 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    For over half a century after the korean war on the Korean Peninsula a place ‘boundary area’ or ‘forward area’ has physically separated North and South Korea, standing as a constant reminder of the wretchedness of modern Korean history. and yet, the Demilitarized Zone(DMZ), the border area that cuts across the center of the Korean Peninsula continues to bear the arms of confrontation under faded ideological flags. The purpose of this paper is groping the inter-Korean confidence building measures forward to coming days. The political atmosphere of the present Korean Peninsula is ‘dark’ and ‘gloomy’. Moreover. present inter-Korean relations are opacity. However, without Confidence-Building Measures(CBMs), communication and cooperation between the two divided states will be limited. To accomplish a peaceful Korean Peninsula, we must draw upon successful international experience of CBMs. The one is the Arab-Israel Conflict and its resolution in the Sinai Peninsula, the other one is the India-China Conflict and its agreement on the maintenance of peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control(LAC) in the India-China Border Areas. In this paper, I have tried to understand the reality and the problem of the inter-Korean CBMs, and to find the lesson of the foreign CBMs. In this respect, we need the firm belief and the will of the leadership to make the inter-Korean CBMs, and through the CBMs of border areas, we should approach to the peaceful coexistence system of the Korean Peninsula.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Factor and Process of National Defence Military Service Policy Change -With Focus on the Kingdon's Policy Stream Model-

    고시성 | 2010, (74) | pp.309~349 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, the cases related to National Defence Military Service are analyzed based on the model of Kingdon's Policy Stream. The followings are the detail of this result. First of all, there are three streams in Kingdon's theory-the stream of problems, of policies and of politics-and the stream of policies is the most important factor in Korean Military Service policy among three streams. Second, Kingdon insist that the three streams flow regularly and dynamically and they are simultaneously meet at some time at one point called ‘Policy Window’ and eventually, they cause political change. However, it is analyzed that if one country like korea has relatively less specialized or highly centralized political system, the three streams are not essential to be met to cause political change. Third, invisible political participants play more important part in a democratized political system and policy entrepreneurs play a decisive role in the policy stream model. There are three predictable political fields under the basic condition of the national policy. First, considering security environment of the inside and outside of the country and politics⋅economics⋅a nation's sense of value, how the period of military service should be adjusted is be predictable. Second, Alternative Military Service System would be phased out and it would be substituted by Society Service System to deal with the men who refuse to serve out military service because of their religion or conscience. Third, it is also expectable which policy is better between remaining compulsory draft system as it is and replacing present system with voluntary draft system. In conclusion, what we could understand during the fluctuation of korean military service policy is that although political influence would be most important variable in process of a policy decision, the decision should be rationally made by open and democratical procedure in the whole period of decision-making process. In addition, to establish the most suitable and reliable policy with keeping abreast of the world's security trend and satisfying a nation's demand, both visible decision-making participant such as president and high officials and invisible participant such as scholars, expertises and the persons interested should make a political community to improve military policy continuously.