military history 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.0

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pISSN : 1598-317X / eISSN : 2713-8992

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2022, Vol., No.124

  • 1.

    The Establishment and Operation of the Armed Forces Associate University just after the Korean War

    Sangho Lee | 2022, (124) | pp.1~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As part of higher education during the Korean War, education for soldiers began in February 1951 as a Wartime Associate University. However, this system was a higher education institution, including the general public, and active-duty soldiers could attend school only if they were posted in the rear area. In some previous studies, this Wartime Associate University was evaluated as Korea's original education system, but it was borrowed from China's National Southwestern Associate University in the late 1930s. But the reason why we're paying attention to the Wartime Associate University is that we can find out the initial appearance of the Armed Forces Associate University , which was established in January 1954, from the very basis of its establishment. In 1953, the Korean military strengthened general education in the military by imitating the system of the United Stated Armed Forces Institute and attempting to improve civic education. Along with such the education for the illiterate and elementary and secondary education, university education, which is a higher education, was conducted through an organization called the Armed Forces Associate UniversityThe Armed Forces Associate University had been executed for two years from 1954 to January 1956, educating about 3,200 students. At that time, the number of college students under the poor educational environment was just only 30,000. The operation and implementation of the university education system in the county have many implications. In other words, the emphasis of the military's modernization policy leading higher education can be seen. Often, the lead the way of modernization policies in the undeveloped countries from the acquisition of military discipline and advanced technology. In the case of Korea, educated officers have accumulated experience in managing projects that are beneficial to the national economy. It is meaningful that the Armed Forces Associate University played a part in the operation and achievement of higher education.
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    A Study on the Progress for the Jungju Castle Battle occurred in 1812 and the Comparison of the Capabilities of the Government Forces with the Rebel Armies

    KANG, SEOK HWA | 2022, (124) | pp.33~88 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Hong Gyeong-rae’s rebellion began in December 18th, 1811 and ended April 19th. 1812 during the middle age of Joseon Dynasty. Jeongju castle was besieged from December 29th, 1811 to April 19th, 1812, so the most part of the Hong Gyeong-rae’s rebellion was the battle of Jeongju castle. In this study, we examined the whole stages of the battle of Jeongju castle and compared capabilities of the government forces with the rebel armies. During the general attack, while the government forces used a new weapon called Yooncha(mobile carrier loaded with attack weapon), however, the rebels destroyed it with a new tool. As the long lasting siege exhausted their supplies such as food and weapons etc., the rebels dared to try advancing out of their castle only to fail. Because the rebels determined not to surrender for a long time, the government forces exploded the castle wall and captured those who survived. And then, except women and children, all of men patticipated in the rebellion, in total 1,917 ones were executed. With almost incompetent officers, the command center of the government forces could not give orders and make strategies, nor did it have enough combat powers including manning. The government forces could not hide sign of attack even in night and their siege weapons were useless without precision and endurance. They did not even use Hong’ipo to attack the rebels which was stored in Hullyeondogam(Central Army) located in Hanyang. But the rebels, acknowledging that they would fail by the lack of food and weapons, protected the castle by inventing and using effective defensive equipment until the end. The occupation of the castle was not the result of government forces’ victory, but the result of extinction of the rebels. This study focuses to review and analyze Hong Gyeong-rae’s rebellion and the battle of Jeongju castle by military perspectives which were not researched in former studies. Therefore, this study is a part a proof to understand Hong Gyeong-rae’s rebellion in total.
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    The Characteristics and its Affects of the Battle of Cheoin Castle(處仁城) in the Period of Goryeo-Mongol War

    HONG MinHo | 2022, (124) | pp.89~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is said that there is a main performer in war, and actions which reflect the characteristics of the subject. The main performer of war, Mongol forces made use of human resources weigh with such as prisoners of war. Therefore, before attacking the big castle(大城), they attacked a small village(小郡) firstly and took the people as prisoner. As Mongol advanced to the southern part of the Korean Peninsula at a later time, Cheoin Bugok(處仁部曲) was a small village that could take human resources relatively easily. The Salietai(撒禮塔)'s army, which had already taken on human and time damage in Gwangju(廣州), had to take control of several small villages and re-supply human resources. However, Salietai died in Cheoin Castle(處仁城), and the war is over temporarily. Cheoin Castle was not a national level operated military base at that time. If nothing remarkable happened, it could only remain as an area where Mongol army wiped out and passed by. However, the victory of Chein castle forced the Goryeo government to understand the situation centered on the battle of Cheoin Castle. And it was also confirmed that there could be as many people who were freed from the defense system. After the Battle of Cheoin Castle, the Goryeo government is complementing its defense policy in the stance of strengthening the protection of human resources while guaranteeing the capabilities of resistance. It is the echo of the Battle of Cheoin Castle and another significance of the battle.
  • 4.

    The Estimating Number of Soldiers Mobilized during the period of Tang Taizong’s Aggression of Goguryo - The Number and its Implications of Tang’s Forces based on the amount of Army Provisions for the Forces -

    Choi Jin Yeoul | 2022, (124) | pp.133~165 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is about estimating the number of soldiers mobilized during the period of the Tang Taizong’s aggression of Goguryo and clarifying the implications of the number. I estimated the number of Tang military forces participated in Anshi castle and Yodong(Liaodong in Chinese) castle battle, based on the provisions recorded in Ts'e-fu yuan-kui, New history of the Tang(Xin Tang shu), and Zizhi tongjian. I estimated the number of soldiers participated in Anshi castle and Yodong castle battle, ranging from 333,334(the record of Xin Tang shu) to 422,000(the record of Ts'e-fu yuan-kui) or ranging from 403,000 to 422,000 including Zhang Liang’s naval forces, whose figures were excluding the military forces commanded by Zhang Jian and others. If we consider the number of units transporting various materials as ships of the regular army, the Tang Taizong mobilized at least 11.97% or 11.36% of the whole population of the country. It means he mobilized at least 23.94% or 22.72% of the grown-up male population, which was a great burden on the subjects. This ratio of mobilization was higher than the 1st Invasion of Goguryeo(1.33 million mobilizations) by the Sui Yangdi who was criticized by Tang Taizong, which was one of the reasons for concealing the number of the military forces in Tang history records. This thesis has historical significance in that it becomes a breakthrough in re-evaluating the War of the High Command by accurately estimating the number of military personnel at the time of the invasion of Goguryeo by Tang Taizong and re-evaluated Tang Taizong, who was exaggerated in the image of a good and wise king.
  • 5.

    The Operation of Regional Strongholds in the 9th Century during the Three Kingdom Period of Korean Peninsular - A Case of Maro Mountain Fortress located in Gwangyang -

    choi kwon ho | 2022, (124) | pp.167~214 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Maro Mountain Fortress (Maro Sanseong, 馬老山城), a stone-stacked mountain stronghold built in the Baekje period, has revealed its full appearance through five excavation surveys so far. These surveys have identified artifacts and features from the 9th century, among which the “Marogwan” (馬老官, the office of Maro) roof tiles engraved with “Maro” 馬老, the old name of Gwangyang during the Baekje period, received the attention. The “Marogwan” tiles are intriguing in that their estimated production period (the 9th century) and the period when the place name “Maro” was used are different. Moreover, uniquely patterned eave-edge tiles, Chinese bronze mirrors, porcelains, bronze ornaments, and a bronze mirror engraved with “Wanga Jogyeong” (王家造鏡, a mirror made in the Wang family) were excavated from the 9th-century ruins of building and water collection facilities. The unprecedented combination of artifacts, which has never been found in any other excavation case, reveals the unique character of the forces that operated Maro Mountain Fortress. The 9th century witnessed the expansion of the territories of powerful local warlords as the control of the central government over the provinces weakened due to the power struggle between the central nobility. Given this historical background, the excavation of the tiles inscribed with ancient place names, such as “Maro”, in the strategic fortresses of Goguryeo and Baekje’s old territories strongly suggests the possibility that the producers of the tiles were powerful local warlords. In conclusion, the forces behind Maro Mountain Fortress in the 9th century were independent powerful local families. The “Marogwan” engraved roof tiles, as a concrete expression of their awareness of the national lineage, were produced to secure legitimacy and dominance over the territory in terms of the strategic aspect of operating the regional strongholds.
  • 6.

    The Historical Origin and Evolution of North Korea's ‘Independent' Military Thought

    Kim Tae Hyun | 2022, (124) | pp.215~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to explain the historical origin and evolution of North Korea's "independent" military thought from the perspective of "the pursuit of independence and the distortion of ideology," and to clarify that North Korean military ideology influenced the 'Su-Ryong(which means ringleader)-centered' regime security and offensive adventure strategy. In the process of applying the Max-Leninism to the characteristics of North Korea creatively, North Korea's military ideology was initially conceived as a "practical military guideline" focused on self-reliance. However, North Korea's military thought, coupled with the establishment of Kim Il-sung's monolithic political system in the late 1960s, was deflected from the nature of the "practical guideline" of "self-defense" to strengthen Kim Il-sung's monolithic political power and control. Specifically, North Korea's strategy to break away from the military influence and dependence of the Soviet Union and China during the Cold War was deflected into the political logic of supporting Kim Il-sung's "military genius". This refracted into a political logic affecting North Korea's offensive nature of military thought. Military thought as a "symbolic mechanism" for idol worship turned into "Mu-o-ryu-seong"(which means flawless or perfectness)of 'Su-ryong', and then became an unwavering military guideline to create an "immortal myth." Kim Il-sung's symbolic device, a "military genius," put a kind of "persona" on the North Korean military that should not be defeated in battle, which affected North Korea's offensive adventurism.
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