The Features of the war between Wiman Chosun and Chinese Han Dynasty
This study investigates the causes and aspects of the war between Wiman Chosun (衛滿朝鮮) and Han (漢). The major cause of the war was that Shehe (涉何) of Han murdered Biwang of Gochosun, which was the firstly established country in the Korean peninsula. Wiman Chosun could not but choose the war as a result of this provocation of Han, which led to the attack of Wiman Chosun on Liaodong Eastern Section. The location of Liadong Eastern Section to which Shehe was appointed is possibly the region of Houcheng-xian (候城縣), which became Liadong Central Section after the fall of Wiman Chosun.
If we conjecture the scale and advance route of Han's armies, it does not seem probable that the navy of Han dynasty attacked Wiman Chosun via the trans-central West Sea route. Therefore, it is construed as proper that Han sent its navy via the northern West Sea coastal route and dispatched its army composed of 50,000 soldiers towards Liadong. Wiman Chosun had already captured an advantageous position to the west of Paesu (浿水) river, and so was able to prevent the joining of Han's army and navy and lead early combats to the advantage of Wiman Chosun.
Afterwards, the two countries started negotiations, which, however, came to a rupture after all. It is probable that Wudi of Han went on the conquest in person and was at a region near Paesu.
After the negotiations was failed, the tide of war turned against Chosun troops. For the armies of Wiman Chosun above Paesu was defeated by the armies of Han's General taken up the position of left flank, and thus the defense line of Paesu was broken through. Consequently, the army and navy of Han joined to lay siege to Wanggeom-seong (王險城).
It is the general opinion that Wanggeom-seong was located on the northern shore of the ‘Daedong’ River. It is hard to imagine that Wiman Chosun, whose territory extended thousands of li in all directions (方數千里), had its capital near Paesu, which was on the western boundary. Wanggeom-seong defended successfully against the enemy's attack for months. However, as the war was protracted, a rebellion occurred within Wiman Chosun, King Ugeo was assassinated, and Wanggeom-seong (王儉城) was captured after all. Wiman Chosun failed to block supplies for Han armies. In conclusion, the consequential protraction of the war may be viewed as another cause of the fall of Wiman Chosun.