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2013, Vol., No.88

  • 1.

    Establishment of Six Guards and the Operation of the Military System during the time of King Taejo of the Goryeo Period

    Kim Jong Soo | 2013, (88) | pp.1~32 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    For organization of the central military, six guards were established in the second year of King Taejo during the Goryeo Period (919). The six guards were comprised of military officers and farmers. The centralized military mobilization system and the local-area system were not satisfactorily operated during the time of King Taejo. Accordingly, during the time of King Taejo, six guards were operated mainly by military officers, and they were mostly cavalry soldiers. The origin of the soldiers composing the six guards were diverse. First, the soldiers of the Gungye(弓裔) regime mostly comprised the six guards. Second, some of the soldiers among the six guards during the time of King Taejo were from wealthy and powerful clans who voluntarily accepted the new regime after the foundation of Goryeo. Third, many soldiers from Balhae and the later Baekje came to be included in the six guards. Furthermore, military officers were recruited in various other ways. During the later three kingdoms period, many soldiers died in the war, and, particularly, large numbers of military officers were lost. Subsequently, the recruitment of military officers continued. The military system during the time of King Taejo was divided into two: a peace-time structure and a war-time structure. The peace-time system was operated separately by the central military and was composed of six guards and local military of each region. Meanwhile the war-time operation was a marching organization in the form of three guards that were restructured by a combination of the central military and the local military. Meanwhile, during the time of King Taejo, in order to prevent any military rebellion, no specific person was designated as the commander of the war-time operation and a commander was designated each time a military operation is needed. Also during the time of King Taejo, in order to prevent the military coups, military officers of the central military were made to reside in Gaegyeong(開京), the capital city, with their families. In addition, King Taejo strengthened the military force of Seogyeong(西京), the western capital, to prevent a rebellion by the central military. The operation of the military system during the King Taejo period established firmly the basis of the country of Goryeo. Also, not only did it bring about the political stability during the early period of Goryeo, but also had a great influence on the later period.
  • 2.

    Formation of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces and Their Historical Implications

    Gong Soo Lee | 2013, (88) | pp.33~60 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    After the Liberation, the nationalists in the country and abroad developed the anti-Japanese guerrilla struggles and the new nation’s movement for the build-up of Korean national forces. Moreover, they tried to unify diverse domestic military units folloing the turmoil of trusteeship issue in August 1945. However, United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) did not recognize Korean military units from the beginning. As USAMGIK declared that USAMGIK was the only government in South Korea, USAMGIK acknowledged that the Constabulary force created by USAMGIK was the only military units, and dissolved all the Korean military organizations in the country and abroad. In the process, USAMGIK labeled the Korean Independence Army and all the spontaneous domestic military groups as the illegal private military organizations. Thereby, the Republic of Korea Armed Forces succeeded the Constabulary forces created by USAMGIK. Although the members of the Constabulary force mainly had the background of Japanese army and Manjugun, a good percentage of people who had the background of the Korean Independence Army and the domestic military units were included in it such as Korean National Preparatory Army, Hagbyeong Dongmaeng, and the domestic detached force of the Korean Independence Army that spontaneously developed the movement for the build-up of Korean national army after the Liberation. The reason they participated in the Constabulary force is not clear, but it is not unrelated to the impartial awareness in the then military units of South Korea. They participated in the Constabulary forces and the Republic of Korea Armed Forces as well as the Korean Independence Army and Korean National Preparatory Army in order to build up the nation’s force, national force, not a specific political group’s force. This is the great importance to those who attempt to find the historical implications of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. The Republic of Korea Armed Forces are rooted in the Constabulary forces because the Constabulary forces is connected with the Republic of Korea Armed Forces in terms of its members and organizational background. As the early organization of the Constabulary forces included the Korean Independence Army and all the spontaneous domestic military organizations as well as those who had the background of Japanese army and Manjugun, no wonder we attempt to find the historical origin of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces in the Korean Independence Army during Japanese colonialism and the domestic groups that developed the movement for the build-up of Korean national army after the Liberation. Administrative control of the country was actually transferred from USAMGIK to South Korean government in 1948, but as the Constitution of the Republic of Korea defines that the Constitution succeeds the legitimacy of Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, it is proper that the Republic of Korea Armed Forces finds its spiritual and historical origin in the movement for the build-up of Korean national army after the Liberation and, by extension, in anti-Japanese military groups and the Korean Independence Army in Machuria during Japanese colonialism, though the Republic of Korea Armed Forces are physically associated with the Constabulary forces. At the very least, finding the Republic of Korea Armed Forces’ origin in the Korean Independence Army of Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea is an interpretation faithful to the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. Only if we do that, we can hypothetically overcome the problems and limitations in the formation of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. Only then can the Republic of Korea Armed Forces stand as South Koreans’ army and national armed forces for our nation.
  • 3.

    North Korea's Wartime Production and Support from China and the Soviet Union during the Korean War

    Soo-Ryong Jo | 2013, (88) | pp.61~96 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study has traced the way North Korea met the demands of armaments and what roles China and the Soviet Union had played during the Korean War. Before the war, North Korea was at the beginning stage of the defense industry. North Korea had basic industry to produce munitions such as the factory no. 65 thanks to the support from the Soviet Union. But it was not at a level to conduct the war independently. Thus, North Korea had to obtain most of its munitions required to fight the war from the Soviet Union. As North Korea prepared for the war relying on the aid offered by other countries, it could not be ready for a long-term war. The North Korean leadership supposed that the war would last a month and only secured two month's supplies; it started the war with the minimum preparation to conduct war. However, the North Korean People's Army was thrown in the unexpected long-term war and total war as it was decided that the US armed forces to enter the war right after the war began. Accordingly, some measures were improvised to switchover industries to war industries, yet North Korea failed to properly handle such issues as the US air force's bombing of the supply routes. The industrial infrastructure of North Korea, significantly damaged by bombardments of the US air force from July to October 1950, started to collapse when they retreated to the North in October. The North Korean leadership tried to evacuate the industrial facilities, but it mostly failed to do so. After the retreat in October in 1950, North Korea’s industrial productivity dropped to 10% of its original level before the war. Under the circumstances when the existence of North Korea was at the stake, not to mention the conducting of the war, the war could be continued as China and the Soviet Union supported North Korea with the military and economic assistance. The Soviet Union played an important role in continuing the war by supplying most of the weapons needed by China and North Korea. However, it became reluctant in supplying weapons from June 1951, which distressed Kim Il-sung who hoped to end the war as early as possible. Unlike the Soviet Union, China offered Manchuria to North Korea as rear base, and sustained the economy of North Korea with tremendous financial and material resources apart from supplying troops. Although China was far from the Soviet Union when it comes to an absolute amount of support, the contrasting attitudes of the two countries during the course of the support deeply impressed Kim Il-sung; it somewhat affected the development of relationships between North Korea and the Soviet Union as well as North Korea and China.
  • 4.

    South Korean Armed Forces’ Peace Operation and Scheme for Improving Stability Operation Capacity

    김민진 | 김윤빈 | 김한석 and 10other persons | 2013, (88) | pp.97~125 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The goal of This study is to discuss conceptual closeness between South Korea's peace operation and stabilization operation, thus suggesting that South Korean armed forces can secure opportunities for field exercise and training, which is required to contribute to peace building in the country at civil war and to promote capability of stabilization operation by expanding participations in UN PKO in the civil war countries. In order to support this argument, this study examined how UN PKO activities varied across nations participating in UNOSOM I and the extent to which South Korean armed forces carried out tasks associated with stabilization operation during its peace operations. Major findings go as follows. First, UN PKO activities varied greatly according to the participants' defense policies. If a participant accomplish more tasks associated with stabilization operation, Somali people in the sectors allocated to the participant is more likely to live in a better security condition. Second, South Korean armed forces putting priority on SOC restoration and humanitarian aid have not been actively involved in civilian security support and civilian control, which was closely associated with stabilization operation. This gives a policy implication that South Korea's peace operation should be expanded toward peace enforcement and peace building, which can contribute to improving South Korea's military capacity for stabilization operation.
  • 5.

    A Study on the future development plan through the analysis of transition process of the ROK NCOs Recruiting systems

    손승호 | 2013, (88) | pp.127~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The ROK Army extensively upgraded the status of its NCOs, by recognizing the importance of the NCO and redefining the role of NCOs to be more battle-oriented. The number of NCOs as part of the Defense Reform 2020, will be expanded to approximately 100,000 and the recent plan from new government presents that it will make the numbers even higher while curtailing the service period of enlisted soldiers to 18 months. In this critical moment of changes in military personnel management, stable NCO recruiting with understanding of the improved NCO capability and the changes in weapons system and younger generations consciousness has now become the most important factor, as it stands at the center of the spearhead of the combat power. Diagnosing the aspects of the future war accurately and making use of lessons learned from the past would be the wise way to prepare for the war. Therefore, it becomes important to set recruiting system appropriate for future war by analyzing and assessing NCO recruiting systems by now and to ensure high-level combat strength at all times by guaranteeing the stable supply of high-quality personnel. Researches on NCO recruiting until now, however, stay at the level of merely summarizing representative cases of each decade and deal only with the data till 2006, as the field has attracted relatively less attention as a research topic. Moreover, there has been almost no previous research on improving the wartime recruiting system. Taking into account all the factors stated above, this research looks into the courses of the changes in ROK Army's NCO recruiting from the time Armed Forces were activated to 2013 as it aims to draw a blueprint for recruiting NCOs in the future, and systematically analyze the history of NCO recruiting and keep it as historical data for future researches.
  • 6.

    The End of the Mediterranean Civilization - Focusing on the Battle of Lepanto

    EungJong Kim | 2013, (88) | pp.163~184 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The Battle of Lepanto which took place in the Gulf of Patras near Lepanto in the morning of the 7th October 1571 between the Christian Saint League and the Ottoman empire was an historical event. The battle in which more than 400 galleys and 100,000 men fought for 4 hours was finished by the overwhelming victory of the Saint League. This was a great victory for the Christian world after the long series of defeats in the land as well as in the sea. It can be freed from the long terror and inferiority vis-a-vis the Ottoman empire. Who is responsible for the victory of the Saint League? It is undeniable that Don John, the commander in chief, contributed to forming a unified force, the Saint League, which was inherently divided and hostile against each other. And, among others, the superiority of the ordnance of the new Galleasses and the Galleys and the individual weapons such as muskets compared with those of the Ottoman Empire which had the pikes and swords. In short, the victory was a victory of the leadership and the modernized arms of the western world. Most historians agree with Fernand Braudel who considers the Battle of Lepanto to be a historical 'event' which doesn't exert any influence on the historical 'structure'. There are some historians who argue that the Ottoman empire won the final victory by retaking Tunis and La Golette in 1574. But, it cannot be justified to underestimate the historical role of the victory of the Battle of Lepanto. It enabled the Christian world to be freed from the long inferiority, which led eventually to the balance of power in the Mediterranean world. The Ottoman empire was recovered rapidly from the loss of the galleys, but the recovery of the skillful manpower needed long time. The balance of power led to the peace. Then, each empire could concentrate its forces on the internal problems. Spain turned to the north, while the Ottoman empire turned to the east, leaving the Mediterranean sea vacant. The Atlantic Ocean supplanted the Mediterranean sea as the center of the European civilization. The victory of the Battle of Lepanto did a great part in this historical transition. In this sense, it can be rightly regarded as an event which influenced the historical "structure".
  • 7.

    A Study on the Causes of the Failure of the British Gallipoli Campaign in 1915 -Focusing on the Imperialistic Prejudices of the British High Commandand the Reality of the Turkish Army-

    Nae-Joo Lee | 2013, (88) | pp.185~215 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The essential purpose of the Gallipoli campaign was to capture Istanbul and thereby defeat Turkey, an ally of Germany. The strategy was initiated by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill and soon accepted by Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener. Initially, an attempt was made to force a way by sea alone through the narrow Dardanelles Straits. The navy bombardment of the Narrows’ defences was unsuccessful and ceased on 18 March 1915. Meanwhile plans developed to support the navy with landing force. On 25 April 1915 men of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force under the command of General Sir Ian Hamilton landed on the Gallipoli peninsula. The main thrust of the attack focused on five points -- beaches named S, V, W, X and Y -- along the tip of the peninsula, Cape Helles. The 29th Division of the British army carried out these landings with the support of the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (Anzac). Unfortunately, however, they did not lead to decisive gains or the passage of the fleet through the Dardanelles, and several months of intensive trench warfare issued. On 6 August an attempt to break the deadlock was made by landing fresh forces at Suvla Bay while forces simultaneously tried to break out from Anzac. This new attack was not successful. Hamilton was removed from his command on 15 October and General Sir Charles Monro, who replaced Hamilton, soon recommanded the evacuation from the peninsula. After several months’ consideration, the final decision was made and the evacuation took place in two stages on 18-19 December and 8-9 January 1916. The campaign ended as a disastrous defeat of the British military forces. The controversy on the reasons of the failure was initiated by the appointment of a royal commission in August 1916 to find out why the campaign ended up as failure. The Dardanelles commission sat in nearly over a year and produced two reports on the campaign. The reports criticized the role of three leading figures - Winston Churchill, Lord Kitchener and Ian Hamilton - who were responsible for the campaign. In sum, Churchill hastily organized the campaign, Kitchener did not adequately provide the military resources which the Expeditionary Forces required, and Hamilton commanded his junior generals with too laissez-faire leadership. However, in my opinion the most important reason of the defeat was those three figures’ erroneous attitude toward the enemy, the army of the Ottoman Empire. In other words, they commonly had some arrogant tendencies, the so-called ‘imperialistic Orientalism’ toward the Ottoman empire, which underestimated the military capability of the Ottoman army.
  • 8.

    India-Burma Campaigns and the Chinese Expeditionary Force

    Sechan Ki | 2013, (88) | pp.217~251 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    After the outbreak of the Pacific war, the military alliance was formed among the U.S, China and the U.K. However, the three countries imposed different strategic purposes. As a result, due to strategic differences to counter Japan among those countries and the appointment of Stilwell caused the total defeat of the allied power at Burma less than two months of their engagement against Japan. After 1943 when the war started to turn in favor of the allied forces through the Europe and the Pacific, the U. S., China, and the U.K. made a final decisions that was to concentrate its power on Germany first, and then on Japan. Meanwhile, the initiation and the training of Chinese expeditionary forces, X and Y forces for the allied forces’ counterattack in the Southeast Asia, progressed rather quickly under the command of General Stilwell. The formation of X force was superior to any of the Chinese troops in terms of the quality and quantity. The troop’s combat power was comparable to that of Japan and it was to be used as the main force for the counter attack in Burma. The counter operation in Northern Burma started in December 1943 and ended in victories by using Y force as main force in support of X force in January 27, 1945. However, the prior strategic focus on Europe by the U.S. and the U.K. and the Northern Burma operation yielded a serious consequence. Due to the Japan’s No. 1 operation, China lost most of its eastern territory and the Chines force was on the verge of collapse. When the Japanese main troops attacked the Chinese mainland, the China’s most powerful troops were fighting in Burma. It was no doubt that the Teheran agreement of Europe centric strategy made the war in Europe to end more quickly. However, this strategy eventually caused a great disaster in Northeast Asia. In North Eastern Asia, the Soviet Union could expand its influence in Manchuria while the three countries focused their efforts on Burma. This caused a decisive impact on the Chinese civil war after the war ended.
  • 9.

    How the Will of Citizens Influenced the Result of War : Based on the cases from GreatBritain and Germany During the World War One

    이기덕 | Yi, Seon Gyu | 2013, (88) | pp.253~289 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the modernized warfare, all the forces are being integrated to win the war. victories in any war can no longer be achieved merely by a variable or two. There are certain types of variables that are defined as archetypical tangible elements such as the national leader’s leadership, military power, economic power, reserve forces, and mobilization capabilities, etc. In addition to those tangible elements, there are intangible elements -- such as politics, science, technology, and social cultures -- these are also considered as the vital variables that would determine victory in war. Another factor that would determine the result of war is recognizing the importance of the “will of the people,” which is another type of intangible element. War causes significant damages to the people directly involved in it, and the damages are catastrophic. For instance, many people will nearly starve to death, and vast majority of people will lose their shelters because their houses will be destroyed. Moreover, heating system will fail to keep people warm. While there will be numerous displaced civilians, blackouts and lack of water supply will cause a great difficulties to the people. The government will increase taxes, and issue war bonds to provide funding during the war. Many men will be conscripted to fight the war, and women, on the other hand, will be sent off to the factories to manufacture weapons and ammunition. In the mix of helter-skelter, some nation have overcame its suffering and achieved victory. While other nations could not overcome the suffering from war, and thus conducted anti-government activities that led to losing the war. If war breaks out in the Korean peninsula, it is no doubt that the war will cause national calamities. Whatever the cause, the war must be avoided. It is vital to achieve victory if war breaks out. In order to achieve such a task, the citizens will have no choice but to serve in the military with various military tasks assigned to them, while they limit the citizen’s right. Hence, throughout this process of fighting the war, the result of war will be significantly determined by the will of Korean people. As a conclusion, it is exigent to argue that the citizens must show their determination to win victory in war, and the government must use any necessary means to support the citizens so that they can fight for victory.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Switzerland defense strategy in the Second World War : It's peculiarities and lessons learned

    kim yong bin | 2013, (88) | pp.291~329 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Located in the middle of Europe, a small, mountainous and landlocked nation, Switzerland deterred the First World War and the Second World War by maintaining neutrality. Since Switzerland was surrounded by the Axis powers when the Second World War broke out, German army planned to invade Switzerland several times. In spite of the political and economic weaknesses, however, Switzerland overcame such obstacles and effectively managed to defend the nation so that she could maintain the neutrality. The reason why Switzerland was able to maintain the neutrality among various nations was that Switzerland was a nation having not only a special policy of neutrality, but also military forces for the total defense with the strong national leaders. As the Second World War was on the verge of breaking out, Switzerland clandestinely formed a military entente with France, divided politics and military forces and appointed general Henri Guisan as a supreme commander. The supreme commander inspired the spirit of resistance in military troops by reminding them of the spirit of the founding fathers of the nation. Over one-tenth of people were recruited to defend the national border. Senior citizens over 60, women and the young were encouraged form local militia to protect their areas. The Alps was nominated for a base of resistance by Switzerland. Ammunition and food were also prepared for the prolonged war. The distribution system was operated and the most of territory was cultivated to increase productivity of agricultural crops. Resources under the Alps were developed. The organizations which acted to benefit the enemy were strictly punished by law and the rebels were promptly executed. Confrontation strategies which were to deter a war made Switzerland maintain her neutrality and discouraged the Germans to invade Switzerland. Recently, there has been an increasing opinion that the military system should be abolished due to the stable political and economic situation, but the majority insist that the nation should take selective service based on armed neutrality. Government is enforcing the civil defense facilities to be constructed and the military forces to continue training maintaining national conscription system. The Switzerland civil defense system is the most developed system in the world and 7 million people can be evacuated to those civil defense facilities. Switzerland, an armed neutral nation, and her strategies on detering a war can be a lesson to Korean people. Given that the Korean Peninsula has always been exposed to the provocation of North Korea, and possibility that a local conflict can be expanded to the total war, the effort of Switzerland to deter a war can certainly be a lesson to South Korea.