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2015, Vol., No.97

  • 1.

    The International relations of the Russo-Japanese War and the Diplomatic Revolution, 1904~1907

    Won-Soo Kim | 2015, (97) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article is to reconsider the International relations of the Russo Japanese War and the Diplomatic Revolution from 1904 until 1907 from the global points of view. This study is especially focusing on interconnecting it with the Portsmouth Peace Conference, the Algeciras Conference and the Quadruple Entente. This work will be revealed clearly that the Korea and Manchurian Problems including Gando matter happened in these periods were the transnational/global issues that had been not only made bv territorial dispute among Korea, China and Japan, but also the result of the Quadruple Entente system made by Britain, Russia, France and Japan. In this research, I specially was to be connected international relationships of the Russo Japanese War with the Diplomatic Revolution happened by Quadruple Entente which was overlooked until now. It will be broaden the horizon of the Russo Japanese War Studies in these periods. As mentioned above, Japanese military invasion and protectorate of Korean peninsula during the war were illegal and they were executed with coercive measures. On the pretext of the dispatch of the Hague special envoy, Japan deposed the Korean king by military force, as well as illegally concluded the 3rd Korean-Japanese Agreement(1907) plundering Korea's internal affairs and furthermore, dismissed the Korean army by force, to infiltrate into the Gando Area in Manchuria. On the other hand, after the Russo-Japanese War, the Franco-Japanese Agreement, the Russo-Japanese Agreement, and the Anglo-Russian Convention were concluded in 1907. This Quadruple Entente was to bring about the End of “the Great Game”. Since then, In East Asia, Quadruple Entente system based on the Anglo-Japanese Alliance was operated, and in Europe, Triple Entente system were constructed. Interaction of Quadruple Entente was forced to threaten and encircled German’s Triple Alliance in Europe as well as to restrict the American Expansion from Asian Pacific. Therefore, Germany actively took a plan for German-China-American Alliance. Nevertheless, Japan had free hands in Northeastern Asia regions under the British diplomatic assistance. Such an International change in East Asia was able to make shape of realizing Japanese plans to protectorate Korea and preoccupy Southern Manchuria including Gando region from 1904 until 1907. Therefore, Japanese invasion into Korea and Manchuria has been not only influenced by Quadruple entente system, but also controlled by intervention and restriction of German and America. Such actions were proved by Kaiser's plan for German-China- American Alliance connection from 1907 to 1909, Theodore Roosevelt's Initiative on the Root-Dakahira Agreement in 1908, Anglo-Japanese preliminary contacts with Gando and Manchurian problems in 1909. All these measures were revealed that Japanese protectorate of Korea and preoccupation of Manchuria had been influenced by the Interaction of Quadruple system. It was the Imperial struggle for Reestablishing the sphere of influence in East Asia.
  • 2.

    The Reorganization of ‘East Sea Battle’, last naval battle of the Russo-Japanese War

    Heonyong Sim | 2015, (97) | pp.27~48 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to aim reconfigure the naval combat known as the Battle of Tsushima, having considered as a turning point of the Russo-Japanese War by time and space and is to suggest in order to use the term ‘East Sea Battle’ to reflect more comprehensively the nature of the battle. From 27th to 28th May 1905, The Russian and the Japanese fleet collided into each other on near sea area of Tsushima in Korea Strait and located between Ulleung-do and Dok-do in the East Sea. As a result of this battle, Japan could fully seize the initiatives of the war. Japanese combined fleet annihilated the second Pacific Fleet of Russia that has scrambled from Baltic Sea and the Russian Navy was severly damaged so that it cannot be recovered in the short term. So the Japan not only seized the initiative of war but also occupied the East Sea as its inland sea resulting in gaining the initiative in Northeast Asia maritime. So far, in the domestic academic community, it did not use the name of East Sea Battle. There are some cases of use the term ‘East Sea Battle’ to describe a series of battles that have been developed in the East Sea during Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905. But, there were no cases named as the “East Sea Battle” on the series of battle deployed May 27th to 28th in 1905. Also foreign academic circles, including Russia, were named the battle taken place on May 27th in Tsushima offshore as the “Tsushima Sea Battle” (對馬島戰鬪, The Battle of Tsushima, Цусимское сражение) not as the “East Sea Battle”. It means it does not give significant meaning for the battle developed in the Midwest of East Sea(Ulleung-do, Dok-do, Ul-san gulf and Juk-byeon gulf) while the Russian warship has fled to the north on next day, May 28th. However, Battle was conducted for the purpose of pursuit and mopping up the remnants of Russian warships that escaping up to north Eastern Sea and Vladivostok as a result of Tsushima Battle. In this paper, the three stages of the battle were splitted into three stages by time zone and examined that each stage has been developed in different areas. To generically name the entire battles, it seems more appropriate to call “East Sea Battle” than “Tsushima battle”. The battle is not limited to Tsushima sea area spatially and looking through a battle step by step, it was found that using term “East Sea Battle” has an advantage of analyze an aspect of battle in detail.
  • 3.

    A Study of the Issue on Russo-Japanese War and Korean War Prisoners

    CHO Jae-gon | 2015, (97) | pp.49~74 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    With the outbreak of Russo-Japanese War(1904-1905), Koreans became the object of the recruitment of human and physical resources, regardless of their will. Also, this event led to an increase of their suffering and sacrifice. During war, there were many war prisoners between both the nations of Russia and Japan, at the battlefields in Manchuria, the Korean Peninsular, and the East Sea regions. Some of the prisoners were repatriated to the opponent nations. In the process, Many Koreans had been involved in war as well, had been arrested for a long period of time, going through the similar course with Japan soldiers did. Later, they were detained in Russian territory for a long term and underwent great suffering. As for forceful arrests and long-term imprisonment, there are five cases: Kim Ha-ryeong in March 1904, Korean crews having boarded in Hakiuramaru in April 1904, 9 peoples including Kim Shi-ham in April and May 1904, Gilju Provincial Governor Lee Ik-ho in February 1905, and Jongseong Provincial Governor Ju Cheol-jun in April 1905. All of them were arrested by the Russian Troops and transferred to 'Medvezhi' near Gulf of Finland on land, During war, most of Korean prisoners were arrested in Hamgyeong province where the land warfare between Russia-Japan, and Vladivostok-No.2 Japanese fleet naval battle were proceeded. But only in the case of Kim Shi-ham, we could not identify the place where he arrested and his movement routes Russia and Japan established each prisoner information bureau during war. Both two countries treated and repatriated prisoners on a mutual-humanitarian level, according to 「Hague Regulation Land War Treaty」 which they signed in 1899, respectively. Nonetheless, such regulations were not fulfilled to Korean prisoners. They underwent national discriminations for treatment and repatriation unlike Japanese soldiers. As a result, the rest of other Koreans except for two provincial governors had to return to Korea through the tough and rough process via Europe, Africa, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Japan by sea route. The number of deceased of war prisoners were 23. Out of them, there were one Korean and one Chinese. Korean prisoners were repatriated during the turning point of the changing political systems from the Korean Empire Government to the Residency-General. Thus, only the will of the authorities of Japan and Russia triggering war was accepted without consideration of Koreans’ will, at all.
  • 4.

    A Study on Sakhalin Battle

    김종헌 | 2015, (97) | pp.75~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to search for examination of military and political meaning and lessons learned of Sakhalin battle, comparatively small scale battle in military perspective. In order to achieve these objectives of the article, this article focuses on the analysis of the battle preparation of Russian Empire to Sakhalin battle. This analysis is a synonym with causes of the Russian defeat in this battle, because we can get various lessons. in the process of identifying the cause of russian defeat. Sakhalin battle is a vivid example that clearly shows us military lessons needed for the victory. The following things are such as these; competent commanding group, well-trained troops qualified the capability for the Execution of operations, well-informed about natural and man-made features on the battlefield, tactics suitable for weapons and battlefield, possession of proper military force, careful preparation for war and etc. Political meaning of Sakhalin battle is huge. There were no victorious nation and also no defeated nation in Sakhalin battle. But Russia had gotten images of the defeated state by cession of her own territory to Japan. And it took 40 years to recover the ceded territory. Republic of Korea is a peninsular state but actually is a kind of island state because of confrontation with North Korea. We have no space for retreat. So Sakhalin battle is important researching subject for the construction of strategic defence program.
  • 5.

    A study on the correlation between the Goryeo Dynasty Castle’s Fortification located in South Korea and the roof tiles with Reign name

    Kim, Ho-jun | 2015, (97) | pp.105~142 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The roof tiles with inscriptions are very important archeological materials which can reveal the historical facts for the matter of using the fortified castle. This dissertation researched about roof tiles with inscriptions which were excavated from the Castle during the period of Goryeo Dynasty located in South Korea. Chinese characters are incised on the roof tiles such as Reign name. In the castle of Goryeo Dynasty, there have been found six kinds of roof tiles with inscription of the sexagenary cycle. These are Junpungsanyeon(峻豊四年, 963), Geondeoksamnyeon(乾德三年, 965), Taepyeong heunggukchillyeon․pallyeon(太平興國七年·八年, 982․983), Daepyeongpallyeon(大平八年, 1028), Daepyeongsibyeon(大平十年, 1030), Daepyeongsiboyeon(大平十五年, 1035), Jeongpunginyeon(正豊二年, 1157) and Jijeongsippallyeon(至正十八年, 1358). Until now nine castles containing the roof tiles with inscription of the sexagenary cycle have been were excavated are nine. Those are Eumseong Mangisanseong(峻豊四年, 太平興國七年․八年), Pyeongtaeng Bipasanseong(乾德三年), Buyeo Busosanseong(大平八年), Jindo Youngzhangseong(大平十年), Sacheon Seonjilliseong(大平十五年), Cheongju Cheongjue upseong(大平), Busan Danggamdongseong(大平), Masan Hoewonhyeonseong(正豊二年), Inje Hangyesanseong(至正十八年). King Kwangjong tried to strengthen royal power. For intensifying the royal authority, So Kwangjong liquidated many founding contributor. He also worried about the feasible rebellions by his opponents'. He wanted to quash the rebellion if the uprising break out. Because of that, he had built and repaired many fortress and temples at the central districts of Goryeo. This policy had continued to King Seongjong. This article could assume the historical facts above by roof tiles which were excavated from Mangisanseong and Bipasanseong. The roof tiles with inscription of Daepyeongpallyeon(大平八年, 1028) and Daepyeongsibo(大平十五年, 1035) can be a evidence of the historical facts that King Hyeonjong built storehouses in the castle. These storehouses are closely related with traffic routes, taxes and military camp. In this article, it proved that Mongolian army rebuilt a castle for the preparation of the invasion of Japan. The roof tiles with inscription of Jeongpunginyeon(正豊二年, 1157) can be a evidence of author’s view. and Jijeongsippallyeon(至正十八年, 1358) can be a proof that Japanese pirate raiders invaded to the inland and the government needed to refuge the civilians to the Inje Hangyesanseong in the period of King Gongmin and King Yu.
  • 6.

    A Comparative Study on the Military System of the Korean Navy in the Joseon Period before and after the Imjin Japanese Invasion

    Na seung hak | 2015, (97) | pp.143~174 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The organization and military training of the Navy before and after the Imjin Japanese Invasion have been compared and studied in order to take a look at the military systems of Joseon in the same period of that dynasty. The Navy of Joseon dynasty prior to the Imjin Japanese Invasion was organized by limiting the jurisdiction in the coastal regions, an action that was done in the 7th year of King Tae-jo. This was necessary, since it became harder for the coastal people to take the burden of military service upon themselves locally. It was subsequently changed into a nationwide general military category in order not to impose a harsh burden on locals. In addition to that, the number of the navy troops were increased, and military shipbuilding and improvement had been developed during the era of King Jeong-jong. However, the contradiction and weaknesses of the effectiveness of the Navy in Joseon Period had been displayed. Existing tactics were far inferior to match a proper response to the Japanese forces, so the Joseon military forces had to go through a process of overhauling maintenance and revision of the Joseon's military strategies and tactics. The overall findings in this study indicate that the military system of the Joseon Navy went through significant changes. In particular, the strategy was highly organized with a change in organizational formation, and there was specialization in military training aspects. A lesson can be learned by comparing the military system of the Joseon Navy before and after the Imjin Japanese Invasion, namely, that the Korean society makes incessant changes, and strategic tactics have to be newly established in order to meet the changes of times and in society. That is to say, it is essential to correctly understand the demand of the environmental changes, in order to establish and apply strategic tactics for appropriate organizational formulation and military training.
  • 7.

    The Plan for the Building of Air Force and its Propulsion of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

    Sunpyo Hong | 2015, (97) | pp.175~216 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research is to observe how ROK Provisional Government planned the Air Force and progressed it in the history of Korean independent movement. This study will help people find the origin of Korean Air Force with historical basis. At the beginning of the Korean Provisional government establishment, it was not supposed to have its own Air Force; however, air squadron was formed within the army and navy. The government planned to train some talented people through an aviation school. The first case was the establishment and management of Willows aviation school to provide well trained pilots. The experience that people had managed the Willows aviation school was able to motivate Provisional Government not to give up the vision of the foundation of the Air Force. As Kuomintang of China in Nanjing government was interested in the Korean independent movement and began supporting it in earnest after the patriotic deed of Yun Bong-Gil in 1932, Kim Ku tried to seek the way for the foundation of the Air Force with the help of China. However, it was just his idea that did not really carried out. People had tried to found the way of building for Air Force right after the establishment of the Korean Independent Army. They started organizing an Air Force design committee within the Korean Independence Army, also enacting its ordinance, and researching how to set up the Air Force concretely. As a result, Provisional Government planned to build the Air Force with the help of the army of the United States. It could help Provisional Government push forward the Korea-U.S joint military drill and simultaneously try to negotiate the foundation of its Air Force with the United States. Before they got any tangible results, they could not proceed it anymore because of the declaration of Japanese surrender. Being developed centering on Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, a series of plan and design and an incessant trial for founding the Air Force was persistently propelled form the early part of the establishment of Provisional Government to right before independence. We can tell the foundation of the Korean Air Force was not an abrupt one but a historic achievements which contained the strong determination and constant exertions of Provisional Government toward setting up of the Air Force if we understand the historical context of it and inherit its meaning. By doing it, we can solve clues of the origin of the Korean Air Force and secure its legitimacy from now on.
  • 8.

    The Study on the Air Combat of the Jet Fighters during the Korean War from November

    Lee, Myoung-Hwan | 김관호 | 2015, (97) | pp.217~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article analyzes the air combat of jet fighter during the Korean War. Without question, the decisive force in the Korean War have been the air power, despite limited resources and many restrictions. US Far East Air Force(FEAF) played the major role in taking the air superiority over the air campaign in Korea. Before the outbreak of the war, China and the Soviet Union already agreed upon the Chinese ground force support for North Korea and the Soviet air support for the China ground force. According to this agreement, the Soviet Union established the 64th Fighter Air Corps in Manchuria to protect the Chinese northeast industrial centers, powerplants and rail bridges near the Yalu river, and a transport network between Pyongyang and Wonsan. To accomplish this mission, Soviet MiG-15 jet fighters had engaged in the air combats(dog fightings) with F-86 jet fighters of FEAF in the so called MiG-alley. This story of the war in the air has been well told. Despite numerical superiority in fighter aircraft, the 64th Fighter Air Corps and chinese Air Force were unable to gain air superiority. F-86 of FEAF shot down over 792 MiGs at a greater than 7-to-1 ratio. These high figures show a significantly better performance against a numerically superior MiGs. A number of reason accounts for this, among them poor tactics, poor flying skills and perhaps a fear of widening the war etc. It was the air superiority of FEAF, what finally compelled the Communists to accept the armistice. MiG-15 had developed several air combat tactics to defeat F-86 throughout the 63,229 sorties for air combat. And the Soviet 64 Fighter Air Corps could achieve some tactical results in air warfare.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Historical Development of Military UAVs and Their Strategic Implications

    Song, Seongjong | Kil, Byung-ok | 2015, (97) | pp.263~308 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The number of countries that have interests in the development of UAV(Unmanned Aviation Vehicle) have been growing exponentially. UAVs have demonstrated their utilities as efficient means that can be operated in wider range of military missions in 3D (the dull, the dirty, and the dangerous) scenarios. Nowadays, UAVs have potentiality that can be evolved into another “game changer”, capable of transforming the entire landscape of future warfare, such as tanks, airplanes, missiles, and nuclear weapons, all of which were called “revolutionary technologies” in human history. The main purpose of this article is to explore and identify the influence of UAVs and related technologies on inter-Korea relations, regional security environments, and the future warfare upon the basis of multidimensional analysis on the history in the development of military UAVs that the United States has dominated for more than a century. With this researching subject front and center, the paper attempts to analyze chronologically the changes in the evolution of UAVs from the perspective of and, in the context of dynamic interaction among three major factors, namely then military requirements, change in international security situations, and technological advances, focusing on the case of the United States that has maintained the status of dominance and superiority through unparalleled technological power. In addition, it reviews the current state of affairs in the worldwide trend where UAVs and related technologies have been proliferated rather dramatically since the United States declared “Global War on Terrorism” in the aftermath of 9/11 terror attack. Furthermore, this article examines the strategic ramifications and implications of UAV proliferation on miscalculations, accidental confrontations and terror attacks by weapons of mass destruction in the setting of regional, especially South-North Korea, security environments.
  • 10.

    A study on the precedent case and lessons of desirable military integration options

    형성우 | Yi,Seung-Cheol | Lee Young Geun | 2015, (97) | pp.309~347 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the benefits of each military integration type based on conjoint analytical methods and through empirical study on past examples of military integration of divided countries, derive the optimal North and South Korean military integration options suited for our realities and military conditions as well as draw implications and lessons from those military integration cases in order to propose the way-ahead on how to integrate our military elements in the future. As key researching results show, military integration was classified into four types through theoretical contemplation on existing researches, namely ‘Integration by forcible absorption’, ‘Integration by consensual absorption’, ‘Equal level forcible integration’, ‘Equal level consensual integration’ depending on its form, and according to the results of benefit analysis using conjoint analytical methods on the preference and feasibility of the aforementioned 4 types through a survey conducted to Army/Navy/Air Force experts and Korea Institute for Defense Analysis experts in the military structure policy area, the most desirable integration option for the future North and South integrated military was analyzed to be either ‘integration by consensual absorption’ or ‘equal level consensual integration’. Following the results of the conjoint analysis, two cases that would allow us to derive implications and lessons, ‘integration by consensual absorption’ (Germany case) and ‘equal level consensual integration’ (Yemen case) were analyzed empirically to deduce an appropriate integration option for the reunified Korea. The statistical and empirical research on the optimal options regarding North and South Korean military integration examined through this research proves its significance.
  • 11.

    The Experience of the Japan’s Amphibious Forces Employment and the Implications of the Establishment for Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade

    Choi Jung Joon | 2015, (97) | pp.349~394 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Japan has announced to formalize the creation of the “Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade” to defend and retake its island which is considered as a gray zone. Abe regime has put a priority on its military building to have a strong landing forces which based on the assessment that the main factor of its insecurity comes from the matter of disputable Islands. During the Asia-Pacific War, Japan operated the Rikusentai which had imitated the western countries’s amphibious forces. The Rikusentai was respectively managed by the Army and Navy. The roles of the Rikusentai was a forceful projection power to spread Japanese military power. In one side, we can see that the Japan’s announcement of Amphibious Maneuver Group activation is a normal policy as a state, however, the neighboring countries, including Korea criticize and fear that the possibility of Japan’s remilitarization. These feelings of concern originate from their past dreadful experiences. In the past times, Japan had a similar landing forces which had operated as an invasive means to conquer the North-East asian areas. The Japan’s experience of using amphibious operation forces and the trial to build amphibious rapid deployment brigade has a implication as below. First, it can aggravate the unstable status in the region of the North East area especially, between Japan and Sino-Russian relations those are disputing the island problems. Second, it can accelerate the arms race to build up the amphibious and counter amphibious forces between Japan and its neighborhood. Third, Japan can develop its amphibious skills in short time because it has a affluent experiences. Fourth, the creation of amphibious maneuver force can be used as a main means of Japan’s collective self defense power. Fifth, Japan can develop its joint operation capability among the self defense forces. Finally, it will increase the opportunity of military cooperation among ROK-US-Japan. We should estimate the both positive and negative sides of the Japan’s trial to increase its military power. Now we need to cope with this matter strategically.
  • 12.

    The Violence of the War of Vendée

    EungJong Kim | 2015, (97) | pp.395~424 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The War of Vendéen broke out in March 1793, and finished in December of the same year. For these nine months, the peasants of the Vendée region and the revolutionary armies were at ‘war’ against each other, and the latter won the final victory. What caused the historical controversy was the relentless punishment after the war, during which were killed all the inhabitants including the republicans. After the War of Vendée, the republican historians and the marxist historians who dominated the historiography of the French Revolution, defining it as the counter revolutionary war maintained their negative position on the war of Vendée. They accepted the Terror committed in that period as the inevitable measure for the safety of the nation and the revolution during the simultaneous wars in and out of the country, while they neglected the violent treatment after the war. The new interpretation of the War of Vendé came from the revisionist historians. François Furet criticized Albert Soboul for tolerating the violence carried out for the purpose of obtaining the public safety. It was Reynald Secher who heated up the debate. He argued that the treatment after the war was the ‘genocide’ conducted cautiously by the public safety committee. Jean-Clément Martin who represented the ‘orthodox’ position counter-attacked him by arguing that the public safety committee did not lead the massacre and, for that reason, the massacre was not the genocide. If we define the genocide as the total or partial mass massacre by an integral state policy, the Vendée massacre can be included in this category. But if we expand the scope of the genocide in this way, all the massacres can belong to the genocide, which makes the concept of the genocide meaningless. That is the reason why the genocide should be defined strictly as “the systematic destruction of the other ethnic group”. Viewing the Vendée massacre in this perspective, “the genocide of the French by the French” cannot stand. In the historical conscience of the War of Vendée, the important thing is not to judge whether it is a genocide or not but to confirm the fact that a barbarous violence was committed by the revolutionary armies. In the dimension of the violence, the French Revolution of 1789 made no difference. It is very important to remember that the very revolutionaries who cried out “Liberty-Equality-Fraternity” continued the inhuman violence of the Ancient Regime type.