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pISSN : 1598-317X / eISSN : 2713-8992

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2020, Vol., No.115

  • 1.

    The Composition and Activities of the Korean Service Corps(KSC) during the Korean War

    Sangchul Na | 2020, (115) | pp.1~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper takes an overall look at the form and operation of the labor force mobilized during the Korean War, with a particular focus on the Korean Service Corps(KSC) under the Eighth U.S. Army. Despite the UN Forces’ participation at the beginning of the war, the front line ended up being pushed down to the Nakdong River. Attempting to overcome this crisis, South Korean President Syngman Rhee appealed to the whole nation for voluntary assistance in the war effort. However, due to the lack of legal basis for the mobilization of reserve forces and laborers and the declaration of emergency martial law leading to men being conscripted on the streets, systematic mobilization was unable to be implemented. About one month after the war broke out, the "Special Measures Ordinance on Punishment" was enforced, laying down the legal basis for conscription and mobilization. However, due to the increase in the number of refugees and floating population, systematic mobilization could still not be carried out as administrative procedures were difficult to implement. The range of the Eighth U.S. Army’s labor mobilization expanded across the country as the Incheon landing cleared the frontline and the military advanced northward. However, some of the refugees who were mobilized during the Nakdong River battle went missing while following the U.S. military northward. Moreover, problems such as the language barrier and the work efficiency of the Korean labor force were continuously made apparent, raising the need to organize the workforce. As the front lines again moved southward with the entry of the Chinese military and the conflict turning into a war of attrition along the present-day demarcation line, the organization of the workforce was stepped up, resulting in the establishment of the KSC. The creation of the KSC was not just in accordance with the needs of the Eighth U.S. Army. The Korean government attempted to create a national all-out war system by combining the reserve and non-combat forces. It established the "National Defense Corps" in December 1950, but due to the so-called "National Defense Corps issue," the National Defense Corps was disbanded after half a year. The Korean Army, feeling the need for the systematic mobilization of the labor force throughout the war just like the Eighth U.S. Army, established the Fifth Corps, a reserve unit. It aimed to reabsorb personnel from the National Defense Corps to secure troops enough for five divisions. Meeting both the needs of Korea and the United States, the KSC was established with the Fifth Corps as its parent institution. Since the armistice agreement, all labor organizations have been gradually dismantled, with some remaining as the current KSC. Despite its distinctiveness, the KSC was termed the 'vacuum of Korean War research' because it had not received attention in either history or military studies at home or abroad. Therefore, this research’s significance lies in finding historical significance by following in the footsteps of those who existed at the center of Korea’s national tragedy.
  • 2.

    The ROK military's early experiences with studying in West Germany and their impact

    Kim Domin | 2020, (115) | pp.45~89 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to examine the experiences of the early Korean military officers who went to study in West Germany in the 1960s and the impact of their experiences on the Korean military. Under the agreement between Korea and Germany in 1964, from 1965, the 2 cadets of Korea military academy sent to West German Army Academy as a status of military cadet, and at the same time, officers attended the West German Command and Staff college. Looking at the related research papers, there is only research on the study of Korean military to the United States. In the situation where there was little literature on Korean military's study abroad in West Germany, this article revealed the specific types and experiences of military study in West Germany by analyzing the oral records related to the Korean military collected by the Contemporary Korean Oral History Research Group of the Institute of Korean Studies, Kyujanggak Korean Studies Institute, Seoul National University. In the early days, 10 ROK military officers were dispatched to three locations, including a military academy, a commanding and staff college, and a general university in West Germany. Furthermore, this article revealed how ROK military West German students tried to apply the German military system within the Korean military since the 1980s, when military officers or officers at the level of military officers experienced military study abroad in West Germany and promoted up to become a Korean military general. For example, the German mission-based tactics were included as an FM(Field Manual) and the German decree on military service were not only translated and but applied to some ROKA units. Not only did some of the Korean military officers who had experienced studying in West Germany studied American military at the same time, they were also able to confirm some similarities and differences between the American military system and German one. It is expected that the concrete situation of West German military study by the Korean military will be restored through the voices of experienced peoples, as well as fill the gap of history in the relationship between Korea and Germany
  • 3.

    A Study on the Status of Pyeongyang[Seogyeong] and it’s Fortress System in the Goryeo Dynasty

    AnSik Shin | 2020, (115) | pp.91~119 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Pyongyang, currently located in North Korea, was removed from historical interest with the fall of Goguryeo in 668, and as a result, it had been almost a ruin for more than 200 years. However, Pyongyang reappeared at the forefront of history as Goryeo dynasty was founded on 918(the first year of King Taejo), and it had served as a advanced base to contain the northern forces with Goryeo's identity of ‘succession of Goguryeo history’. What further boosted Pyongyang's status is to claim to advocate ‘Seogyeong’. In the early days of the Goryeo Dynasty, Gaegyeong, which was as an existing capital, and Pyongyang, which had been considered as a new capital relocation site after the unification of the three kingdoms, coexisted as Two-Capitals. Seogyeong was suitable for its role as a strategic base to protect the capital Gaeyeong from the northern forces. The reason for the change of Seogyeong’s status as a city behind of Gaegyeong was started when Donggyeong was established in Gyeongju. But the ‘Two-Capital system’ centered on Gaegyeong and Seogyeong continued because Donggyeong had gone off from a circumambulation after that. Since then, as Namgyeong had been constructed, a circumambulation of lean-to-one-side the one side Seogyeong had been extended to Namgyeong and re-established as the 'Three-Capital system' of Gaegyeong, Seogyeong and Namgyeong. It was the fortress system that showed Seogyeong's status corresponding to that of Gaegyeong. The fortress of Seogyeong, which can be verified by materials, were ‘Jaeseong, Naseong, Wangseong, Hwangseong and Gungseong’. It is not easy to deduce the content because it is difficult to find materials that can tell the format and size of these fortresses. However, it is believed that the area where the fortress of Pyeongyang[Seogyeong) was located in the period of Goryeo and Joseon Dynasty was almost identical to the castle of Pyeongyang of Goguryeo. It was because it took advantage of the best example to make efficient use of the terrain and geography of Pyongyang[Seogyeong]. Therefore, it is highly likely that the Seogyeong in the Goryeo Dynasty consisted of the four-fortress system of ‘Jaeseong[Naeseong], Naseong[Ouiseong], Hwangseong[Joongseong], and Bukseong’.
  • 4.

    System and Operation of Milbu(密符) in the Joseon Dynasty

    Noh In Hwan | 2020, (115) | pp.121~165 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the Joseon Dynasty, the Milbu(密符), a round shape signal plaque made of wood, was given to the Milbukwan(密符官) when the troops were mobilized by the king's order. This system was implemented in the period of King Sejo. In Sokdaejeon(續大典), which was promulgated in 1746 (King Yeongjo 22), the Milbu-related regulations were legislated and recorded first and were enforced until 1895 (King Gojong 32). Milbu had the first to forty-fifth sections recorded in the center on the front page in order, and Letter Jwa(left) on the left side and letter Wu(right) on the right side and the engraving of kings' signature(Eoap, 御押) on the back page. When a king passed away and the succeeding king was enthroned, the Milbu was replaced with a new one because of the engraved signature of the previous king, In the later Joseon Dynasty, the Milbu was reconstructed and replaced according to the procedure: The Seungjeongwon Office submitted Gyesa(啓辭) to the king and received Gyeha(king's approval, 啓下), and then Seungjeongwon compiled the king's order about the reconstruction and replacement into Yuji (Official Letter of King's Command, 有旨) and delivered it to the Milbukwan (official). There was the Milbukwan office in Gwanchalsa(觀察使), Jeoldosa(節度使), Yusu(留守), Tongjesa(統制使), Tongeosa(統禦使), Bangeosa(防禦使), and Chongyungsa(摠戎使). The king delivered the Milbu to a Milbukwan at the palace when he was leaving the palace. If a Milbukwan was newly appointed and exempted from being present before the king, the Milbu was delivered to him at the place of appointment or he received the Milbu from his predecessor. And when a Milbukwan was appointed to a new official position with an appointment on exemption of being present before the king, he continued to use the Milbu. In order to systematically manage the handover of the Milbu, the Seungjeongwon Office wrote and managed Milbuchibuhaek(密符置簿冊) such as Myeongso Hobu Milbuchaek(命召虎符密符冊). Because the Milbu was the medium which connects the military power between the king and local officials, it was strictly managed and operated.
  • 5.

    U.S. Navy Commodore Shufeldt and the Establishing Joseon(former Korea)-U.S. diplomatic Relations - Focusing on the International Relations of East Asia

    Deokkyoo Choi | 2020, (115) | pp.167~213 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The key point of Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce and Navigation, Joseon-United States Treaty (1882) was whether or not to insert the article for dependency of Korea on Qing dynasty. Commodore Shufeldt, the U.S. representative granted full authority from the US government, thwarted the attempt of the China to specify it for the reason of hindering the signing of a treaty on terms of equality and courtesy between Joseon and the United States. Thus, the treaty became the basis of international law for Korea in it’s history to be recognized as an independent country politically, and open market where would not allow monopolies and privileges by the principle of equal opportunity, to certain countries economically. As a result, Shufeldt was able to put into practice his belief that America's prosperity depended on trade with Asian countries. Li Hung-chang's idea of "dependency article" was to recruit the United States as a country that jointly protects Korea along with the Qing Dynasty. In the critical situations with Ryukyu annexation (1879) by Japan and the appearance of russian fleet led by admiral Lesovsky into the China sea, Li Hung-chang formed a scheme to cooperate with the U.S. in defense against Russia and Japan which led to the Russo-Chinese War crisis. Thus, if Shufeldt agreed to the "dependency article," Li wanted to seek defense cooperation with the U.S. based on the traditional Korea-Chinese relationship. In response, Establishing of Joseon(Korea)-U.S. diplomatic relations presented a broad spectrum of Korea's future status. While Korea, being on terms of equality with the U.S., wanted to move away from its traditional dependency status on the Qing Dynasty and become an independent country, the China tried to strengthen its tributary relations with Korea. As a result, Korea's international status became a pendulum movement between independent and subordinate countries, linking it to the hegemonic rivalry between U.S. and China on the Korean Peninsula.
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