This article examines a military intellectual background of 3 nations in East-Asia(such as China․Korea․Japan) in Modern Transition Era. To achieve this purpose, I conducted comparative-analysis into history of military strategy & tactics of each nation before Modern Era.
Traditionally, 3 Nations were similar to military environment, but Japan opened Port Nagasaki and imported western advanced sciences and technologies since Tokugawa Bakufu(德川幕府), especially military arts of western style. It was called 'Rangaku(蘭學)', which was to be a integration of military intellectual background in early modern Japan. This phase of military intellectual background was differnent from the others.
When Japanese invaded Korea in 1592 and 1597, the Navy of the Chosun dynasty was very instrumental in leading those battles to victory, on the contrary the ground forces were defeated by Japanese. But in some cases, the Combined Forces(CF) of Ming(明) & Chosun(朝鮮) got a victories by means of condensive handling of weapons and strength. As well as CF, Japanese was defeated to CF by mixture of major wepon 'matchlock' and detour tactics. Considering this fact, I think that 3 Nations would have had some good or bad charatristics of military arts.
As a result, at that time, the military arts of China-Korea was so called ‘the system of chuck-beob(戚法)’ & its advanced military formation, and Japan trnansformed traditional formation into the linear formation. Japanese linear formation, imported from the western world, was seemed to be a symbol of changes and differences, to the others in East Asia. That could be developed in succession and in the background since early modern era. That was a base of military modernization in each nation.