This study is to understand the military capabilities of Cestius Gallus who led the Jewish War in 66. Josephus found the cause for the defeat of the Romans in Cestius' strategic error and military incompetence. But I think that the judgment of Cestius, who retreated troops after giving them accurate recognition of the situation, was reasonable. The Roman cavalry was used to protect the flanks of the military formation, and a convoy of military supplies was placed in the rear of the convoy to increase the mobility and safety of other troops. The defeat of Cestius was due to the lack of consideration for the terrain features of the ties of guerrilla warfare in mountainous areas.
In response to the withdrawal after the battle of Beth Horon, Josephus claimed that he had missed the chance to take control of Jerusalem. All conditions, such as troop, munitions, armed conditions, topography, and weather, were inappropriate for attacking Jerusalem. In this situation, a strategic withdrawal could have been better than an unreasonable challenge. It was a good judgment that Cestius to give up his attack on Jerusalem and withdraw most of his troops overnight.
Of the Cestius, Vespasianus, Titus and Silva who exercised command in the Jewish War, it is Cestius whose military role has been underestimated. Cestius' careful judgment and strategic withdrawal provided a foundation for subsequent commanders to take control of Judaea. The supply and demand of troops, the securing of supply lines, and the establishment of siege equipment became important to the Roman army. In addition, the guerrilla tactics of the Judaea and the tactics of utilizing the mountainous terrain became a reference to the Roman army's strategy. In the Jewish War, Cestius was not the cause of the prolonged war, but the foundation for victory.