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2010, Vol., No.75

  • 1.

    The Korean War(1950-1953), Refurbished Propositions, Proposals Be Solved

    온창일 | 2010, (75) | pp.1~39 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean War(1950-1953) has been known as a local-limited war in the total-war age. It was local and limited in terms of the location of battle-ground, the selection of military targets, the weapons systems employed, and the way to end the fighting. The war-zone was limited in the Korean Peninsula, Pyeongyang and Rajin were excluded from the UN bombing list until the Communist side became intransigent on the rule of Prisoners of War(POW) exchange at the truce talks, the nuclear devices were not used in spite of some demonstration through the military exercise of dropping a moke atomic bomb. Furthermore, the Korean War was not ended in a traditional way to distinguish the victor from the loser. Rather, it produced the two victors by terminating the fighting in a way of not unlimited but limited way, that is, an honorable armistice. In this regard, the Korean War could be defined as a local-limited war in the nuclear age. However, the Korean War was not limited for the Koreans themselves. The Koreans, either of North or South, were not able to recover the status-quo ante-bellum by themselves. Without the intervention of the United States through the UN, the South could not defend their country and recover the 38th Parallel, too. The North Koreans could not regain their own territory should the Chinese troops not intervene. For this reason the Korean War was not a limited but rather a super-total war for the Koreans, because the Koreans, either of North or South, despite they spent all their expendable efforts and available resources, could not restore their own government and territories anti-bellum by themselves. Also, the Korean War was not limited in an ideological terms, because it was a proxy war, in a sense, between the East and West blocs, championed by the Soviet Union and the United States. As a result, almost all countries, even Sweden and Switzerland, of the world took part in the fighting in one way or another from sending fighting soldiers, supplying weapons and equipments, medical services, assuming a role of facilitating or supervising the Armistice Agreement to even expressing verbal supports or oppositions. Even after the UN and Communist sides agreed to a demarcation line on November 27, 1951, the two sides could not accept the other side insistence on the rule of POWs exchange, that is, “forced" of the Communists and “voluntary" of the UN side. For this reason the two sides had to fight the war for another 20 months, more than half of the war period. Because of the ideological nature of the Korean War, the two sides, especially, Stalin(Joseph V. Stalin, 1879-1953), the head of Social Communism, and Truman(Harry S. Truman, 1884-1972), the champion of Free Capitalism, did not budge an inch on the issue of principle. Only after the death of Stalin(March 1953), the Communist side accepted the principle of free exchange of POWs, and both sides finish the fighting on July 27, 1953. In fact, the Korean War was an ideological war as much as military one. The Korean War has left several important propositions to remember on the military and political matters, especially, the issues relating to war and peace. The exclusive nature of ideological coherence of communism transcend over the identity of the same race, which made the Korean War as a fratricidal war, no less cruel than a traditional war among nations. And this very nature also prolonged the war and contributed to ending the fighting with no end, a temporary truce, that was an unstable peace. Again, the Korean War proved the vitality of an old Latin proverb, “if you wish for peace, prepare for war," and one British military historian's advice, “if you want peace, understand war." Shrewd enough, North Koreans employed a camouflaged peace as a means of conducting war so that they could achieve strategic and tactical surprise from the very beginning of the fighting. On the other hand, South Koreans believed this camouflaged peace as a real one, especially, the South Korean military did not perceive the danger of this disguised peace. Another proposition was the importance of alliance and unified military operations to conduct and win the battles and campaigns between the indigenous troops and the allied forces, because, without the helps of the UN championed by the United States and of the Chinese troops manipulated by the Soviet Union, both Koreans of the North and South could not reestablish their own governments and territories. In this way, the Korean War has refurbished important propositions well known before. In many senses, the Korean War fixed the division of the Korean Peninsula, first imposed for political reasons, in military way. But the North Koreans have conducted another nature of war, that is, a subversive war against the Republic of Korea(ROK) since the end of the fighting, employing all kinds of means from extremely peaceful to violent. Fortunately, the Republic of Korea, with the help of security guarantee from the US-ROK Mutual Defense Treaty relationship, has prevented the escalation of this war and achieved a great economic success, though the North Korean Government is still blackmailing the south employing nuclear and missile devices. Being faced these facts and strategic environments, nevertheless, the ROK Government and people should find the ways and means to keep peace in and outside the Korean Peninsula and to reunify the Koreans in a peaceful way through strengthening the self-defense and self-sustaining capabilities of their nation and regime. Maintaining peace in and outside the Korean Peninsula and finding the ways and means to reunify the Korean people in a peaceful way are the proposals to be solved and achieved that the Korean War has bestowed on, especially, the ROK.
  • 2.

    The CCF's 2nd Attack of the 5th Offensive and the US IX Corps' Jiam-ri Envelopment & Hwacheon Offensive Operations

    장삼열 | 2010, (75) | pp.41~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The US IX Corps' Jiam-ri envelopment and Hwacheon advancement operations were a valuable battle in which the corps defended Chinese Communist Forces' (CCF) 2nd attack of the 5th offensive effectively and conducted counter-offensive resolutely, then enveloped and destroyed the CCF units who had advanced to the South of the 38th Parallel. In this essay, the focus is on the research of Jiam-ri envelopment battle & Hwacheon power-station restored by the US IX Corps during the UN Forces' 3rd offensive. I recomposed the planning process of the operations from many angles by referring to materials such as US IX Corps Command Report which was recently declassified and other documents published in the US and China. I summarized the battle records up until leading elements of the US 24th Division and US 7th Division had linked in the area near Mapyeong, which is described differently in all war history, through realistic battle development. I also reorganized the destruction process of the CCF 180th Division. Moreover, I analyzed the effects of the Infantry-Tank Task Force (TF) employed by the US IX Corps against the CCF units and the reaction of CCF against the US TF. The process of the destruction of CCF units near Jiam-ri by the ROK 6th Division and the process of the occupation of the Hwacheon power-station after they changed the operational zone, were reorganized, too. For user-based war history research, I used operational direction, culminating point, operational maneuver and tempo, integrated fires, substantiality, and psychological warfare as analysis frames. I especially analyzed the limits of CCF's operations substantiality and advantages of the US IX Corps' operational maneuver and tempo by comparing them. The US IX Corps' offensive looks like an operation initiative battle with the CCF. The CCF tried to recover from the failure of the 1st attack in the 5th offensive by envelopment and annihilation of the ROK Armed Forces located in the east area. However they suffered massive casualties by the counter-offensive of the US 8th Army, who had superior firepower and maneuver. As a result it provided a strategic turning point for the truce negotiation, caused the CCF to come to the negotiation table without further huge attack. I wish that readers could understand the combat process and results of the ROK 6th Division operations destroying an estimated 2 CCF divisions in the Jiam-ri envelopment annihilation which was part of the US IX Corps operations, would be reexamined correctly through this paper. I also hope that our military minds would be enhanced.
  • 3.

    The Influence of the United States Military Policies for the Republic of Korea upon the ROK Naval Power during the Korean War - Focused on the Operations, Tactics Doctrine and Professional Manpower -

    임성채 | 2010, (75) | pp.85~116 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the end of the World War Ⅱ, the United States occupied South Korea and passively supported South Korea with military assistance after due consideration of the political and military dynamic relationship with the Communist power. After North Korea's invasion broke out in 1950 on the Korean Peninsula, the United States judged it as a challenge from the Communist power and dispatched troops, supported the Republic of Korea (ROK) with military assistance actively. The United States received a commission of operational control authority from United Nations and conducted a war with the UN Forces under the command of the US to achieve the objective of war which was to repulse the North Korean People's Army (NKPA) behind the latitude 38 degrees north and regain the territories. The US established the operational command system, and chose a direct military assistance method by the US Forces such as tanks, warships, aircraft, ammunition and oil for the participants in a war at the local areas in order to attain the objective of war effectively. Meanwhile, as the war was prolonged and temporarily suspended, KMAG made an effort to cultivate a manpower of the ROK Armed Forces that ROK independently operate its military for the future. Then, the US, who judged that the objective of war had been achieved, concluded the Armistice Agreement with the Chinese Communist Forces and the NKPA, and also entered into the Mutual Defense Treaty with the ROK as its measure. In this way, the strategies and policies that the US carried out during the war had an impact on the development of ROK Naval Power as well as after the Armistice Agreement. The influence can be divided into two categories, short-term impacts during the war and long-term impacts after the armistice, As for the short-term impacts during the war, a primary factor on each part and reinforcement level of ROK Naval Power is as follows. 1. The main factor of the development of the ROK Navy's operational and tactical doctrine is the combined operations of the United Nation Navy. The ROK Navy was able to acquire the operational and tactical doctrine of an advanced navy through a variety combined operations such as blockades, convoy operations, amphibious operations, mine sweeping operations and naval gunfire support operations. Also, the ROK Navy originally exploited operational and tactical doctrine that is suitable for the geographical conditions in Korean Peninsular. It was a huge acquisition that the ROK Navy obtained the doctrine in a short period of three years whereas other advanced nations had developed for several decades. 2. The support from KMAG affected the cultivation of manpower of the ROK Navy. The ROK's superior manpower went abroad for study in the US military school with the support from the KMAG to cultivate the specialists of each military branch. The trained manpower fulfilled a important role of building naval power, and also became the teachers after the armistice. As a result, the Korean War was the crucial turning point in the development of the ROK Navy from a historical point of view. Because the ROK Navy was able to have the ability to defend its own territorial waters independently as a sovereign nation due to the United States' policy and support during the war.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Growth of ROK Air Force and the US Air Force 6146th Unit's Support during the Korean War

    Jang Sungkyu | 2010, (75) | pp.117~151 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to identify the 6146th Unit's support activities for the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) during the Korean War. The ROKAF and the 6146th Unit were living together, fought together, and grew together. Through the Korean War, the ROAKF could reborn into the real independence force and the ROAKF and the 6146th Unit had a strong partnership. The ROKAF's growth can be largely divided into four phases. The First Phase is ‘Unit Organization'. From June 26, 1950 until July 26. Baut-I unit were organized in order to accomplish a training mission to the ROKAF pilots. As the USAF-led air campaign gradually escalated, the ROKAF need independence training and operations. So Baut-I were approved to form the USAF 6146th Air Base Squadron to meet the requirements of the ROKAF. The Second Phase is ‘Joint Combats'. From July 27, 1950 until May 31, 1951. The support to the ROKAF was a central task of the 6146th Unit. The elementary training and combat support was executed to the ROKAF. But the ROKAF were hard to grow because the 6146th Unit were gripped the leadership and committed to move several times during the battle. When the ROKAF move the all combat troops in Sacheon to concentrate on training, The joint tasks of this time were ended finally in May 31, 1951. The Third Phase is ‘Operational Independence'. From the early 1951 to the end of July 1951, the 6146th Unit concentrated on expansion the abilities to perform their own missions of ROKAF. The ROKAF was verified their operational capabilities through attacking against guerrillas in Mountain Jiri. The Forth Phase is ‘Air Power Reinforcement and Advisory Group Constitution'. From early 1952 until the signed day of the Armistice Agreement. The next subject of the ROKAF which attains an operational independence is to extend a size in order to face North Korea Air Force and to support the ROK Army. The ROKAF drew up `ROKAF 3-Year Plan' which requests the potential assistance and establishment of the air force advisory group which is a window of war potential assistance. The ROKAF tried to elicit a favorable response of this blue print. Although the US Government refuse the plan, but the establishment of the air force advisory group was authorized. There are some implications in the relationship between the ROKAF and the 6146th Unit. First, is an effort of operational independence. If the ROKAF did not conduct the effort for operational independent by expansion of self ability, the ROKAF must be satisfied as one unit of the United States Air Force and couldn't make his own voice. The ROKAF's efforts were accomplished from all fields of operation division training. When the operational capability arrives to the every critical point, the ROKAF was actively created a training circumstance and improved combatant abilities. After operational inspection, the ROKAF proved his capability systematically and grandly accomplished an operation with the name of the ROKAF. Second, is an air power reinforcement effort. The ROKAF developed the air force expansion campaign to the ROK and the United States Governments. ROKAF acquired fighter jets by his own effort and approved front deployment plan of the combat troops. Also visualized 3 years plan for the future air force build up opportunity. The important thing is the relationship between the ROKAF and the 6146th Unit. It was not biased to ‘support’ or ‘supported'. The directing point of the ROKAF goes over operational independence passed from securing battle ability and went over with war potential reinforcement. And the role of the 6146 Unit was from battle accomplishment changed in location of director and military advisor. By this kind of relationship, they could achieve both objectives which are a operational capability improvement and a war potential reinforcement of the ROKAF.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Condition of POW Camps in North Korea and the Excavating Possibilities of the ROK POWs' Deads during the Korean War

    Sung Hun Cho | 2010, (75) | pp.153~186 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This article is to study focusing on the location of POW camps, size of war deads in the camps, and their burial places in order to progress the projects of excavating ROK POWs' deads during the Korean War (1950-1953). In the dimension of a national duty saying that “the people who fought for the country, the country will secure them for good", it is desirable thing that war deads as well as still living people in the ROK POWs should be return home country. But the North Korea (NK) will insist that the war deads in the camps already repatriated. If the Republic of Korea (ROK) Government will insist that the war deads in the camps will be excavated, NK will be deny the same way as the surviving people. When the POWs' deads exchange between the United Nations (UN) side and the Communist side right after the Armistice, NK repatriated 606 war deads among ROK POWs deads in a little scale. Although the war deads increased during ‘death march' or in the camps, they must be returned a part of those war deads. Another distinguished reason of a small scale of war deads' exchange, NK made greatly a small size of 10,000 for a total POWs and complemented the POWs to the NKPA and NK citizens, which was different from the size of 100,000 POWs of the ROK and UN which was announced by the NK General Command in June 1951. And so, many war deads died in the camps and buried in the NK Area, who were not repatriated are still exist probably. Thus, in order to excavate the ROK POWs' deads, the Byeogdong POWs Camp, Cheonma POWs Camp, etc. where were known as camps with so many ROK POWs and died those places will be needed in priority. In case of US war deads' excavation, the places such as Unsan, Jangjinho areas where were the many US casualties were occurred. In the future, if it will become a better situation between the NK and ROK relationship, and more progress will make good results about the excavation of ROK POWs' Camp deads, we will need to find information exchange and field investigation about finding the places of POWs where were not confirmed, number of war deads and burial places, and also need to extend the projects of excavation about POWs deads.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Analysis of the Korean War deads' in the North Korea Area

    오홍국 | 2010, (75) | pp.187~217 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This year is propelling various memorial events of the Korean War outbreak 60th Anniversary. Among premier events, the excavation projects of the Korean War Casualties were result that dig corpse of 4,133 in the Republic of Korea (ROK) Area until last year. By the way, The analysis of data has not been arranged systematically in the North Korea Area. Some warriors recordings are very insufficient level during major engagements in the North Korea Area. The Deokcheon Battle of the 7th Division and the Yeongwon Battle of the 8th Division which heavy casualties occurred did not receive illumination focus because of their tragic defeats. Therefore, this paper referred to basic data the excavation projects of the Korean War deads at North Korea Area. That is, the 7th Division estimates from minimum 1,802 persons to the largest 2,539 persons stationing 7 places and the 8th Division estimated from minimum 2,229 persons to the largest 3,222 persons. It is period mission to accompany with our bosom collecting national capacities at visual point that meet the Korean War 60th Anniversary Year. In particular, the excavation projects of the Korean War about patriotic forefathers who died in battles in the North Korea Area is South-North common issues and periodic requests. Nevertheless, so far the excavation projects of the Korean War that was only relevant organization's concerns. Therefore, public relations pacification and sympathy formation are important so that it's event is propelled continuously. Also, overcomes long divides states of the Korea Peninsula and need by military confidence building measure for peace fixing by propelling materialistic business that enforce it's Demilitarized Zone in the North Korea Area preferentially. In the North Korea Area, it has to note that can be symbolic business that wash product of east and west cold war and mutual cooperation conclusively.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Principles of Battle Formation in an Ancient Time

    Hong, Eul-Pyo | 2010, (75) | pp.219~255 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In an ancient time, the formation(陣) was to display personnel, equipment and facilities to fit into the topographical battleground condition, and disposition(陣法) was the way of formation anandts management. On od co words, the battle formation in an ancient time is equivalent to engagement technique and disposition to plan of operation in a modern sense. In order to analyse the principle of disposition, this study was researched the origin and transmission of disposition followed by an investigation of the principle of line up and its operations. Finally, this study also attempts if this can be applied to a modern combat. In this study, I found that disposition in ancient time were based on the following principles. (1) It is constructed on the basis of Hado(河圖), Palgwae(八卦) and Gujeongbeop(九井法). (2) Its organization is made based on Oje(伍制)(3) Branch of the army and equipment were composed with mixture. (4) Line up is made according to topographical condition. (5) The transformation principle is explained as Jeokjolsibiseong(赤卒十二星). (6) Five steps of strategy are employed: Iljin(progression, 一陣), Yikwang (expansion, 二廣), Samhyeop(recession, 三挾), Sawi(offense, 四圍) and Ochwi (acquisition, 五取). (7) The principle of disposition is implicated in a signal “Sipwonbanggak(十圓方角)"The ancient formation can be summarized in a word as a ‘moving trap.' If laying a mine and an obstacle can be a sort of trap and a means of line up, ‘trap' or ‘the principle of disposition' may be the same in the modern combat.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Ahn Myeong-ro and Yeongisinpyeon

    유재성 | 2010, (75) | pp.257~293 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Yeongisinpyeon『演機新編』 is the book on the art of war written by Ahn Myeong-ro(安命老) who had been a civil minister in the middle of the Joseon Dynasty. Since 1620 when he was born, he had been active as the scholar and politician from times of King Gwanghaegun(光海君) to King Hyojong(孝宗). And he died after 1680. Though one of his books, Yeongisinpyeon, is a great work, he has not been famous enough. His research for the art of war for his life time and Yeongisinpyeon as a result are not second to any other famous the book on the art of war for its quality and quantity. Rather, it is greater than other existing works. But he has been nearly shunted aside by books and history for development process of the art of war in Korea. He has not been known well as the author of Yeongisinpyeon. He has been rather known better as a traitor, who tried to make Prince Bokseongun(福善君) as a new king instead of King Sukjong(肅宗). Then, why have he and his book, Yeongisinpyeon been not well know to the public? It is assumed due to following reasons. At the earlier times in the Joseon Dynasty, the main military system was effected by Owijinbeop(五衛陣法). And after the war between Joseon and Japan(Japanese Invasion, 壬辰倭亂), it was done by Byeonghakjinam(兵學指南). Ahn Myeong-ro's Yeongisinpyeon was totally new theory on the art of war, different from such tractional military systems. So this new suggestion had been necessarily neglected. Currently, this book has been one of the collections of Gyujanggak(奎章閣) Archives, Jangseogak(藏書閣) Library, the National Central Library of Korea, and etc. The translation of this book has not been published, but Institution for Military History Compilation(國防部軍史編纂硏究所) has prepared all required for publishing the translation. On this, I wrote this document for the preceding work. This paper has been processed by following procedure. Firstly, the pedigree, public service career, and the relation to a big change of regime in 1680(庚申大黜陟) were reviewed. And then, tried to examined his achievement taking a general overview of the background information, characteristics, the contents, and features for Yeongisinpyeon.
  • 9.

    North Korea's Terrorism and Provocations after the Korean War against the ROK and Its Countermeasures

    Changkook Kang | 2010, (75) | pp.295~330 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article is to study on the North Korea (NK)'s Terrorism and Provocations after the Korean War against the Republic of Korea and Its Countermeasures. In this article, I studied about the organizations of terrorism and provocations against the Republic of Korea (ROK) after the Korean War (1950-1953). And, I suggested the measures of counter-terrorism. A cases of the provocations by NK after the Korea War were studied periodically and each ruling governments. In the study, many types of terrorism suca as assassinations against VIPs, kidnapped of hostages, suicide bombing and demolition, aircraft terrorism, attacks against airline facilities and their users, vessels kidnapped and demolition on the sea, terror on the cyber, terror by weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were studied. NK mostly executed terrorism such as assassinate against VIP, aircraft terrorism, kidnapped civilians and fishing boats capturing, and terrorism against the major facilities. The characteristics of terrorism against the ROK are as the followings; ① direct support for terrorism by the NK, ② objectives of terrorism are limited to the ROK, ③ violent terrorism is supported for strengthening the international revolutional power, ④ purpose of reducing the internal dissatisfaction of the NK and making tensions, and raising anti-ROK feeling, ⑤ minor excuse statements about the terrorism executed by the NK, ⑥ making chances for division and disorder of the ROK and unification by the NK. In conclusion, the probable terrorism and provocations against the ROK by NK are exist. NK will execute terror and provocations against the USFK factualities too. And NK will use the nuclear weapons and missiles, I can suggest the countermeasures for terrorism against NK such as understand and application about strategies for counter-terrorism, enforcement of international cooperations for preventing tense against the ROK by NK, establishment of response measures for terrorism by NK.
  • 10.

    President Park Chung-hee and the ROK-US Alliance in the 1970s

    차상철 | 2010, (75) | pp.331~356 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The principal purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the nature of the Korean-American alliance in the 1970s. The Republic of Korean (ROK) Armed Forces involvement in the Vietnam War in the late 1960s enormoenly contributed to economic development of the ROK, not to speak of strengthe ing the ROK-US Security Alliance. The most important pending issue between the ROK and the United States (US) in the 1970s was the withdrawal of the US Forces in Korea (USFK). In July 1970, in line with the Nixon Doctrine, the Nixon Administration decided to pull out one infantry division in Korea, which led to President Park's growing anxiety of national security. Park grew increasingly worried that America's detente policy would result in the reduction of alliance obligations to the ROK. Thus Park was determined to develop nuclear weapons secretly in order to secure the ROK's future. The Ford Administration warned and threatened incessantly the Park Government that the US would reconsider its relations with the ROK, including security and economic arrangements, if Seoul insisted on developing nuclear weapons. In 1976 Park was forced to give up the secret program. The growing tensions between the two countries exerted serious impact on the ROK-US alliance. President Carter announced his plan for a complete withdrawal of the US from Korea over a period of years. The Carter's pullout plan exponentially heightened Park's anxieties of national security. The Carter plan met severe criticisms from not only Park but also many policy makers including military experts of the Carter Administration. In July 1979 the US announced that further withdrawal of the US ground troops was being suspended until 1981. President Reagan made it clear from the start that he would not pull out the USFK. The ROK-US Alliance of the 1970s saw the repetition of tensions and dissensions mainly because of perception difference regarding outside threat and mutual distributionbetween the ROK and US.