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2009, Vol., No.44

  • 1.

    Exchanges between Korean and Japanese Scholars and Perception of Joseon in 17th Century Diplomatic Missions

    Jeahyoun Koo | 2009, (44) | pp.5~28 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to study how Japanese scholars perceived Joseon in the 17th century when exchanges began between Korean and Japanese scholars by examining their diplomatic letters. Joseon's ultimate aim in sending diplomatic missions was to prevent Japan from invading again. Because speaking about state matters or divulging information about Joseon was forbidden, Joseon diplomats were very secretive regarding that subject, and instead chose to communicate with Japanese scholars through exchanges of poems and writings. In contrast, Japan's main objective was to raise the prestige of its feudal government through the procession of its diplomatic missions. Behind the superficially cordial treatment lay Hayashi Razan's official view of regarding Joseon as a tributary state. The method of exchanging poems and writings advocated by Joseon and established during this time period corresponded with the tastes of Japanese scholars as well, and Joseon scholars came to cast an unrealistic imageof themselves as exotic foreigners. Meanwhile, their approach cost them the opportunity to have detailed discussions regarding actual problems and resulted in deepening Japan's official view of Joseon.
  • 2.

    The Dismantling and Reforming of Family Concepts -Focusing on the novels of Yeom Sang-Seop: 『Three Generations』, 『Fig』, and 『Line of Discontinuity』-

    Kim Seong Yeon | 2009, (44) | pp.29~47 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Yeom Sang-Seop’s 『Three Generations』, 『Fig』, and 『Line of Discontinuity』 are a trilogy that organically depicts the process of the concepts and boundaries of the dismantling and reforming of the family in Korea during the 1930s. Through these three stories of family, we can examine the process of society’s capitalization, the antagonistic relationships of the process in which the existing feudal concept of the family is gradually dismantled, and the discovery of the ‘individual’. While hoard, a form of the feudal system, is slowly converted into capital, currency is substituted for the absolute authority of the patriarch and the feudal ideology which controlled the former family systems is being deprived of its power. At that point, the ‘individual’ who has been freed from the feudal family appears, and a “home-centered family”, the new paradigm of family composed of the combination of individuals emerges. The newly-formed concept of family means that the boundary of family is narrowed to husband, wife, and children; love appears on surface as a condition for marriage; and the stressing of the role of a friendly-father whose patriarchal authority has been castrated.
  • 3.

    Experience of Places 1: A New Prospective and Value on Alley Culture of Korea and France

    Chan-Kyu Lee | 2009, (44) | pp.49~70 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Seoul was ‘the city of the cultural assets’ cherishing history and culture for 600 years. Place has accumulated the history of human beings over the generations. If the particular place disappears, the flavor of human beings absorbed in it evaporated. The old little alley was one of the few places in Seoul where one felt some sense of Old Seoul. But the historical treasure of Seoul has been destroyed under the name of redevelopment. We live in the unfortunate times when historic places have been lost through the development of thoughtless for the environment. Now is the time to concern about the vanished treasure. This study is centered on the alley as “the between world” links an family to a village extending world. A Western architect said that the alleys of a deprived area on the hillsides in Seoul are "the most beautiful architecture in the world" bearing the unique values. After illuminating that an alley is the one of the meaningful places for us to seek individual identity and sense of community, examining the value of Pimat-gol in Jongno compared with Monmartre in Paris as an living heritage attracting tourists. This study will show that urban development project must be focused not only economic growth but also on human being and environment. The way to preserve an alley as one of an tangible examples of living historical spaces meets the Seoul as an ecological city for mutual understanding and coexistence.
  • 4.

    The Comparative Study on Love between Kierkegaard and Bergson

    Koung-Sil Hong | 2009, (44) | pp.71~89 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    It seems that there's no philosophical similarity between Kierkegaard and Bergson. But there's evident resemblance, because Love is sited in their thoughts and philosophies in common In case of Kierkegaard, He seeks to interpret abundantly the biblical word, Love, according to Christian Dogmatics and existential perspectives. In case of Bergson, He understands the word, Love according to the creative evolutionary theory. Bergson comprehends it on the basis of religious philosopher's views. In the former case, Love is alpha and omega, the God, God's Words. It represents as a generative power of all ethical doings and practices. All of human lives in the world are God's Works of Love. Only God, Jesus Christ can rescues human beings from the original sins. In the latter case, Love is considered to be situated at the very beginning of creative evolution. Just at this moment, Human beings succeed to the creative evolution continuously, by virtue of the divine love.
  • 5.

    L'hospitalité Poétique de Derrida

    RHEE, EUN JUNG | 2009, (44) | pp.91~121 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract
    Cet article explore le concept de 'hospitalité poétique' de Derrida. Derrida définit l'hospitalité comme l'éthique ou la culture elle-même, dans la mesure où elle concerne l'éthos, dans lequel nous sommes liés aux autres et à nous-mêmes. Derrida fait une distinction entre l'hospitalité conditionnelle et l'hospitalité inconditionnelle. La loi inconditionnelle, absolue et hyperbolique de l'hospitalité fait offrir au nouveau venu, tout ce que le maître possède, y compris sa maison et soi-même sans demander son nom ou la récompense, alros que la loi conditionnelle, relative et tolérante de l'hospitalité dépend des droits et des devoirs existants. Dans l'hospitalité il y a une aporie. En effet, les deux lois s'incluent et s'excluent l'une l'autre à la fois. Les lois actuelles reçoivent de l'inspiration de la loi de l'hospitalité absolue. La manière derridienne de traiter l'aporie offre une solution poétique à ce problème, car il nous demande de dépasser la limite de l'aporie de l'hospitalité. La loi de l'hospitalite est un procédé poétique en cours, qui crée de nouveaux espaces entre l'hospitalité hyperbolique et l'hospitalité tolérante. Cette nouvelle vision de l'hospitalité peut être appelée 'poétique', si on reprend la formule de Derrida : "Un acte d'hospitalité ne peut être que poétique."
  • 6.

    Le Discours de Chateaubriand sur l'Amérique du Nord, dans Mémoires d'outre-tombe - Sur la nature et la Situation Culturelle -

    Sinja LEE | 2009, (44) | pp.123~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Les troubles politiques et sociaux de la France, provoqués par la révolution de 1789, à commencer par l`évasion des familles royales à l`étranger, ont provoqué l`errance de Chateaubriand qui était royaliste. Même si cette Révolution apportera plus tard un bon résultat à la société française, elle lui a donné pour l`instant une douleur morale. En effet, il a ressenti qu`il n`était pas à la hauteur de cette situation difficile, bien qu`il destine sa vie à la politique. Pour se dégager de cette vie d`errance qui n`a guère de sens, et pour réfléchir sur le but de sa vie, il a décidé de voyager en Amérique du Nord. En 1791, son voyage était réalisé, et lors de son séjour à Londres en 1822, il a écrit ses impressions sur l`Amérique. Ce récit est inséré dans Mémoires d`outre-tombe (1848-1850). Le retentissement de la Révolution a donc fait de Chateaubriand non seulement un exilé, mais aussi un écrivain. Son espace littéraire devient un lieu de souvenir. Le récit écrit sous forme de mémoire se développe en alternant le temps passé et le temps présent, et pafois le temps futur. Son itinéraire est à la fois décrit par les impressions ressenties en 1791 et par sa vision qu`il a de l`Amérique, lors de la rédaction de son oeuvre. Son récit représente alors l`image de l`Amérique de 1791 vers 1822 ou celle de l`Amérique du temps ultérieur. Par le style de description rétrospective, Chateaubriand mêle les sentiments de l`Amérique qu`il a ressentis à l`époque de son voyage en tant que jeune homme, aux sentiments de l`Amérique qu`il ressent dans la position d`une personne âgée qui évoque son voyage passé. En particulier, quand il a voyagé là-bas, les États-Unis devaient, avec difficulté, réunir en une seule nation les peuples originaires de multiples pays. En revanche, lorsqu`il écrit le récit lié à son voyage, ce pays commence à avoir l`image d`un État moderne, en concentrant leurs forces en vue du progrès. Parmi les choses que Chateaubriand a vues en Amérique du Nord, l`atmosphère exotique des forêts vierges et les faits politiques, sociaux et économiques des États-Unis ne peuvent pas être négligés. La vie menée avec les sauvages habitant les forêts, constitue pour lui un inoubliable souvenir lié au continent de l`Amérique du Nord. En jouissant dans les forêts de la liberté morale, il semble revenu à un état de nature. En évoquant l`hospitalité que les sauvages américains lui ont donnée, il confirme que leurs moeurs sont empruntées à la Grèce. Il utilise un raisonnement scientifique pour faire apparaître ses souvenirs exacts. Chateaubriand réfléchit également sur la démocratie américaine par rapport à la Révolution française. L`esprit démocratique des États-Unis et l`esprit révolutionnaire de la France prétendent, tous les deux, à la liberté de la vie humaine et à l`égalité des droits de l`homme. Or, la société américaine montre à Chateaubriand le désaccord entre la liberté et l`égalité, par l`esclavage et par l`inégalité des richesses entre les riches et les pauvres. L`accord entre la liberté et l`égalité semble difficile, puisque l`égalité supprime parfois la liberté. Chateaubriand craint que la société française ne fasse aussi l`expérience du désaccord. Par son voyage, il arrive alors à mieux connaître les significations de la liberté et de l`égalité. La présence de l`esclavage aux États-Unis lui donne une mauvaise impression de leur démocratie, mais il reconnaît finalement leurs efforts pour construire une société libérale qui se fonde sur l`égalité des droits de l`homme. C`est en écrivant le récit de voyage par le rappel de ses souvenirs que Chateaubriand reconstruit ainsi toutes ses expériences vécues dans les forêts vierges de l`Amérique du Nord et dans les circonstances complexes de la société des États-Unis. Ce retour à son passé finit par être une action pour sa création littéraire.
  • 7.

    Defamiliarization, Familiarization - Bishop's Psychological Perspective -

    Myungok Yoon | 2009, (44) | pp.147~171 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Elizabeth Bishop likes the descriptions put into perspective in her poetry. The questions which are near or far away or wherever is where are her major interest lies. But unlike the usual artist-centered perspective, being free from a fixed idea, she makes the center-locations change and move, producing a defamiliarization of what was before ordinary. Therefore, in her poetry, sceneries or things can be used as subjects and they can make artists as objects and locate them far away or near in their own sceneries. She also expands this geographical perspective to a psychological perspective by using abstract factors, metaphors and workings of mind. Bishop's psychological perspective makes readers feel near or far away psychologically, as if they were looking near or far away sceneries in perspective, through mixed hope and anxiety which are transmitted to readers' mind, which is achieved by the poetic device of the mixing of defamiliarization and familiarization, in other words, changing what is familiar into something unfamiliar. The poems in Bishop's Geography III are in a perspective composition of anxiety and relief by continuing to move between defamiliarization and familiarization. But this interweaving is not bisecting or controversial, but coexists and integrates with each other.
  • 8.

    Yun Seon-do's Perception of the Geomungo Found in "Gosan Yugo"

    Cho Yoo Mi | 2009, (44) | pp.173~192 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This Paper is to examine how the passages of the Gosan-Yugo(孤山遺稿) involving the geomungo describe not only Yun Seon-do's personal music taste, but also the significance of how the geomungo impacted the lives of the intellectuals of the Joseon Dynasty. In particular, the geomungo was widely enjoyed by upper-class intellectuals, centering on the scholar officials of the Joseon Dynasty. This certainly was significantly influenced by Confucianism and the influence of ancient Chinese ideas of ‘Qin(琴)’ in addition to ancient traditional meaning and value of the geomungo. Although Qin was considered the idealistic instrument in practicing the ideas of ancient music among intellectuals of Joseon Dynasty, its realistic limitations as musical instrument brought in the geomungo as its replacement. The nobles of Joseon Dynasty believed that the intention of musical values and ideals are to build virtuous minds within people, mange the human nature, and furthermore, bring political enlightenment by altering the negative cultures to positive ones, based on the theories regarding music in Confucianism. The primary purpose of geomungo in Joseon Dynasty was to suppress negative human mind while enriching human nature by playing geomungo. Additionally, the geomungo was an outstanding media through which people could communicate their feelings ease their troubled the hearts. This is because even though the geomungo was a method for disciplining the mind by inheriting the spirit of ancient music, it was also an instrument used to play music. "Sori(聲) is a way to unravel the intentions of our hear,'' many intellectuals including Yun Seon-do(尹善道) loved using metaphors in their poems and melodies to show their true intentions, thereby sharing the process of mutual understanding. Moreover, playing the geomungo was a cultural code in itself and had the additional benefit of being sublimated into an artistic state. This was also a fundamental reason how the komun’go was able to lead the folk music culture since the middle of the Joseon Dynasty.
  • 9.

    A Study on Data Status and Substance of Ka-Seung

    Hyunsook Youn | 2009, (44) | pp.193~213 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    There is no room for reconsideration about the first data, but the study environment should be improved constantly in Koreanology study because it has been discovered new data being scattered with the people and library, public organization. An appearance of Ka Seung which has a great possibility in both quality and quantity is one of those discoveries. However Ka Seung may have two different meanings. One is a phenomenon and the other is literature not only because the amount of material is enormous but also because the research about situation or statistics is insufficient. Therefore the facts of Ka Seung needs to be reformed exactly by researching on descended data of Ka Seung systematically. The dictionary definition of Ka Seung is a book recorded family history simply around lineal ancestor (국립국어원, 표준 국어대사전) A record of a family. That is genealogy or collection, (세종대왕기념사업회, 고전용어사전) a history of a family and familly matters or a record privately(교학사, 대한한사전) and so on. It seems that a genealogy is different clearly from claiming stand for relation and genealogy like a genealogy of family which made a blood relationship graphically focus on the paternal line(두산백과사전), a record book about the connection of a family line and system or relation,(국립국어원 , 표준국어대사전) a written book about something related to a family line and system(세종대왕기념사업회, 고전용어사전). A position of Ka Seung had been only a sort of genealogies all the while in the academic world but it appears two objects difference above based on dictionary definition. It says Ka Seung includes genealogy in addition to putting collection together and record of a family in general. An overall situation of descended data analyzed out to established identity as an existing facts of Ka Seung in this manuscript. Besides I hope to be revealed clues which broaden value of use and existence of data in this course.
  • 10.

    Artistic and Philosophical Consideration about Dancing and a Body of Korea in the Early 20th Century

    Sanghwan Bak | 2009, (44) | pp.215~236 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this composition is to analyze development of traditional dancing proceeded in the early 20th century in a modernization logic. Modern dancing with a style of Seung-hee Choi obtained tremendous popularity and succeed in social communication in the social conditions at that time that civilization(namely, modernization) was recognized as Westernization, whereas traditional artists' efforts to create a tradition have failed and they became gisaengs in the end. Although they use the same body as a medium of artistic expression, what is the reason that a gisaeng and an artist are divided into each other? This composition is to find the reason in a standardization process of arts based on courtesy and music ideas. As traditional dancing is standardized very early, space of creation spirit and a self-regulating individual for aesthetic interest of a creator and a receiver of dancing was not sufficiently developed, at last, it is judged that traditional dancing of Korea didn't create internal power to be modernized spontaneously in the age of rapid change in the end of the 20th century. The body that is a medium of dancing in this process couldn't develop to an individual as a subject and remained still as an object of social regulation, and the regulation subject was changed only from the absolute kingdom named Joseon to Japanese colony ruling parties, and thus general receivers agreed to these artisitc and social regulation relations internally. The meaning of self-regulating space of an individual and introspection about the body as an expression medium of dancing in the art creation process can be said like the present assignment ranged the whole development recognition of the Korean society surpassing the category of arts and learning. The composition of this writing is as follows. First, it is to view processes of reception of Western dancing and traditionalization of traditional dancing in a modernizing logic. Second, it is to interpret a standardization process of dancing as a kind of formal modernization in the premodern society governed by Neo-Confucian values and analyze positive and negative aspects contained in the formalization. Especially, social governing discussion about a body is an analysis object. The composition doesn't directly mention problems of definition and period division of modern dancing being regarded as important in the composition related with Korean modern dancing, so the change and developing processes of Korean dancing in the early 20th century are analyzed by focusing on the modernization logic.
  • 11.

    A Feneral Customs in China: A Course of Carring a Coffin of the House and Burial

    SunU Lim | 2009, (44) | pp.237~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    From the view of the primitive religion, human beings are classified with life and death. Sanxi, a province of china, people believes that after the dead could have another life in the beyond. This idea is presented through out the unique funeral procession; just they prepare all the things for the death, such as clothes, food and the like.
  • 12.

    The Present State and Prospect of the Education of Korean Studies at Universities in Indonesia

    Youngji Shin | 2009, (44) | pp.263~302 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Recently, economic cooperation between Indonesia and Korea has come to the surface as a major issue. Although the demand of education of Korean language is geometrically increasing due to the economic factors in Indonesia, this present state of Korean Studies is not sufficient to be developed into academic field, and Korean Studies in Indonesia is even before the pre-embryonic stage. Since Korean Studies was established in Indonesia National University in August 8th 2006, university degree holders from the Korean Studies have not been produced yet. Furthermore, since the goal of teaching at the college level is merely focusing on practical reasons such as getting a job. Hence, it is hard to say that Korean Studies is in the stage of in Indonesia. At the present, two four years courses and two three years courses of Korean Studies departments are established. Also, about four universities are preparing to open the Korean Studies department. While the three-year system mostly lays stress on practical goals of Korean language education, the four-year system is founded to solely dedicate to research on Korea. Therefore, the goal of four year system has the strong characteristics of regional studies training and producing Korean specialists. If these students are trained further after graduation, it is possible to anticipate the actual development of Korean Studies in Indonesia. This paper is suggesting three points hampering the progression of Korean Studies among the universities in Indonesia: insufficient numbers and qualities of instructors, lack of teaching materials suitable to Indonesian culture, and deficiency of proper curriculum. When these three issues are resolved, Korean Studies can quickly enter into the take-off stage with strong public interest in Korea recently arising in Indonesia.
  • 13.

    Dualism of the Confucianism and Religious Belief in Cho-sun Dynasty

    Heesun Cho | 2009, (44) | pp.303~328 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Confucianism was pursued and Buddhism was banned from the beginning of the establishment of Chosun Dynasty. But Buddhistic and totemic services were still involved for the purpose of blessing the royal family at rituals as well as at adverse moments of the nation. Not only on the national level, but also in private households these services were placed tightly in the custom throughout the Dynasty. Moreover, the documents in the royal chronicles on the regulations prohibiting Buddhism had been considerably reduced form King Seongjong(성종) to the end of the Dynasty. It was even recorded that the last King Sunjo(순조) attended the big Buddhistic events. As a result, Confucianization in terms of banning Buddhistic and totemic services can be considered to have been failed in years long period of Chosun Dynasty. The factors brought about the religious dualism of Confucian culture in this era can be summarized as follows. First, in contrast to Buddhism and totemism, Confucianism couldn’t appeal women as a religion due to the lack of an aspect on life after death. Second, Buddhism and totemism functioned as belief and tonic to women for their own self-development who were shunned in the Confucian patriarchal society. Third, it can be pointed out that patriarchs joined in totemism for the familial blessing in order to practice out the filial piety to their parents. Finally, the kings of Chosun Dynasty couldn’t firmly prohibit Buddhism and totemism as a native culture under the compliance with the will of the former kings.