military history 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.0

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pISSN : 1598-317X / eISSN : 2713-8992

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2022, Vol., No.123

  • 1.

    The Review of Historical Value for the Excavation of those who Killed in Battle and their Remains during the Korean War

    고종성 | 2022, (123) | pp.1~57 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study inquires if the remains and their leftover objects collected by an excavation of the Korean War fallen could be used as essential historical source for the research of Korean War history. The fallen who were dead in the middle of battle did not receive any proper attention from existing studies. Along with the excavation which has been conducted as the 50th anniversary commemorative project of the Korean War, the objects left over by the fallen began to get spotlighted for the first time. The Korean armed forces confronted the outbreak of war in the absence of experience and a record system, especially the case of the war fallen. The outcome of this excavation in the current situation is the critical source for an empirical understanding of the existence of the Korean War fallen. North-Gyeongsang Province is the area where the sacrifice of the Korean soldiers eventually got the opportunity for counterattack: the defense line of the Nakdong River had been built there in alliance with the military forces of United Nations by a delaying action throughout the region of Sobaek Mountains. The distribution of the Korean War fallen in the major battlefields of Gyeongsangbukdo shows that in the battlefields such as Punggi, Andong, Mungyeong, Yeongdeok, Uiseong, and Chilgok, which had been recorded in the existing research of war history, a significant number of the fallen were excavated. Moreover, the excavated number of the fallen in the battlefields of Pohang and Yeongcheon exceeds the previously expected scale, which makes a new base to re-confirm the existing studies of the Korean War history. The objects excavated with the Korean War can be classified by types as weapon, ammunition, clothing, military boots, equipment, and personal belongings. These are used as an essential material for identification: successfully analyzing the properties of objects by types can identify the nationality of the deceased person, i.e., to distinguish whether they are friendly or foe. In conclusion, information on the remains and the objects of the Korean War fallen obtained by excavation can be used as historical source through the various ways of analysis. This allows a more empirical approach to the Korean War fallen who had been left just as an object of simple commemoration.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Reserved Military Units of the Korean Independence Forces during the Liberation Period

    EOM TAEYONG | 2022, (123) | pp.59~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the nature and operation of "the Korean Independence Army Reserve Units", which was established and operated after the Independence from the Japan Occupation, as a force supporting the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea and the Korean Independence Army. This study analyzed artifacts of the Korean Independence Army Reserve owned by KAM(Korea Army Museum) along with various media articles and photographs discovered in the 12th safe cabinet located in Seoul City Hall in 1972. Based on these materials, This study examine the establishment, activity, organization structure, and operation of the Korean Independence Army Reserve, and also analyzed the relationship with the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea and Korean Independence Army. In addition, This study compared the lists of discovered materials published by media in 1972 with the list of artifacts in KAM so that it can be used as basic data for the further additional investigation of artifacts of Korean Independence Army Reserve. This study is significant in a sense that it examined in detail the nature and operation of Korean Independence Army Reserve, which has not been clearly studied until now through analysing related historical materials and artifacts owned by KAM.
  • 3.

    The Production of Gun Carriages during the period of 1860∼70’s of Joseon Dynasty and the Influx of Large Scale Cannons during the Meiji Japan Period

    JAY JUNG LEE | 2022, (123) | pp.133~172 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the types and technical traits of gun carriages produced in the period of 1860∼70’s Joseon dynasty, and suggests that the influx of Japan made Cannons in Meiji period had heavy influence on Joseon gun carriage production. Alarmed by western weapons used during Byeongin Yangyo, Joseon produced new types of weapons based on its understanding of the book of ‘Yangmoo’, which is Self-strengthening Movement texts from Qing. Production of gun carriages especially has shown drastic change, as exemplified by Unhyeon-gung Small Cannon Carriage. Compared to gun carriages produced under the influence of Qing texts on Self-strengthening Movement, Unhyeon-gung Small Cannon Carriage shows application of western military technology unobtainable from Qing texts alone. This strongly suggests that Joseon was able to obtain and directly investigate western weaponry instead of relying on Qing texts. This is supported by documents which Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan compiled during Meiji Period. According to documents from Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, Joseon has imported Yonkin Sanpo (4-Kilogram Mountain Gun), a type of Western Cannons produced by Meiji Japan, in 1873. Furthermore Japanese Enclave(Waegwan) in Choryang stored 4 Yonkin Sanpo and openly demonstrated their performance to Koreans. It is likely that production of Unhyeon-gung Small Cannon Carriage was heavily inspired by the influx of Yonkin Sanpo through Joseon-Japan trade and Japanese Enclave weapon demonstrations. Moreover Joseon’s need to produce improved cannons after Sinmi Yangyo, coupled with Japan’s intention to dispose of outdated Yonkin Sanpo in ever-changing global arms market, has facilitated the production of Unhyeon-gung Small Cannon Carriage. In this regard Unhyeon-gung Small Cannon Carriage not only reveals continuous Joseon efforts to produce new weaponry from post-Byeongin Yangyo to 1870’s, but also implies the inclusion of Joseon into Global arms market through importation of Japanese Cannons.
  • 4.

    An Re-examination of Syngman Rhee, the First President of ROK, and his the action of Release of War Prisoners during the Korean War based on the Logic of Putnam's Two-Level Game Theory - Focusing on Negotiation Theory and Winset -

    PARK JAE HONG | 2022, (123) | pp.173~217 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Prior to release of anti-communism prisoners of Korean war, In order to direct the negotiations towards his advantage, ROK president Syngman Rhee attempted to expand the win-set of the United States by reducing its win-set of ROK through a "strategy of being caught up", including independent military action aimed at the unification of the Korean Peninsula, anti-war movements, and anti-U.S. public opinion. While the United States gradually felt more and more threatened by Syngman Rhee's position, it did not act as a threat to the stage where it felt the need to conclude negotiations. As a result, the win-set of the United States did not expand. Thus, the reason why Rhee Syngman's negotiation strategy failed was that he has failed to expand the win-set of the United States. The United States had the need to provide security to South Korea to prevent the expansion of communist forces, but there was not enough motivation until the signing of a mutual defense treaty. In the end, Rhee Syngman's strategy posed a certain level of threat to the United States, but it did not act as a sufficient and feasible threat for the United States to expand the win-set. Since the release of the war prisoners, the U.S. actively mentioned the situation of ratification in the U.S. and responded positively to the signing of a mutual defense treaty with South Korea, which then led to Rhee's release of the prisoners and acted as a basis for expanding the U.S. win-set. From this point of view, it proves that Rhee Syngman's release of prisoners served as an opportunity for the Korea-U.S. mutual defense treaty to be signed. Something that Rhee was aiming for. Assuming that the release of prisoners would lead to a state of disputes and conflicts, negotiations would have finally failed. In such a scenario, South Korea would not have been able to sign a mutual defense treaty with the United States, and the United States would not have been able to win an honorable and safe political victory on the Korean Peninsula without cooperation from South Korea. Although there are criticisms that there was a phase in which the mutual conflict between Korea and the United States continued during the negotiation process, eventually it was demonstrated that the release of prisoners has expanded the win-set of the United States.
  • 5.

    A Study of the Establishment of the U.S. Maneuver Warfare - Focusing on the Formation of the U.S. AirLand Battle(ALB) Doctrine -

    Kim Young Hwan | 2022, (123) | pp.219~260 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The thought of maneuver warfare formed during the interwar period was proven to be effective through the World War II, and after the war, it attracted attention as a new paradigm for carrying out the war. Nevertheless, the value and effectiveness of maneuver warfare in the United States did not receive attention, and a strategic culture that emphasized the firepower-attrition warfare centered on large quantities was formed. Moreover, the tendency to value nuclear warfare following the emergence of nuclear weapons after World War II had hindered the development of operation art for a considerable period of time and had neglected the need for maneuver warfare. However, after the Vietnam War, the need for a new doctrine was raised to prepare for the decreasing defense budget and the relatively increasing mechanized power of the Soviet Union. In addition, due to RMA(Revolution of Military Affairs) after the Vietnam War, the latest weapon systems and maneuver force can be utilized to compensate for the insufficient force. As a result, a discourse on the effectiveness of maneuver warfare was formed in the U.S. military, and after the doctrine of the Active defense in 1976, the doctrine of AirLand Battle(ALB) was formed in 1982. However, the emergence of the doctrine of AirLand Battle did not mean a transition from the thought of the firepower-attrition warfare to the thought of maneuver warfare. In other words, an eclectic form of conduct of warfare that the firepower-attrition warfare and the maneuver warfare carried out complementarily emerged.
  • 6.

    [Book Review] Destined for War

    Doo, Jin-ho | 2022, (123) | pp.261~273 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    [Book Review]
  • 7.