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2021, Vol., No.121

  • 1.

    The Rhee(the first president of ROK) Government’s Air Power Buildup Effort from 1948 to 1950

    Lee Jiwon | 2021, (121) | pp.1~37 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In 1949, DPRK had four times as many military aircrafts as ROK. Since then, the gap between them had continued to widen. Shortly before the outbreak of the Korean War, DPRK possessed ten times more aircrafts than ROK. Inferiority of ROK air power weakened the power of deterrence against the DPRK's attack, and became a serious obstacle to defending against the attack of mechanized units of DPRK at the beginning of the war. In this paper, the failure of the air power buildup policy is analyzed by dividing it into three periods. Immediately after taking office, the Rhee government attempted to build an offensive air force, including B-25 bombers, but this policy conflicted with USA policy of containment against USSR. USA sets a criterion that air aid to ROK is limited to 'air liaison detachment' with the size of about 12 aircraft. In the spring of 1949, the Rhee government recognizing the threat of the air power inferiority, proposed a more realistic plan to build a defensive air power to USA and requested aid. However, USA held on the criterion of 'air detachment'. It was not until 1950 that USA began to sympathize with the problem of inferior air power. Korea pursued a policy of reinforcing the military units with new recruit before receiving aircraft. However, the response of USA was too slow, and DPRK went to war before air aid for ROK was implemented. Although Korea's air power buildup efforts failed, the personnel recruited during this period became the basis for rapid adaptation when receiving aircraft aid after the outbreak of the war. However, the blueprint for air power buildup established at the time became the standard for ROK’s air force buildup policy during the war period.
  • 2.

    The Independent Activities in Manchria conducted by military Instructor ‘Oh Kwangsun’ in Sinheung Military Academy

    Kimmyungseob | 2021, (121) | pp.39~70 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Oh-Kwangsun sought asylum to China in 1917 following the teachings of his father's "Righteous Army" against imperial Japan and his hometown teacher, Yeo-jun. He joined Sinheung Military school in Seogando, China, where he became an instructor and an independent military official. He also led the Korean-Chinese coalition to the battlefield as the head of the Korean Independent Army. As his mentor Yeo Jun passed away, he served as a official for the cultivation of the Independence Army along with Yi,Cheong-chun under the orders of President Kim-Gu of the Provisional Government of Korea. Furthermore, he infiltrated Beijing, an occupied area of the Japanese military, and was sentenced to prison for spying. After his country’s liberation, he served as the head of the Liberation Army's domestic zone to help the provisional government return to the country, and was a typical anti-Japanese and founding soldier who had served till his last rank of brigadier general while participated in the creation of the Korean military. Furthermore, his two children and his son-in-law worked hard on the independence movement. Indeed, he is a well-known family member who participated in the independence movement for three consecutive generations. Oh-Gwang-seon's life is dominated by the anti-Japanese independence movements and the construction of a liberated Korea. Not only did he participate in various battles at the forefront of the anti-Japanese independence war, but he also contributed to the creation of the Korean Armed Forces. His life in the construction of a liberated Korea must be the great root of today's Republic of Korea.
  • 3.

    A study on the Amphibious operations of the Unggi and Rajin area conducted by the Pacific Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот)

    Park Huiseong | 2021, (121) | pp.71~99 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article looked at the Unggi and Rajin Amphibious operations of the Soviet Navy's Pacific Fleet in August 1945. As the Allied Forces won World War II, Korea was liberated. The Soviet Army declared war on Japan on August 8, 1945 and participated in the second world war. The Soviet ground forces attacked Manchuria and defeated the Japanese Kwandong Army. And as a subsequent operation, they advanced to the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. The Pacific Fleet occupied ports in the North Korean region, with the aim of preventing the retreat and reinforcement of Japanese Kwandong forces. Air units belonging to the Pacific Fleet bombed the Japanese naval bases in Unggi, Rajin and Chongjin on August 9 and 10, 1945. The Pacific Fleet attacked Unggi on August 11, 1945. Operation Unggi was carried out by the Fleet Command's reconnaissance units and marines. And on the 12th, the landing force occupied Unggi Port and Unggi City without much resistance. The operation to Rajin began on August 12. Also, the Fleet Command's reconnaissance unit and marines were in charge of the operation. The reconnaissance unit occupied Rajin Port first and secured a bridgehead, and the main landing unit completed the landing on the morning of the 13th. Subsequently, while occupying Ungisi and the outlying hills, they attacked the Japanese forces and cleared out the Japanese forces in Daechodo and Sochodo.
  • 4.

    The process of advance into the Han River basin during the period of King Jinheung of Silla Dynasty

    Kim, Deok-Won | 2021, (121) | pp.101~142 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The process of advancing into the Han River basin of King Jinheung of Silla ranges from the time of advancing into the Han River Basin in 551 to the Battle of Gwansanseong Fortress in 554. This can be referred to as ‘the Han River Military Campaign(한강 戰役[551-554])’ of that period. The two countries of Silla and Baekje would carry out surprise attacks to break up Goguryeo's defense system, using camouflage tactics and deception ones. At this time, Geochilbu(거칠부) played the most important role, and his experience of youth was very helpful for doing his duty. In 553, Silla took away Baekje's frontier area and set up Sinju(新州) which means new area of state. In the same year, Founding the Country(開國) and Sinju had a common aspect in that they were performed with the same goal of advancing into the Han River basin. In other words, it reflected King Jinheung's political ideal of ‘a new ju(신주)’ of Silla which ‘opened a new state(개국)’ different from before. Sinju has a meaning that symbolizes the Han River basin itself as a result of the country's founding. And Kim Mu-Ryuk(김무력) was appointed as the governor of Sinju, which is related to the policy of subjugation of people of the region. In 554, Baekje attacked Gwansanseong Fortress of Silla, and Silla was preparing for this in advance by obtaining information that King ‘Seong’ had come directly to the front line. At that time, it is presumed that a certain sympathy was formed between the Gaya forces, which were organized as the military power of Sinju, and the Daegaya forces, who participated in the Battle of Gwansanseong Fortress, and conveyed King Seong's movements.
  • 5.

    The Research on the tactics of heavy equipped cavalry in the period of ancient Korea

    Yang Seong-min | 2021, (121) | pp.143~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Heavy equipped cavalry are units with heavy equipments not only armor for riding soldiers but also their horses. Generally, Heavy equipped cavalry are considered to be soldiers who use weapons such as spears and swords to charge into enemy formation. In this study, we will look at tactics meaning of heavy equipped cavalry in campaign and battles. The ancient Korean horse is a spices of small horse belonging to the category of the Pony. Therefore it is not suitable to play the bearer of a heavy equipped cavalry who equipped a horse armor. In order to overcome this problem, The Horses, which were brought from the West, would have played the heavy equipped cavalry. However, even These horses from overseas were bigger than the spices of pony, they could not move for a long time because of the weight of armor for them. The survivability of heavy equipped cavalry with a horse armor was not compared to those of other ordinary cavalries. The psychological pressure it impressed on the enemy was also enormous. These are why heavy equipped cavalry prevailed until the Middle Age’s battlefield. But the tactical limitations were also clear. The biggest reason is the weight of the armor on horses. the horse armor provided the horse with strong survivability power, but it is a double-edged sword that prevents the horse from moving at high speed for a long time. The low utilization of heavy equipped cavalry applies not only to the decisive battle but also to campaign situations.
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