military history 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.0

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2022, Vol., No.122

  • 1.

    A Study on the Fire employment of the R.O.K. Army and U.N. Forces during the Battle of Yongmunsan in May 1951

    Ryu, Eui-yeon | 2022, (122) | pp.1~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempts to research the fire employment of the 6th Infantry Division of R.O.K. Army and the 9th Corps of U.S. Armed forces in the Battle of Yongmunsan from May 17 to May 21, in 1951. The research on the history of combat has been carried out mainly in terms of maneuver, and the detailed analysis of the operation of firepower is insufficient. In order to understand the Korean War, the analysis of firepower was a key factor throughout the whole war, it is necessary to study the field artillery tactical manuals, command and control systems, weapons systems, and support systems of the artillery units of the U.N. Forces at that time. For that, this study analyzes the ROK 6th Division’s combat reports, official publicized history of the Ministry of National Defense and the Army, testimonies of artillery veterans, records of the Chinese Communist Army and reports of Soviet military advisers, and reports of the U.S. 9th Corps. In the Battle of Yongmunsan, the U.N. Forces was able to stop the large-scale offensive operation carried out by Chinese forces based on the standard of using firepower, limitation by terrain and weather conditions, overwhelming artillery capabilities compared to the enemy, and sufficient logistics support. There were various problems during operations, but they were overcome by flexible firepower operations that were not fixed. Due to the strong and effective use of firepower, the 2nd Regiment of the ROK 6th Division was able to defeat the 63rd Army of China, which was three times larger.
  • 2.

    The Navy Flag : the symbol of Republic of Korea Navy

    Shin, Seongjae | 2022, (122) | pp.37~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Navy Flag represents and symbolizes Republic of Korea Navy(ROK Navy). This passage aims to discuss on the process of establishment for the flag, symbols inside it, and the historical meanings behind the Navy Flag, the representation of ROK Navy. The official and historical documentation of the Navy Flag can be found in the text "Republic of Korea Naval History" published in 1961 by ROK Navy Headquarters. The text writes that the Navy Flag was first announced in June 15, 1946, when the Joseon Coast Guard was established. The original Navy Flag had the same design as the present one, exhibiting the Taegeuk symbol and the crossed anchors on the deep blue background. However, the anchors do not appear on the Navy's pictorial album published at that time. The analysis on the flag revealed although it is true that the flag was established at the time of the Joseon Coast Guard, the flag only had the Taegeuk symbol on its background, missing the crossed anchors. It was not until the official launch of ROK Navy, August 15, 1948, that the Navy Flag had the crossed anchors on its background as it is today. The deep blue background, the crossed anchors, and the Taegeuk symbol, each one symbolizes the Korean seas surrounding the country, the naval solidarity, and Republic of Korea itself. It is certain that Admiral Son Won-il and Jung Geung-mo were the central figures in the making of the Navy Flag. Admiral Kim Young-chul, Admiral Kim Il-byung, and Jang Ho-geun are also likely to be involved in the process according to records, although further examination needs to be undertaken. Of all the patterns in the Navy Flag, Taegeuk is a unique pattern symbolizing Republic of Korea. However, the crossed anchors derive from the cap badges used by the United States Navy officers. The ROK Navy chose to adopt such pattern in times of the long-lasting close ties with the United States Navy. Thus, in terms of the history of patterns, the Navy Flag patterns include Taegeuk, the symbol of Republic of Korea and the crossed anchors from US Navy. After its establishment, the Navy Flag became the prototype model for the flags of the Navy units. It also influenced the badge of 30 year service for Navy officers and chief petty officers. The Navy Flag, which consists of Taegeuk and the crossed anchors, is also used in the insignias of naval officers.
  • 3.

    The anti-Japanese song at Shingheung Military Academy and Gumsung school

    Kimmyungseob | 2022, (122) | pp.81~115 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Graduates of Shinheung Military Academy(新興武官學校) and Gumsung School(儉成學校), the cradle of the Manchurian armed independence movement in the 1910s and 20s, made many anti-Japanese songs, and they sang, kept them together, and raised the spirit of independence. The ‘Korean national anthem(愛國歌)’ sung by Shinheung Military Academy was slightly different from the lyrics of the Korean National anthem in Chapter 12 of the Patriotic Song Book in 1910, and the tune seems to be "Auld Lang Syne." Singheung Military Academy song borrows ‘Marching Through Georgia’, and Shinheung-student unit price borrows ‘Swanne River’. Among the independent military songs, there is also a song that borrowed the tune of the Japanese Changga(唱歌) and changed it into patriotic lyrics, which changed the lyrics of the song from Gwangseong School's "The Collection of the Latest Changga" in 1914. As an example, ‘(Independent Army) Yongjinga(勇進歌)’ borrowed the Japanese Changga, and ‘The Thought of Homeland’ borrowed the tune of ‘Fallow Soldier(戰友)’, a Japanese soldier, and sang it as an anti-Japanese song. Since the March 1st Movements in 1919, the original copy of the song, known as the ‘March 1st Independence Movements Song(3·1運動歌)’, had been called by many exiles, indicating that the ‘Dogang song(渡江歌)’ is the original version of the song. However, Shinheung Military Academy was inevitably closed in June 1920 due to the Japanese army invasion. Since then, Yeojun(呂準), who served as the principal established and opened Gumsung School to succeed Shinheung Military Academy. Students at Geomseong School often sang ‘Shinheung Military Academy School Song’ and ‘Songs of Independence Army’ here. In particular, among the anti-Japanese songs sung by students, ‘Song of National Humiliation’ expressed on the indignity of being lost the country by Japan in 1910, "Baseball" sung on sports day, and ‘March of Victory’ sung as a military song of the independent army.
  • 4.

    The Military Implication and the Establishment of Market at the Song-pa(松坡) located in the Area of Han River during the period of late Joseon Dynasty

    Kim, Misung | 2022, (122) | pp.117~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to reveal a case showing the interrelationship between commerce and military facilities by demonstrating that Song-pa area was a strategic point for the military defense of the capital city, Seoul. This point served as an important background for the commercial development of Song-pa area in the late Joseon Dynasty. The military purpose and function of Songpa Market were penetrating the process of beginning and prospering of it. First, the river port of Song-pa was one of ‘the four ports’ among the Han River, which were selected as the special ports controlled by each military camp since 18th century. This was also the place where Gwang-ju(廣州)‘s military office(鎭舍), garrison farms(屯田), and military troops were located. Second, the warehouse of Song-pa functioned as a key military storage for Nam-han-san-seong(南漢山城). It was the primary collection point for the rice used by military purpose, timber, or pine boards transported through the upper and lower parts of the Han River before moving them to the mountain fortress. The grains of the warehouse were distributed to the civilian nearby in the spring, and they repaid them to Nam-han-san-seong in the fall. Third, Song-pa Market was opened due to the suggestion of a military commander in the early 18th century to recruit a sufficient population to a strategic military location and to ensure a stable livelihood for them. It was opened nearby Nam-han-san-seong but moved to Song-pa port. Song-pa Market grew rapidly, and in the early 19th century, it was counted as one of the 15 largest market place in the country. Even when it was argued that Song-pa Market should be demolished in the name of protecting Shi-jeon(市廛) merchants, it could be remained due to its military function. As such, in the case of Songpa, the local market was opened, relocated, grown, and maintained according to military necessity. This case shows that we need to consider the influence of military facilities in the study of commercial history in the late Joseon Dynasty.
  • 5.

    The Changes in battle formation training and the establishment of 'Daeyeul' in early Chosŏn dynasty

    Daeyeong Heo | 2022, (122) | pp.161~203 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    During the oepiod of the early Chosŏn Dynasty, The battle formation training was established as a military training ritual called ‘Daeyeul’, and had two characteristics: military training and military ritual. In previous studies, one only aspect of military training rituals has been focused on military training or military rituals. This thesis aims to reveal the military historical implications by examining the changes of battle formation training of Deayeul established as military training rituals in the early Chosŏn. The Battle formation training in the early Chosŏn was organized as a military training ritual from the King Taejong's regime. At that time, the ritual process of Daeyeul followed Kaiyuan Rites, but training process was based on Jindobeop. The Jindobeop followed Jeong Do-jeon's military theory, which was succeeded Rites of Zhou. The task of establishing the Daeyeul as a military training ritual at the Sejong's regime was to unify the ritual process of Kaiyuan Rites with the Rites of Zhou. For the purpose, Gyechukjinseol was published and it was possible to establish Daeyeul as the ideal training ritual in Chosŏn. After that, the training methods of the military training rituals of Chosŏn began to change. Ideological and the formal training methods were problems and tried to improve it. New training methods were attempted through Yeulmu, Sŭbjin. At first Military books of Chosŏn was just reorganizing the contents of Chinese military studies, but OwiJinbeop, an independent military training methods were created. The training types in OwiJinbeop was practical and concrete training that changed from ideological and formal training.
  • 6.

    The War Situation of the Goguryeo-Táng War in 661

    Minsu Lee | 2022, (122) | pp.205~248 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the battle situation of the Goguryeo-Táng War in 661. In 661, 350,000 Táng troops attacked Liaodong, Yalu River, and Pyongyang. Goguryeo's defense strategies were to block the supply routes of the Yalu River while guarding the castle with a Liaodong defense net, press the party in connection with nomadic forces in the northwest, wait for the party's lack of food, and turning into an offensive phase. On the Liaodong front, Chéngmíngzhèn's army(Nubang attacking army) fought against Go Eul-deok's army outside and captured Go Eul-deok, but Goguryeo's army succeeded in protecting the divinity and stopping the party's advance. On the Yalu River front, Qì bì hé lì's army(Liáodōng attacking army) tried to secure a supply base north of the Yalu River, but was previously blocked by tens of thousands of Namsaeng's army troops deployed south of the Yalu River. However, when the Yalu River suddenly froze, Qì bì hé lì's army crossed the Yalu River, defeated Namsaeng's army, and chased Cheolsan. On the Pyongyang front, party naval forces led by Sūdìngfāng(Pyongyang attacking army), Rèn yǎ xiāng(Paegang attacking army), and Páng xiàotài(Okjeo attacking army) defeated Goguryeo naval forces at the mouth of the Pae River and succeeded in siege Pyongyang. However, while Sūdìngfāng's army in charge of Pyongyang supplies were blocked by Namsaeng's army, the supplies were cut off and failed to maintain the momentum and struggled with Goguryeo's resistance. In addition, the Silla army, which was advancing to Goguryeo, was unable to advance to Goguryeo due to the Baekje Revival Army. Sūdìngfāng asked Silla to supply it to overcome these difficulties. In this situation, Qìdān, which was linked to the nomadic forces of the meadow, Töles and Goguryeo, rebelled against the party. As a result, the Ā shǐ nà zhōng and Xiāosìyè forces that attacked the fluctuation and the Qì bì hé lì forces that attacked the Yalu River retreated toward Töles, making the party more disadvantageous. When the Táng army began to withdraw to the Töles front, the Liaodong Goguryeo army switched to an offensive and launched a counterattack, and in the process, Chéngmíngzhèn, who remained in Liaodong, lost. In Pyongyang, Goguryeo's counterattack intensified, and it achieved certain results in stealing two military bases of the party and sending envoys to Japan to break through the party's siege. On the other hand, the party faced the worst situation of having to wait for the supply of Silla while defending Goguryeo's counterattack in cold weather.
  • 7.

    The war between Yan, Qin and Kochosun during the period of Ancient China ansd Korea

    YOON BYOUNGMO | 2022, (122) | pp.249~285 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The first document in which the name ‘Choseon’ appears is 『Guanzi』. According to 『Guanzi』, the name ‘Choseon’ already appeared in the middle of the 7th century BC. It is reasonable to view BalChoseon at this time as Bohai's Choseon, unlike the existing interpretation. In some cases, when Yan was attacked by Shanrong, Qi attacks Shanrong through Yan, or Shanrong attacks Qi through Yan. Shanrong, who tormented Yan, disappeared in the middle and end of the Chunqiu period, and Donghu appears instead. Yan and Qi developed into a stage where they attacked each other through mutual checks or direct wars. Yan was in a major civil war in 316 BC, and Yan was invaded by Qi. Yan, on the other hand, sets out to conquer Qi in 284 BC. Capture Renzi, the capital of Qi. To the east of Yan at that time were Choseon and Liaodong. Among them, the order of Hutuo and Yishui was recorded in the direction of viewing. Therefore, the tribal names Choseon and Liaodong were also written in order. The invasion of Donghu and Choseon was after Yan conquered Qi. There is a fact that Wiman subjugated Jinbeon in Yan's heyday. Therefore, Choseon, which Yan invaded and destroyed, should be regarded as Jinbeon. Jinbeon was not included in Yan's Great Wall. Qin overthrew Yan and makes it belonged to Liaodongwaijiao. The Qin Great Wall reached now XiLiaohe north of Liaohe. Choseon took advantage of the chaotic period of the Qin-Han transition to usurp Yan's east. After Qin destroyed Yan, Choseon took over the interior of Liaodongwaijiao.
  • 8.

    An Analysis and Lessons learned of the USMC’s Maritime Interception Operations in the Persian Gulf War in 1990

    LEE PYO KYU | 2022, (122) | pp.287~334 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyse the maritime interception operations conducted by the 13th MEU and 4th MEB during the Persian Gulf War in 1990 using the framework posited by the maritime strategists, and to evaluate the value of the Marine Corps in the maritime interception operation. According the results of this study, the five interception operations conducted by the USMCs were very effective. They participated in the each operation at the last 5th stage: Forcible entry using Helicopter movement and fast rope insertion, and controled the crews and engines. After that the other teams such as the international law enforcement, military police, and ship inspection teams were board and ended the operations. With these operations, gave significant damages on the accumulations of Iraqi military power and raised positive responses from the international community. As a result, they ultimately contributed the victory of the multinational coalition forces. The factors that those operations were successful are found from the flexible commanding relationship of the theater command and control system, through preparedness in peacetime and before waging the operations like real war. In addition to this, the cooperations among the various operational elements provided by the USMC, US Navy and the other international fleets. These kinds of maritime interception operations against enemy fleet, commercial and passenger ships do not merely contribute to the maritime control in the theater, but also influence to the sustainment capabilities of the opponent. Consequently, the great maritime strategists, Geoffrey Till evaluate them as the decisive operations directly approaching the enemy’s center of gravity. If a Korean war is occurred in the future, the procedures of waging war in the coastal area would be very similar with those of the persian Gulf War at the initial stage. Therefore, we need to establish the concept and definition of maritime interception operations and to continuously research the relevant subjects accepting the lessons of this study.
  • 9.

    The Limitations of Roman Military Logistics during the Gallic War

    EUN SUK BAE | 2022, (122) | pp.335~374 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to reveal whether the logistics system is properly prepared in the actual battlefield, as Caesar emphasized the logistic system. Caesar relied on the supply of munitions from the Gauls, allied with Rome. However, Caesar was not well prepared for the betrayal of the allies. One way was to loot food or livestock from local residents. However, looting was a way to refrain from spreading of the hostile Gauls. Harvesting on the battle spot during the harvest season was also a method, but this also had the disadvantage of being highly likely to be attacked by enemies due to loose boundaries due to harvesting. Caesar's lack of munitions led to hasty and improvised operational changes to secure munitions, which led to operational failure. When munitions were transported to battlefields or other garrison sites, it was cheaper and took less time to transport by sea than by land. However, the battlefield of Caesar's army was inland away from the sea or river, so it was not easy to take advantage of the sea route. Mountains, forests, and swamps were used as logistical bases, which made it difficult to connect with the logistics lines behind them. In addition, munitions were kept in one place for the convenience of defense and distribution, and there is a possibility that munitions may be lost due to an enemy attack. Therefore, there were problems in Caesar's method of transporting and storing munitions and selecting a logistical base. Even if it is a victorious war, it cannot be said that all strategies, tactics, leadership, and military logistics are perfect. Caesar made great efforts to secure military supplies, but suffered from a constant shortage of military supplies. His situation was poor compared to the period of the Punic War, when there was a centralized military logistical system, or the Imperial period when the supply of munitions was constant with the standing army system and the permanent garrison system. Therefore, it can be said that the late republican period had limitations in military logistics compared to the previous or later periods.
  • 10.

    Analysis of the Geopolitical Value of the Korean Peninsula and the Military Competition between the U.S. and China

    Kang, Jungill | 2022, (122) | pp.375~419 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research paper is about the Geopolitical value of the Korean Peninsula, which is one of the factors the U.S. and China’s battle for hegemony. To further analyze “geopolitical position” that implies, Spykman's Rimland theory was used, and past examples were used to obtain a better answer on “What Kind of do they seek within the Korean Peninsula? And what kind of military strategies have been utilizing?”. The change in the military strategies of the U.S. and China, or other word’s China's anti-access/regional denial (A2AD) strategy and U.S. multi-domain operations (MDO) were analyzed in order to examine how the traditional U.S. and Chinese view of Korean Peninsula is currently being applied. This gives a better understanding how important the Korean Peninsula is, and what it implies for the future of U.S. and China. The Korean Peninsula is a key area from a strategic point of view where the U.S. and China can pitch their power, as the land and sea can separated, and on the contrast, the a coastal area can also provide to be medicator that can connect the force on opposite sides, Therefore with these reason the Korean Peninsula has no choice but to be in middle of a continuous conflict. During the Cold War, the Korean Peninsula was a sensitive buffer zone that had to endure political and ideological conflicts, and with the current separation maintained between South Korea and North Korea, ti is still one of the only places where the legacy of the Cold War is preserved. With regards to military security, the Korean Peninsula is located within the first island chain of A2AD strategy hence it is a competitive space for the U.S’s MDO and its containment policy on China. South Korea must take into consideration Geopolitical factors and prepare to make strategic choices by closely monitoring the operational environment regardless dichotomous thinking.
  • 11.

    The Creation and Selection of Strategic Alternatives - A Case Study of the Project Solarium -

    Lee,Jin-ki , Sohn, Hanbyeol | 2022, (122) | pp.421~462 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Strategic planning is the process of selecting ways and means to achieve goals. Therefore, the process of creating and selecting various strategic alternatives takes up a key step in strategic planning. The organization, procedures, and methods of strategic planning should be developed to accurately recognize threats, explore and analyze strategic alternatives, select strategies and perform a series of processes that combine organizational capabilities. The U.S. "Project Solarium" was run by the Eisenhower administration in the early Cold War to explore strategic alternatives against the Soviet Union. It is regarded as the most successful strategic planning process in history. Strategic alternatives were created and selected through the guidance by the president as the chief manager, the operation of Dolittle Panel for the Strategic Planning Committee, and the dynamic activities of the three teams that were strategic planning teams. The result was embodied as a "New Look policy" and established as a strategy to counter the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War.
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